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Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


Street Railway Association 


OCTOBER 8-10, 1902 


President Interurban Street Railway Co., New York 

Association Organized December 13, 1882 




Ill EXCH»» st 

NOV 6-1916 



Address of Welcome, by Hon. Wm. C. Maybury, Mayor of Detroit. 17 

Address of the President 46 

Adoption of Report of Committee on Standards 163 

Announcement of Meeting of Master Mechanics 108 

Approval of Minutes of Last AnnuabMeeting 42 

Approval of Report of the Secretary and Treasurer 61 

Appointment of Committee to Nominate Officers and Select the 

Place of Next Meeting ... 112 

Appointment of Committee on Standard Rules for the Government 

of Employes v.jjj 140 

Appointment of Committee on Resolutions 164 

Constitution and By-Laws 314 

Delegates of Members 25 

Discussion on "Registration of Transfers" 67 

Discussion on "Street Railway Mutual Benefit Associations" 78 

Discussion on "Electric Express and Package Delivery" 106 

Discussion on "Standard Rules for the Government of Employes". . 139 

Discussion on "Steam Turbine Engines" 192 

Discussion on "Adjustment of Damage Claims" 218 

Discussion on "Signals for Urban and Interurban Railways" 229 

Discussion on "Discipline of Employes by the Merit System" 250 

Exhibitors 258 

Entertainment 280 

Letters and Telegrams of Regret 43 

Local Committee 281 

vi Contents. 

Ladies at the Convention 283 

List of Members and Their Officers 318 

Minutes of Meeting of Executive Committee, Feb. 24, 1902 54 

Minutes of Meeting of Executive Committee, Oct. 7, 1902 56 

Minutes of Wednesday Morning Session 17 

Minutes of Wednesday Afternoon Session 73 

Minutes of Friday Session 112 

Next Regular Meeting 254 

New Members 43 

Officers and Executive Committee, 1902-1903 9 

Officers at Organization 10 

Officers Since Organization 10 

Paper on " Registration of Transfers " 63 

Paper on " Street Railway Mutual Benefit Associations " 73 

Paper on " Electric Express and Package Delivery " 92 

Paper on " Steam Turbine Engines " 165 

Paper on " Adjustment of Damage Claims " 208 

Paper on " Signals for Urban and Interurban Railways " 225 

Paper on " Discipline of Employes by the Merit System" 243 

Report of Auditing Committee 61 

Report of Executive Committee 54 

Report of Secretary and Treasurer , 57 

Report of Committee on Memorials 256 

Report of Committee on Standards 142 

Report of Committee on Standard Rules for Government of Em- 
ployees 113 

Report of Committee on Nominations 254 

Report of Committee on Resolutions 253 

Representatives of Non-members 39 

Representatives of Trade Papers 41 

Representatives of Manufacturers 261 

Subjects for Papers for Next Meeting 253 

Co/ite?its- vii 


Twenty-First Annual Banquet 287 

Menu, Twenty-First Annual Banquet 288 

Remarks of Toastmaster, Mr. Herbert H. Vreeland 292 

Remarks of President-elect, Mr. Jere C. Hutchins 294 

Toast : " The City of Detroit," responded to by Hon. Wm. C. 

Maybury 296 

Toast : "F-30 Motor," responded to by Gen. Eugene Griffin 300 

Toast : "How the People Would Run a Street Railway," responded 

to by Mr. Michael Brennan 300 

Toast : "The Future Electric Railway," responded to by Mr. W. 

Caryl Ely 304 

Toast : "The Trolley — Its Future State," responded to by Mr. James 

T. Keena 308 

OFFICERS, 1902-1903. 



President Detroit United Railway, 
Detroit, Mich. 



President International Railway Co., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



President Cincinnati Traction Co., 
Cincinnati, O. 



President Georgia Railway and Electric Co., 
Atlanta, Ga. 



Treasurer Chicago City Railway Co., 
Chicago, III. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Herbert H. Vreeland, President Interurban Street Railway Co., 

New York, N. Y. 

Richard T. Laffin, General Manager Worcester Consolidated 

Street Railway Co., Worcester, Mass. 

Andrew Radel, Vice-President Middlesex and Somerset Trac- 
tion C".. Bridgeport, Conn. 

Walter P. Read, Vice-President Consolidated Railway and 

Power Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Willard J. Hield, General Manager Twin City Rapid Tran- 
sit Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 





President, Highland Street Railway Company. Boston^ Mass. 


Secretary, Rochester City and Brighton Railroad Company, Rochester, IV. Y t 


President, Gakwood and Dayton Street Railway Companies, Dayton, 0. 


OFFICERS, i882-'83. 


General Manager, Louisville City Railway Company, Louisville, Ky. 



President, Brooklyn City Railroad President, Metropolitan Railroad 

Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. Company, Boston, Mass. 



President, Mount Adams and Eden Park Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 

Inclined Railway, Cincinnati, O. Company, Brooklyn, I\t. Y. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

JULIUS S. Walsh, Pres., Citizens' Railway Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles Cleminshaw, Vice-Pres., Troy and Lansingburgh Railroad Co., Troy, N. 
Thomas Lowry, Pres., Minneapolis Street Railway Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 
James K. Lake, Supt., Chicago West Division Railway, Chicago, 111. 
Daniel F. LONGSTREET, Gen. Man., Union Railroad Co., Providence, R. I. 

OFFICERS, i883-'84. 

president : 

President, Brooklyn City Railroad Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Superintendent , Chicago West Division President. Mi. Adams and Eden Park f& 

Railway, Chicago, III. dined Railway, Cincinnati, O. 



General Manager, Union Railroad Co., Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 
Providence, R. I. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

President, Vice-Presidents and 

H. H. Littell, Gen. Man., Louisville City Railway Co., Louisville, Ky. 
JOHN G. Holmes, Pres., Citizens' Street Railroad Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
JULIUS E. Rugg, Supt., Highland Street Railroad, Boston, Mass. 
PIERRE C. Maffitt, Pres., Missouri Railroad Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
JACOB SHARP, Pres., Twenty-third Street Railway Co., New York, N. Y. 



OFFICERS, i884-'85. 


President, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Boston, 3-fass. 



President, Citizens' 1 Railway Company, President, Buffalo Street Railroad 

St. Louis, Mo. Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 



Sec. and Treas., Montreal City Passenger Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 

Railway Company, Montreal, Can. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

William H. Hazzard, Pres., Brooklyn City Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
James K. Lake, Supt.. Chicago West Division Railway, Chicago, 111. 
Charles J. Harrah, Pres., People's Passenger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa„ 
William White, Pres., Dry Dock, E. Broadway & B, Railroad Co., New York, N. Y 
B. DU PONT, Pres., Central Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 

OFFICERS, i885-'S6. 


President, Citizens' Railway Company, St. Louis, Mo. 



President, Dry Dock, E. Broadway df B. President, Chicago City Railway Company , 
Railroad Company. New York, JV. Y. Chicago, III. 



Treasurer, Highland Street Railway Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 

Company, Boston, Mass. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Calvin A. Richards, Pres., Metropolitan Railroad Co., Boston, M'ass. 

John Kilgour, Pres., Cincinnati Street Railway Co., Cincinnati, O. 

JOHN - Maguire, Pres., City Railroad Co., Mobile, Ala. 

Thomas W. Ackley, Pres., 13th and 15th Streets Pass. Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chaln'CEY C. Woodworth, Sec, Rochester City & B. Railroad Co., Rochester, N. Y 


OFFICERS, i886-'87. 



President, x^lh and 15th Streets Passenger Railway Company , Philadelphia, Pa. 



Vice-President, Cincinnati Street Railway President. Galveston City Railroad 

Company , Cincinnati, O. Company, Gahjeston, Tex. 



President, Cambridge Railroad Company, Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 

Cambridge, Mass. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


JULIUS S. Walsh, Pres., Citizens' Railway Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

HENRY HURT, Pres., Washington and Georgetown Railroad Co., Washington, D. C, 

C. DENSMORE WYMAN, Vice-Pres., Central Park, N. & E. River Railroad Co., N. Y. 

A. EVERETT, Pres., East Cleveland Railroad Co., Cleveland, O. 

Samuel S. Spauldixg, Pres., East Side Street Railroad Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

I I 

OFFICERS, i887-'88. 


President , Chicago City Railway Company, Chicago, III. 



General Superintendent, Boston Consolidated President, Memphis City Railway Corn- 
Street Railway, Boston, Mass. pany, Memphis, Tenn. 



Director, Dayton Street Railroad Com- Secretary , Atlantic Avenue Railroad 

pany, Dayton, O. Company, Brooklyn, N, Y. 

President, Vice-Presidents and 

Thomas W. Ackley, Pres., 13th and 15th Streets Pass. Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Winfield Smith, Pres., Cream City Railroad Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Daniel F. Lewis, Pres., Brooklyn City Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
CHARLES GREEN, Pres., People's Railway Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Edward G. Mosher, Supt., Augusta and Summerville Railroad, Augusta, Ga. 


OFFICERS, i888-'89. 


President, Mount Ada?ns and Eden Park Inclined Railway, Cincinnati, O. 



President, Union Railroad Company, President, Washington and Georgetown 

Providence, R. I. Railroad Company , Washington, D. C. 



Vice-President, Ferries and Cliff House Secretary , Atlantic Avenue Railroad 

Railway Company, San Francisco, Cal. Company, Brooklyn^ N. Y. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Charles B. Holmes, Pres., Chicago City Railway Co., Chicago, 111. 

JOHN Scullin, Pres., Union Depot Railroad Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

James H. Johnston, Pres., City and Suburban Railway Co., Savannah, Ga. 

HENRY A. Sage, Pres., Easton, S. Easton & W. E. Pass. Railway Co., Easton, Pa. 

Edward J. Lawless, Supt., Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo. 


OFFICERS, i88o-'oo. 



President, Minneapolis, and St. Paul, Street Railway Companies, Minneapolis, Minii 



Vice-President, Central Park, North and East President, Citizens' 1 Street Railroad 

River Railroad Company, New York, N. Y. Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Manager, Citizens' , St. Louis, Cass Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 

Avenue £? Fair Grounds, and Benton-Belle- Company, Brooklyn, IV. Y. 

fontaine Railways, St. Louis, Mo. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

George B. Kerper, Pres., Mt. Adams and E. P. Inc. Railway Co., Cincinnati, O. 

George W. Kiely, Man. Dir., Toronto Street Railway Co., Toronto, Canada. 

Frank H. MONKS, Gen. Man., West End Street Railway Co., Boston, Mass. 

Raphael Semmes, Supt., Citizens' Street Railroad, Memphis, Tenn. 

Francis M. EPPLEY, Pres., Orange Cross-Town & B. Railway Co.. Orange, N. J, 


OFFICERS, i890-'9i. 


President* Buffalo Street Railroad, and Buffalo East Side Street Railway, Companie , 

Buffalo, N. V. 


General Manager, Omaha Street Railway President, Columbus Consolidated Street 
Company, Omaha, Neb. Railroad Company, Columbus, O. 



President, Newburyport &° A mesburv Street Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 
Railroad Company, Newburyport, Mass. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Thomas Lowry, Pres., Minneapolis and St. Paul Street R'y Co's., Minneapolis, Minn. 
David F. Henry, Pres., Federal Street and P. V. Pass Railway Co., Pittsburg, Pa, 
Albert E. THORNTON, Dir., Atlanta Street Railroad Co., Atlanta, Ga. 
Harvey M. Littell, Gen. Man., Cincinnati Inclined Plane R'y Co., Cincinnati. O- 
Thomas C. Keefer, Pres., Ottawa City Pass, Railway Co., Ottawa, Canada. 

OFFICERS, i89i-'92. 



President, Citizens' Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Secretary, Twenty-third Street Railway Preside?it, Louisville City Railway 

Company. New York, N. Y. Company, Louisville, Ky. 



Vice-President, Toledo Consolidated Street Secretary, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 
Railway Company, Toledo, O. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Henry M. Watson, Pres., Buffalo Railway Co.', Buffalo, N. Y. 

Lewis Perrine, Jr., Pres., Trenton Pass. Railway Co. Consolidated. Trenton, N. J. 

W Worth Bean, Pres., St. Joseph and Benton Harbor R'y Co., St. Joseph, Mich. 

MURRY A. Verner, Pres., Pittsburgh and Birmingham Traction Co., Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Thomas C. Penington, Treas., Chicago City Railway Co., Chicago. 


OFFICERS, i892-'93. 



Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., West End Street Railroad Company, Denver, Col. 



President, East Cleveland Railroad President, St. Joseph &* Benton Harbor 

Company, Cleveland, O. Electric Ry. Co., St. Joseph, Mich. 



President, Atlanta Consolidated Street Sec. and Treas., Atlantic Avenue Railroad 
Railroad Company, Atlanta, Ga. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

John G. Holmes, Pres., Citizens' Traction Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

John D. Crimmins, Pres., Metropolitan Traction Co., New York, N. Y. 

Thomas J. Minary, Gen. Man., Louisville Railway Co., Louisville, Ky. 

James R. Chapman, Vice-Pres., Consolidated St. Railway Co., Grand Rapids, Mich 

Benjamin E. Charlton, Pres., Hamilton Street Railway Co., Hamilton, Ont. 


OFFICERS, i893-'94. 

Vice-President, Milwaukee Street Railway Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 



President, Metropolitan Railroad Com- President, Trenton Passenger Railway 

pany, Washington, D. C. Company, Consolidated, Trenton, N. J. 



Vice-President, Consolidated Street Rail- Sec. and Treas., Atlantic Avenue Rail- 
way Company, Grand Rapids, Mich. road Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

President, Vice-Presidents and 

D. P. LONGSTREET, Vice-Pres., "West End Street Railway Co., Denver, Col. 
Thomas H. McLEan, Gen. Man., Citizens' Street Railroad Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Edwards Whitaker, Pres., Lindell Railway Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

W. Y. SOPER, Pres., Ottawa Electric Street Railway Co., Ottawa, Can. 

E. S. GOODRICH, Pres., Hartford Street Railway Co., Hartford, Conn. 


OFFICERS, 1894-'95. 


President, Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway Company, Atlanta, Ga. 



Pres., St. Joseph &• Benton Harbor Electric Pres., Terre Haute Street Railway Corn- 
Railway and Light Co., St. Joseph, Mich. pany, Terre Haute, Ind. 



Director, Lynn and Boston Railroad Com- Director, Atlantic Avenue Railroad Com- 
pany, Boston, Mass. pany, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Henry C. Payne, Vice-Pres., Milwaukee Street Railway Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
William H. Jackson, Pres.. Nashville Street Railway, Nashville, Tenn. 
t~> r- u»„„,t.w^t J Pres, Cass Ave. and Fair Grounds I c f T . M 
D.G.Hamilton, -j Ry Co and st. Louis R. R. Co. J- St. Louis, Mo. 

Granville C. Cunningham. Man., Montreal Street Kailway Co., Montreal, Can. 
John N. Partridge, Pres., Brooklyn City & Newtown Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 


OFFICERS, 1895-'96. 

president ; 

Pres. Atlantic Avenue Railroad Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
first vice-president : third vice-president : 


Man. Montreal Street Railway Company, Pres. Camden, Gloucester and Woodbmy 
Montreal, Can. Railroad Company, Camden, N J. 



Pres. Nashville Street Railway, Treasurer Chicago City Railway Co. 

Nashville, Tenn. Chicago, III. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Joel Hurt, Pres. Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway Co., Atlanta, Ga. 
Prentiss Cummings, Vice-Pres. West End Street Railway Co., Boston, Mass. 
C. G. Goodrich, Vice-Pres. Twin City Railway Co., St. Paul, Minn. 
A. Markle, Gen. Man. Lehigh Traction Co., Hazleton, Pa. 
W. F. Kelly, Gen. Man. Columbus Street Railway Co , Columbus, Ohio. 


OFFICERS, 1896-'97. 


robert Mcculloch, 

Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man. Citizens', Cass Avenue and St. Louis Railroad Companies, 

St. Louis, Mo. 



Gen. Man. West End Street Railway Co., Gen. Man. Metropolitan Street Railway 
Boston, Mass. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 



Pres. Augusta Railway and Electric Co., Treas. Chicago City Railway Co., 

Augusta, Ga. Chicago , III. 

President. Vice-Presidents and 

H. M. Littell, Vice Pres. and Gen. Man. Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., New York City. 
H. P. Bradford, Gen. Man. Cincinnati Inclined Plane Railway Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Charles H. Smith, Gen. Supt. Troy City Railway Co., Troy, N. Y. 
Harry Scullin, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man. Union Depot Railroad Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
George B. Hippee, Gen. Man. Des Moines City Railway Co.. Des Moines, Iowa 


OFFICERS, 1897-'98. 

president : 

President Toledo Traction Co., Toledo, Ohio 

first vice-president: third vicf.-<?resident: 


President Buffalo and Niagara Falls Gen. Man. Nashville Street Railway 

Electric Ry. Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. Nashville, Tenn. 

second vice-president: secretary and treasurer: 


President United Traction Co., Treasurer Chicago City Railway Co, 

Reading, Pa. Chicago, III. 

President, Vice-Presidents and 
Robert McCulloch, Vice-President and Gen. Man. Citizens', Cass Ave. and St. Louis 

K. R. Companies, St. Louis, Mo. 
C- Densmore Wyman, Gen. Man. New Orleans Traction Co., Ltd, New Orleans, La. 
Henry C. Moore, President Trenton Street Railway Co., Trenton, N. J. 
John M. Roach, Vice-President and Gen. Man. North Chicago Street Railroad Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Robert S. Goff, President and Gen. Man. Globe Street Railway Co., Fall River, Mas9 


OFFICERS, 1898-'99„ 



Second Vice-President Boston Elevated Railway Co., Boston, Mass. 

FIRST vice-president : third vice-president : 


President Trenton Street Railway Co., Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man. Metropolitan 

Trenton, N. J. Street Railway Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

second vice-president : secretary and treasurer : 


Pres. Atlanta Consolidatid Street Railway Treas. Chicago City Railway Co., 

Co., Atlanta, Ga. Chicago, III. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

Albion E. Lang, President Toledo Traction Co., Toledo, Ohio. 

George A. Ylille, Second Vice-Pres. West Chicago Street Railroad Co., Chicago, 111. 
Frank G. Jones, Vice-President Memphis Street Railway Co., Memphis, Tenn. 
John I. Beggs, Gen. Man. Milwaukee Electric Railway and Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Ira A. McCormack, Gen. Snpt. Brooklyn Heights Railroad Co., New York, N. V. 


OFFICERS, 1899-190Q. 



President Chicago Union Traction Co., Chicago, III. 



President United Traction Co., Vice-President Memphis Street Railway Co., 

Reading, Pa. Memphis, Torn. 



President Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Treasurer Chicago City Railway Co., 

New York.N. V. Chicago, III. 

President. Vice-Presidents and 

Charles S. Sergeant, Second Vice-President Boston Elevated Railway Co . Boston, Mass. 
Charles K Uurbin, General Superintendent Denver City Tramwav Co., Denver. Colo. 
Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., General Manager Charleston Consolidated Gas and Electric Co., 

Charleston, S. C. 
Charles VV. Wason. President Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railway Co , Cleveland, O. 
John R. Graham, President Quincy and Boston Street Railway Co , Quincy, Mass. 

OFFICERS, 1900-1901. 



President Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Kansas City, Mo. 



President Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Preside7it Meriden Electric Railroad Co. 
New York, N. Y. Meriden, Conn. 



General Manager Birmingham Railway, Light Treasurer Chicago Citv Rail-may Co. 

and Power Co., Birmingham, Ala. Chicago, III. 


President, Vice-Presidents and 

iOHN M. Roach, President Chicago Union Traction Co., Chicago, 111. 
f RANK L. Fuller, General Manager Wilkes-Barre and Wyoming Valley Traction Co., 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
George W. Baumhoff, General Manager St. Louis Transit Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
John R. Graham, President Brockton Street Railway Co.. Brockton, Mass. 
John Harris, Superintendent Cincinnati Street Railway Co., Cincinnati, O. 

OFFICERS, 1901-1902. 

president : 

President Metropolitan Street Railway Co., New York, N. Y. 

first vice-president: second vice-president: 


President Cleveland, Painesville and Vice-President Boston and Northern 

Eastern Railroad Co., Cleveland, 0. Street Railway Co., Boston, Mass. 

third vice-president: secretary and treasurer: 


General Manager Calumet Electric Street Treasurer Chicago City Railway Co., 
Railway Co., Chicago, III. Chicago, III. 


President. Vice-Presidents and 

Walton H. Holmes. President Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Kansas City, Mo. 
John A. Rigg. President United Traction Co., Reading. Pa. 
"Daniel B. Dyer. President Augusta Railway and Electric Co.. Augusta. Ga. 
T. J. Nicholl, Vice-President Rochester Railway Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
George W. Dickinson, Vice-President Seattle Electric Co.. Seattle. Wash. 




Light Guard Armory, 
Detroit., Mich., October 8, 1902. 

^ President Herbert H. Vreeland, of New York, called the 
convention to order at 11 115 o'clock and said: 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The first thing- on the program this morning is an address 
of welcome to the delegates of this convention, to be made by 
the Hon. William C. Maybury, Mayor of Detroit. The dele- 
gates to the Convention from the city of Detroit require no 
introduction to their Mayor. Those from the other parts of 
the United States who have read an account of the events con- 
nected with the social, financial and political history of this 
section and other sections of the country also need no intro- 
duction to the Hon. William C. Maybury. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: I have the honor of introducing 
Mayor Maybury, of Detroit, who has kindly consented to 
address the convention. 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

Your good President has said that I have consented to 
deliver a few words of welcome to you upon your visit to 
this good old city ; but I beg his permission to change the 
word consent by saying that I have craved the privilege of 
welcoming you to this city. (Applause.) To bid welcome to 
ladies and gentlemen like you is not a matter of consent ; it is 
a privilege ; and I have been waiting for several months for 
this privilege, and I am glad that the time has come when 
I can avail myself of it. (Applause.) 

It is not a question of telling you that you are welcome 

1 8 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

— it is rather the privilege of thanking you because you have 
come. The favor is all on your part, because no convention 
can assemble for the purpose of bringing men of your standing 
in the business world together that is not only a favor to the 
city of Detroit, but to its people. The conventions that are 
held in this city every summer and throughout the year form 
a sort of academic course for our people ; and you will appre- 
ciate, if you will reflect for a moment, the privilege that you 
give us of learning of those things whereof we would .be 
in ignorance were it not for your coming. Thousands of our 
people will come and learn from the exhibition of appliances 
in the hall above and on the street. They will learn things that 
they never knew before by an object lesson, given to them by 
your most admirable exhibition of railway appliances. 
Through the discussions of this convention we shall learn 
more and know more of the operations of the great systems 
of street railways, both city and suburban, throughout this 
God-favored land. Therefore, when I say to you welcome to 
Detroit to-day, I mean that we thank you because you have 
come, and we hope you will appreciate the warmth of our 
welcome. (Applause.) 

Now, my dear friends, you occupy a very clo"se place in 
the relations which bear upon the comfort and convenience and 
well-being of our people. Conventions often assemble here, 
the local interest in which is confined largely to those who 
assemble and discuss things which are important to them, and 
the importance to us, the public, is very indirect and often- 
times hardly to be appreciated ; but in your case — for the 
operation of the street railways of the country, which is the 
life work of the gentlemen who are assembled here this morn- 
ing, is of personal interest to every citizen — you come very 
near to the comfort and well-being of the people. For this 
reason we are particularly interested in your convention and 
your discussions become a part of the history of what we 
want to know. Therefore, for that and other personal reasons 
which we are glad to consider, you are doubly, aye. thrice 
doublv, welcome to this good old city of Detroit. 

American Street Railway Association. 19 

We have here a city that is so laid out as to be peculiarly 
adapted to street railway service. Here we have a converging 
of all lines from the suburbs into one center, practically, and 
that also is the plan of the city itself ; for it was laid out 
about a century ago after the plan of the city of Washington ; 
in fact, the plan of that city was brought here and as far as it 
could be made applicable to the new city of Detroit you have a 
reproduction of the capital itself. If you will take the city hall 
as the capitol, the radiating streets and avenues are identically . 
the same as in Washington ; but the persons who laid out the 
city, the territorial governor and judges, had little knowledge 
of what Detroit was to be. Perhaps, I ought not to say that, 
as they gave us a good city ; yet they laid out the city with 
the streets radiating for a distance much less than a mile 
from the center, and from that point the plan is discontinued. 

I say that you come close to the well-being of our people 
and in the city of Detroit the conditions are most favorable 
for the prosecution of your particular business. Our avenues 
are wide; our" people ride in the cars, and they want to get 
the best conveniences in the matter of transportation that are 
possible, and we believe we have them. We are after the 
best and do not want anything less than the best. Not alone 
that, but we have no hills to contend with. Aside from the 
slight rise from the river, which is scarcely to be considered, 
Detroit is practically almost flat, just rising enough toward 
the north to give fair drainage ; but in- every other way I think 
the conditions in Detroit are peculiarly favorable to the suc- 
cessful operation of a street railway. I desire to say, in spite 
of the modesty of our railroad management in Detroit — for 
you know anything managed by Jere Hutchins would be 
modestly managed — that we point with pride to the splendid 
operation of our street railways ; to the cleanliness of our 
cars ; to the gentlemanly conduct of those in charge and 
everything that goes to make the operation of a street railroad 
substantially successful and complete. 

My dear friends, the notable thought that comes to us in 
a convention like this is the fact that the world is growing 

20 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

so catholic and so broad. You may say the men upstairs who 
have inventions and apparatus to display are here for com- 
mercial reasons. I grant you that the inventor is worthy of 
a proper return for his genius, as the laborer is worthy of his 
hire ; but in the broadest sense those exhibiting appliances 
that are designed to make the operation of the cars safer, 
more rapid and to insure greater comfort and cleanliness in 
them are inspired by other reasons. These men give these 
things to you and to the world, actuated not alone by com- 
mercial considerations, but in order that the cult with which 
you and they are connected shall be a great success. For it 
is a grand thing to stand up in the race of men, as some indi- 
viduals do, like mountain peaks that are themselves above the 
ranges about them ; and it is a pleasure for most of us to 
belong to something in this world, some organization or asso- 
ciation of which we are proud to say, for example, I belong to 
the cult of railway operators, the men who supply the railway 
appliances and who operate the railway systems in the great 
cities of this country. You are proud to say that you belong 
to such an organization ; you are proud of it because the con- 
nection with such an organization is one which places honor 
on any man ; and a measure of any man's usefulness in this 
world is not what he can do for himself alone, but for others ; 
for the meanest man you can think of is the man who has 
some secret that belongs to the world and yet tries to hide it. 
This world of ours has been rich and poor a thousand times. 
Why? Because in the providence of God, as I believe, there 
are times when men are singled out here and there, in the 
palace and in the cottage, in the humble walks of life, as well as 
the higher — some man is singled out who seems to have a gift. 
In medicine it may be a man who has the gift of curing some 
peculiar disease ; in mechanics it may be a Tesla, who dis- 
covered the power of looking through space, or an Edison, 
who, from day to day, beholds the wonderful inspirations 
which appear before his vision and which he puts into prac- 
tical use. Had these men lived hundreds of years ago they 
would have had no idea of the stewardship reposed in them by 

American Street Railway Association. 21 

the discoveries which they had been inspired to make ; they 
would have had no thought of giving them to the world, but 
would look upon them only as something they could turn to 
their own individual advantage. Years ago almost every 
neighborhood had some old person who had the secret of the 
mad stone, but it was effective and could cure rabies. If you 
"asked him "Will you give me that secret?" he would answer, 
"No, I have it from my father and will transmit it to my son." 
Possibly he died and the secret died with him. Could Pasteur 
do that to-day ? Could he wrap himself up in the secret of his 
art and say, "Bring to me the children threatened with rabies 
and I will cure them" ? No, the world would take hold of him 
and say, "If you have this secret give it to the world and the 
world will pay you. You will be paid a thousand fold in the 
honor that will surround your name, far above any reward in 
money." (Applause.) It is so in every art that is discovered. 
It is discovered for the world. If Edison should die to-day 
there are hundreds who would carry on his discoveries. If 
Tesla should die to-day there are thousands considering the 
things which he discovered. In every branch of medicine, 
every art we know of, there is no man who wraps the secret 
up within himself and says, "I am going to keep it." No, he 
must give it to the world and recognize the stewardship which 
God has put upon it. 

These conventions are significant of the age in which we 
live, and the world will not be poorer, but richer, because 
once discovered inventions are committed to the children of 
men for their good and go on for all time. The world will 
continue to be enriched as long as the children of men dwell 
upon its surface. At a recent exhibition of our State fair at 
Pontiac I saw something that struck me as a peculiar inven- 
tion. I am now giving you an illustration of my idea when 
I say that the measure of each man's usefulness is what he 
does in the world, not only for himself, but for others. I 
passed the plow department at the fair and saw a man, evi- 
dently a farmer — you could see by his general appearance 
and his hard hands that he had held the plow many a clay — 

22 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

who stood exhibiting a device whereby, with the movement 
of a lever, the plow could be turned at the end of the furrow. 
I could not but think of the relief in the use of this device to 
the plower as he came to the end of the furrow. Instead of 
following the old way of pulling the plow around with the 
horses and the feet of the horses becoming entangled in the 
traces, causing the little cuss words that steal out, here was an 
invention which did away with all this cause of trouble. I 
thought to myself that here was a man who has done some- 
thing for the world, something of practical value, of every- 
day need, who contrived by a simple arrangement of a lever 
to enable a man to easily turn a plow. I felt that this man had 
done his share of the world's work. I wish that I could do 
something as plainly for the good of the children of men as 
you have done, was my thought, and I felt that there was a 
man who had accomplished something of real value, whose 
useful invention would confer benefits upon mankind after his 
name had been forgotten. So it is in all avenues of life, where 
men are constantly striving to produce that which will make 
existence better for us all. 

Coming with such thoughts and purpose, why are you 
not welcome to Detroit? We have not a very abundant sup- 
ply of coal (laughter), but possibly after the coal convention 
of to-morrow we may have a good deal more. (Applause.) 
Don't think of the cold, talk. I believe many of these things 
are as we think they are. Just imagine that it is warm. It is 
not October; it is July; and reach out. wrap yourself with the 
blanket of hospitality of these good people of our city and you 
cannot be cold, coal or no coal. 

You come, my friends, to a peculiar city ; old, and yet 
new. I said to you a few moments ago that the city was 
laid out on the plan of the city of Washington about one hun- 
dred years ago ; but that was not the beginning of its history ; 
Detroit was founded in 1701, and a year ago we celebrated 
the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of the city. 
For the first hundred years Detroit was. allow me to say, a 
French city, where the French language was spoken and where 

American Street Railway Association. 23 

all the simple ways of that courteous people were exercised in 
all their refinements and higher attributes. Indeed, in my own 
lifetime, and I will say for the ladies present, that I am not as 
old as I look — I might say that being a bachelor I never lose 
any opportunities— even in my boyhood I remember the scenes 
along the river were such as would remind you of the opening 
lines of Longfellow's Evangeline, where he describes beautiful 
Arcadia, the old French homes, the era of plenty, with happi- 
ness and buoyancy and cheer everywhere, and the doors wide 
open, or perhaps a latch string hanging out, easily pulled, with 
a disposition to give comfort to the stranger and to make hos- 
pitality almost a part of religion. I sometimes think that the 
blessings that have come down to this goodly city, and its ex- 
emption from pestilence and disease, is consequent upon the 
blessings bestowed upon the early founders ; for you will not 
dispute the fact that Detroit is the gateway of the civilization 
and Christianization of the great Northwest. Some had passed 
up the Mississippi, like the followers of De Soto, and some 
through Illinois ; some were missionaries who were led mainly 
by the zeal of the cause, and in other cases they were adven- 
turers led by the story of springs and rivers filled with golden 
sands ; but those who came to Detroit were settlers and came 
with packs on their backs, and they brought with them imple- 
ments of industry- ; the farmer, carpenter, cobbler, all came to 
make a community and landed within a stone's throw of 
where you are assembled this morning. Their first act was 
not one of savage onslaught upon the Indians, who watched 
from behind trees to see what the white settlers would do. 
The Indians discovered that one of the first acts of the new 
settlers was an act of worship, with no temple save that which 
is always above us, no canopy save the trees which grew beau- 
tifully on the river shore, no witness save the wild animal and 
the bird, and when the Indian peered through the bushes, what 
did he see — he saw a kindly invitation to come and kneel down 
in quiet thankfulness to God that He had cast the lot of the 
settlers in such a beautiful place, with a prayer that the homes 
which they were about to build should be happy and prosper- 

24 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

ous. For fifty years no Indian blood was shed, so kindly were 
the people and the Indians that they brought the amity of 
Bethlehem with them. The white settlers treated the Indians 
fairly and for many years they lived on terms of peace and 
good will, and our city was founded amid such .blessings as 

My dear friends, if it requires anything more to add to 
the warmth of your welcome in Detroit, you must certainly 
see it in the bright sunlight of this morning. I do not know 
but the good weather is in answer to the prayers of those 
who looked for your coming. The skies for the last week 
have been very dark and heavy, and perhaps in answer to the 
hopes of the local street railway officials they have broken 
away and given us this glorious sunshine this morning. You 
will find a welcome in the broad streets and walks ; hospitality 
is marked in this city ; and as you go along you do not feel 
you are elbowing some one. We built our city for the accom- 
modation of the stranger and are lonesome when we have not 
guests. You must feel that the streets were laid out on the 
broad scale that you see them for the accommodation of the 
friends who might be with us. I hope your stay will be in 
every way enjoyable. The streets of the city are laid out in a 
somewhat irregular manner and even those who are natives 
and to the manner born, occasionally, when the night is dark 
and the lights somewhat dim, do not always find their way in 
the most direct route to the place for which they are" bound ; 
and if any such fate should overcome you, and it is possible 
that it may, permit me to mention that you will notice on the 
street corners here and there gentlemen who in other cities 
would be dominated policemen. They are not known as such 
here. They are guardians for the stranger. (Laughter and 
applause.) Do not pay any attention to the belt around the 
waists of these gentlemen. They never draw the little clubs 
which they have in their belts. They are used to frighten 
the children. If this confusion as to your whereabouts should 
overtake you at any time, step up to one of these gentlemen and 
tell him that you are attending the street railway men's con- 

American Street Railway Association. 25 

vention and you will be wafted to the haven you desire. (Ap- 

President Yreeland — Mr. Mayor, on behalf of the officers 
and members of the American Street Railway Association, 
I tender to you our hearty thanks for your very cordial ad- 
dress of welcome. We represent a body of practical, hard- 
working men ; our industrv has more to do with the comforts 
and conveniences of the daily lives of the seventy millions of 
people of the United States than any other industry. We have 
to carry this great mass of people safely over the cities' streets 
to the suburban areas ; to the home and the school ; and we are 
most important factors in the social and business life of every 
community in the country. The stores, the manufacturing 
industries, in fact, all of the daily life of the city, is dependent 
upon the regular and orderly conduct of our business ; and if 
our systems are interrupted it means inconvenience and loss 
to every city and all citizens. 

The next order of business is the calling of the roll. The 
registration at the door will be taken in place of the roll call, 
and that will be passed. 


(Arranged Alphabetically According to Cities.) 

The following named gentlemen were in attendance at the 
meeting, representing companies that are members of the As- 
sociation : 

Akron, Ohio Charles Currie, Gen. Man., Northern Ohio Traction Co. 

W. H. Douglas, Gen. Supt., Northern Ohio Traction Co. 

" T. W. Sheldon, Supt. of M. P., Northern Ohio Traction 


J. T. Ross, Chief Eng., Northern Ohio Traction Co. 

Charles H. Lahr, Cashier, Northern Ohio Traction Co. 

Alton, 111 George D. Rosenthal, Elec. Eng., Alton Ry. Gas and 

Elec. Co. 

Altoona, Pa S. S. Crane, Gen. Man., Altoona and Logan Valley Elec. 

Ry. Co. 

' H. G. Hinkle, Supt., Altoona and Logan Valley Elec. 

Ry. Co. 

26 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Anderson, Ind William C. Sampson, Treas., Union Traction Co. of 


" P. L. Dunn, Asst. Gen. Man., Union Traction Co. of 


" Charles A. Baldwin, Gen. Pass. Agt., Union Traction Co. 

of Indiana. 

" Will H. Bloss, Chief Eng. and Roadmaster, Union 

Traction Co. of Indiana. 

" Albert S. Richey, Elec. Eng., Union Traction Co. of 


" John L.Watson, Mast. Mech., Union Traction Co. of 

Asbury Park, N. J. .George B. Cade, Aud., Atlantic Coast Elec. R. R. Co. 

" ..Scott F. Hazelrigg, Gen. Man., Atlantic Coast Elec. R. 
R. Co. 

Ashtabula, Ohio B. W. Baldwin, Treas., Pennsylvania and Ohio Ry. Co. 

" . . . . H. A.Blyth, Man., Pennsylvania and Ohio Ry. Co. 

Atchison, Kan C. M. Marshall, Gen. Supt., Atchison Ry., Light and 

Power Co. 

. Atlanta, Ga P. S. Arkwright, Pres., Georgia Ry. and Elec. Co. 

" " Thomas K. Glenn, Vice-Pres., Georgia Ry. and Elec. Co. 

" " J. G. Rossman, Vice-Pres., Georgia Ry. and Elec. Co. 

" D. A. Belden, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Georgia Ry. 

and Elec. Co. 

" George B. Graves, Purch. Agt., Georgia Ry. and Elec. 


"... A. M. Moore, Mast. Mech., Georgia Ry. and Elec. Co. 

Augusta, Ga Daniel B. Dyer, Pres. Augusta Ry. and Elec. Co. 

" " ... .A. J. McKnight, Aud., Augusta Ry. and Elec. Co. 

Aurora, 111 Frank M. Zimmermann, Gen. Man., Elgin, Aurora and 

Southern Traction Co. 

Baltimore, Md W. H. Staub, Purch. Agt., United Rys. and Elec. Co. 

" " H. H. Adams, Supt. of Shops, United Rys. and Elec. Co. 

Bay City, Mich E. S. Dimmock, Gen. Man., Bay Cities Consolidated Ry. 

" " " ... .J. J. Thome, Chief Elec, Bay Cities Consolidated Ry. Co. 

Bingha.mton, N. Y..G. Tracy Rogers, Pres., Binghamton R. R. Co. 

" . .George E. Green, Vice-Pres., Binghamton R. R. Co. 
Birmingham, Ala...W. B. Brockway, Consulting Accountant, Birmingham 

Ry. Light and Power Co. 

Boston, Mass Henry L. Wilson, Aud., Boston Elevated Ry. Co. 

" " Howard F. Grant, Sec. to Vice. Pres., Boston Elevated 

Ry. Co. 

" D. D. Bartlett, Aud., Boston and Northern St. Ry. Co. 

" E. C. Foster, Gen. Man., Boston and Northern St. Ry. Co. 

American Street Railway Association. 27 

Boston, Mass Walter Trumbull, Dir., Boston and Worcester St. Ry. Co. 

" " J. F. Shaw, Dir., Boston and Worcester St. Ry. Co. 

" H. Fisher Eldridge, Dir., Boston & Worcester St. Ry. Co. 

" Robert S. Goff, Gen. Supt., Old Colony St. Ry. Co. 

" " George W. Palmer, Elec. Eng., Old Colony St. Ry. Co. 

Bridgeport, Conn. .R. C. Cram, Eng. Dept., Connecticut Ry. and Lighting 


Bridgeton, X. J B. Frank Hires, Gen. Man., Bridgeton and Millville 

Traction Co. 

" J. R. Blackball, Supt. of Construction, Bridgeton and 

Millville Traction Co. 

" C. F. W. Meyers, Elec. Eng., Bridgeton and Millville 

Traction Co. 

" J. W. Crawford, Chief Clerk, Bridgeton and Millville 

Traction Co. 

Buffalo, X. Y W. Caryl Ely, Pres., International Ry. Co. 

" R. F. Rankine, Sec. and Treas., International Ry. Co. 

" " H. M. Pease, Aud., International Ry. Co. 

" T. E. Mitten, Gen. Man., International Ry. Co. 

" Edward McDonnell, Asst. to Gen. Man., International 

Ry. Co. 

" C. K. Marshall, Elec. Eng., International Ry. Co. 

" C. A. Coons, Supt. Transportation, International Ry. Co. 

" J. Millar, Supt. Rolling Stock and Buildings, Interna- 
tional Ry. Co. 
" Fred. D. Hoffman, Sec. to Gen. Man., International Ry. 

" J. H. Murray, Div. Supt., International Ry. Co. 

" C. F. Weir, Supt. of Transportation Dept., International 

Ry. Co. 

'• T. W. Wilson, Supt. of Con., International Ry. Co. 

" P. J. Murphy, Asst. Elec. Eng., International Ry. Co. 

" A. J. Farrell, Claim Agent, International Ry. Co. 

" J. E. Stephenson, Pass, and Freight Agent, International 

Ry. Co. 

" J. C. Rothery, Div. Supt., International Ry. Co. 

" J. M. Bostwick, Man. of Bridges, International Ry. Co. 

" J. W. Crawford, Special Agent, International Ry. Co. 

" E. F. Seixas, Guest, International Ry. Co. 

" G. P. Wilson, Guest, International Ry. Co. 

Butte, Mont Jesse R. Wharton, Gen. Man., Butte Elec. Ry. Co. 

Camden, X. J W. E. Harrington, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Camden 

and Suburban Ry. Co. 
" Heulings Lippincott, Treas., Camden and Suburban Ry. 



Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Camden, N. J. 
Canton, Ohio. 

Charleston, S. C 
Chester, Pa 

ft a 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

. . .G. Genge Browning, Dir., Camden and Suburban Ry. Co. 
. .L. E. Myers, Vice-Pres., Canton-Akron Ry. Co. 
. . .G. W. Rounds, Gen. Man., Canton-Akron Ry. Co. 
. . . E. W. Rauch, Supt., Canton-Akron Ry. Co. 
. .L. J. O'Toole, Asst. Supt., Canton-Akron Ry. Co. 
. .Pinckney J. Ballaguer, Sec. and Aud., Charleston Con- 
solidated Ry., Gas and Elec. Co. 
. .Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., Chester Traction Co. 
. .William S. Bell, Sec. and Treas., Chester Traction Co. 
. .H. M. Sloan, Gen. Man., Calumet Elec. St. Ry. Co. 
. .C. N. Duffy, Sec. and Aud., Chicago City Ry. Co. 
. .T. C. Penington, Treas., Chicago City Ry. Co. 
. .Richard McCulloch, Asst. Gen. Man., Chicago City Ry. 

. .M. O'Brien, Mast. Mech., Chicago City Ry. Co. 

. .C. E. Lund, Draughtsman, Chicago City Ry. Co. 
. .F. E. Smith, Aud., Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. 
..J. Z. Murphy, Elec. Eng., Chicago Consolidated Trac- 
tion Co. 
. .F. E. Smith, Aud., Chicago Union Traction Co. 
. .J. Z. Murphy Elec. Eng., Chicago Union Traction Co. 
. .C. A. Caul, Roadmaster, Chicago Union Traction Co. 
..W. F. Griffith, Sec, Northwestern Elevated R. R. Co. 
..Frank Hedley, Gen. Supt., Northwestern Elevated R. R. 

. .William Walmsley, Supt., South Chicago City Ry. Co. 

..George R. Scrugham, Pres., Cincinnati and Eastern 

Elec. Ry. Co. 
. .Ellis G. Kinkead, Gen. Counsel, Cincinnati and Eastern 

Elec. Ry. Co. 
. .Dana Stevens, Treas., Cincinnati Traction Co. 
. .Robert Dunning, Mast. Mech., Cincinnati Traction Co. 
. .H. C. Genrich, Elec, Cincinnati Traction Co. 
. .John Ehrhardt, Sec. and Treas., Cleveland City Ry. Co. 
..W. C. Phelps, Pur. Agt., Cleveland City Ry. Co. 
. . Horace E. Andrews, Pres., Cleveland Elec.Ry. Co. 
. .W. G. McDole, Aud., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. .George L. Radcliffe, Gen. Supt., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. .George A. Stanley, Pur. Agt., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. .A. C. Kennedy, Asst. Pur. Agt., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. . D. T. Carver, Chief Eng., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. . W. B. Greenway, Eng. Dept., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. .W. S. Moffat, Aud. Dept., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. . D. S. Moffatt, Mast. Mech., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. .T. Scullin, Gen. Foreman, Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ga. . . 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Council Bluffs, la 

tt u n 

Danville, 111 

Davenport, Iowa.. 

If fi 

it it 

Dayton, Ohio 

De Kalb, III. 
Denver, Colo. 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

.C. W. Callaway, Track Foreman, Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 
. Chas. W. Wason, Pres., Cleveland, Painesville and East. 

ern R. R. Co. 
.J. Jordan, Supt. Cleveland, Painesville and Eastern 

R. R. Co. 

. R. L. Andrews, Gen. Man. Eastern Ohio Traction Co. 

.C. N. Pittenger, Elec, Eastern Ohio Traction Co. 

.F. W. Coen, Sec, Lake Shore Elec Ry. Co. 

.F. J. Stout, Gen. Supt., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

.A. C. Henry, Aud., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

. E. K. Owen, Supt., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

.H. M. Smith, Supt., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

.R. R. Strehlan, Supt., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

.F. B. Matthews, Chief Eng., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

. F. Heckler, Mast. Mech., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

.H. S. Reynolds, Man., Columbus R. R. Co. 

.Philander V. Burington, Sec. and Aud., Columbus Ry- 

.Michael S. Hopkins, Gen. Supt., Columbus Ry. Co. 

.Charles E. Hatt, Mast. Mech., Columbus Ry. Co. 

.Frank L.Brown, Aud., Omaha and Council Bluffs Ry. 
and Bridge Co. 

.W. B. Tarkington, Gen. Supt., Omaha and Council Bluffs 
Ry. and Bridge Co. 

.S. L. Nelson, Gen. Man., Danville St. Ry. and Light Co. 

.E. J. Wehrley, Eng., Danville St. Ry. and Light Co. 

.James F. Lardner, Gen. Man., Tri-City Ry. Co. 

John D. Fish, Mast. Mech., Tri-City Ry. Co. 

.Thomas Gowling, Chief Eng., Tri-City Ry. Co. 

.Harrie P. Clegg, Asst. Sec, Dayton and Western Trac- 
tion Co. 

.Charles L. S. Tingley, Sec. and Treas., People's Ry. Co. 

.Joseph L. Breen, Acting Gen. Man., People's Ry. Co. 

.J. R. Blackhall, Supt. Construction, People's Ry. Co. 

John W. Gridden, Supt. De Kalb-Sycamore Elec. Co. 

.J. B. Hogarth, Aud., Denver City Tramway Co. 

.George L. Rice, Div. Supt., Denver City Tramway Co. 

.James L. Adams, Div. Supt., Denver City Tramway Co. 

.H. H. Polk, Asst. Gen. Man., Des Moines City Ry. Co. 

.A. G. Maish, Supt., Des Moines City Ry. Co. 

.Ed. Cunningham, Elec. Supt., Des Moines City Ry. Co. 

.J. E. Welsh, Supt. Power Plant, Des Moines City Ry. Co. 

.Thomas Marlow, Supt. of Roadway, Des Moines City 
Ry. Co. 

.W. I. Hasket, Cashier, Des Moines City Ry. Co. 

30 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Detroit, Mich H. A. Everett, Chairman of Board, Detroit United Ry. 

" Jere C. Hutchins, Pres., Detroit United Ry. 

" Arthur Pack, Vice-Pres., Detroit United Ry. 

" George H. Russell, Treas., Detroit United Ry. 

" Irwin Fullerton, Aud., Detroit United Ry. 

" A. E. Peters, Asst. Sec, Detroit United Ry. 

" A. H. Stanley, Gen. Supt., Detroit United Ry. 

" C. B. King, Asst. to Pres., Detroit United Ry. 

" Thomas Farmer, Supt. M. P., Detroit United Ry. 

" John H. Fry, Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent, Detroit United Ry. 

" George W. Parker, Gen. Express and Pass. Agent, 

Detroit United Ry. 
" Albert Eastman, Asst. Gen. Express and Pass. Agent, 

Detroit United Ry. 

" . . E. J. Burdick, Supt. Overhead Dept., Detroit United Ry. 

" John Kerwin, Supt. Tracks, Detroit United Ry. 

" Harry Bullen, Asst. Gen. Supt., Detroit United Ry. 

" Walter Ross, Gen. Claim Agent, Detroit United Ry. 

" Joseph Bampton, Asst. Aud., Detroit United Ry. 

" H. V. Catlin, Cashier, Detroit United Ry. 

" W. R. Frazer, Paymaster, Detroit United Ry. 

" Robert Oakman, Real Estate Com., Detroit United Ry. 

" J. D. Hawks, Pres., Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor and 

Jackson Ry. 
" S. F. Angus, Vice-Pres., Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor 

and Jackson Ry. 
" F. A. Hinchman, Sec, Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor and 

Jackson Ry. 
" F. E. Merrill, Gen. Man., Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor 

and Jackson Ry. 
" Samuel J. Dill, Supt., Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor and 

Jackson Ry. 
" " J. D. Hawks, Pres., Grand Rapids, Grand Haven and 

Muskegon Ry. Co. 
'•' Wallace Franklin, Sec, Grand Rapids, Grand Haven 

and Muskegon Ry. Co. 
" " Carl M. Vail,. Treas., Grand Rapids, Grand Haven and 

Muskegon Ry. Co. 
" " J. E. Webster, Supt., Grand Rapids, Grand^Haven and 

Muskegon Ry. Co. 
" W. W. Churchill, Dir., Grand Rapids, Grand Haven 

and Muskegon Ry. Co. 
" " H.J. Raynor, Eng., Grand Rapids, Grand Haven and 

Muskegon Rv. Co. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Detroit, Mich H. H. Kerr, Eng., Grand Rapids, Grand Haven and 

Muskegon Ry. Co. 

B. S. Hanchett, Jr., Pres., Grand Rapids, Holland and 

Lake Michigan Rapid Ry. 
..... .T. W. Gorman, Aud., Grand Rapids, Holland and Lake 

Michigan Rapid Ry. 
...... S. Hendrie, Gen. Man., Grand Rapids, Holland and 

Lake Michigan Rapid Ry. 

J. W. Busbee, Supt., Grand Rapids, Holland and Lake 

Michigan Rapid Ry. 

W. H. Beach, Dir., Grand Rapids, Holland and Lake 

Michigan Rapid Ry. 

James Van, Acct., Grand Rapids, Holland and Lake 

Michigan Rapid Ry. 

W. L. Granger, Chief Elec, Grand Rapids, Holland and 

Lake Michigan Rapid Ry. 
H. P. Strong, Right of Way Dept., Grand Rapids, Hol- 
land and Lake Michigan Rapid Ry. 

H. S. Swift, Aud., Rapid Ry. System. 

F. W. Brooks, Gen. Man., Rapid Ry. System. 

W. O. Wood, Gen. Supt., Rapid Ry. System. 

A. C. Marshall, Chief Eng., Rapid Ry. System. 

Duluth, Minn Herbert Warren, Gen. Man., Duluth-Superior Traction 

East St. Louis, 111.. .L. C. Haynes, Vice-Pres., East St. Louis and Suburban 

Ry. Co. 
" . .John M. Bramlette, Gen. Supt., East St. Louis and Sub- 
urban Ry. Co. 
" . .C. B. Eastv, Mast. Mech., East St. Louis and Suburban 
Ry. Co.' 

Elmira, N. Y H. M. Beardsley, Aud., Elmira Water, Light and R. R. 


El Paso, Texas H. T. Edgar, Vice-Pres. and Man., El Paso Elec. Ry. 

Fond du Lac, Wis. .T. F. Grover, Pres., Fond du Lac St. Ry. and Light Co. 
" ..Ralph Colman, Supt. of Transportation, Fond du Lac 
St. Ry. and Light Co. 
Galveston, Texas. ..A. Drouhilet, Sec. and Treas., Galveston City Ry. Co. 

" ...H. Griffin, Chief Eng., Galveston City Ry. Co. 
Gloucester, N. J. . .James R. Shurtz, Aud., Camden, Gloucester and Wood- 
bury Ry. Co. 
...M. C. Ludlam, Gen. Man., Camden, Gloucester and 
Woodbury Ry. Co. 
Gkand Rapids, Mich. G. S. Johnson, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Grand Rapids 

Ry. Co. 

32 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Grand Rapids, Mich.B. S. Hanchett, Jr., Sec. and Treas., Grand Rapids Ry. 

" J. C. Madigan, Supt. of Transportation, Grand Rapids 

Ry. Co. 
" W. W. Annable, Mast. Mech., Grand Rapids Ry. Co. 
" " P. C. Thompson, Track Dept., Grand Rapids Ry. Co. 

Greenburg, Pa W. D. Chapman, Gen. Man., Pittsburg, McKeesport and 

Greenburg Ry. Co. 
Hamilton, Ohio John T. Huntington, Aud., Cincinnati, Dayton and To- 
ledo Traction Co. 

" C. E. Palmer, Gen. Supt., Cincinnati, Dayton and Toledo 

Traction Co. 
" C. E. Warwick, Div. Supt., Cincinnati, Dayton and To- 
ledo Traction Co. 

Hamilton, Ont C. K. Green, Traction Man., Hamilton Elec. Light and 

Cataract Power Co., Ltd. 

" " F. B. Griffith, Supt., Hamilton Elec. Light and Cataract 

Power Co., Ltd. 

" D. N. Miller, Asst. Supt., Hamilton Elec. Light and 

Cataract Power Co., Ltd. 

Hancock, Mich John H. Oakley, Man., Houghton County St. Ry. Co. 

" CD. Wyman, Eng., Houghton County St. Ry. Co. 

Harrisburg, Pa Frank B. Musser, Supt., Harrisburg Traction Co. 

Hartford, Conn. . . .E. S. Goodrich, Pres., Hartford St. Ry. Co. 

"...'. Elmer M. White, Cashier, Hartford St. Ry. Co. 

Hoboken, N.J Warren S. Hall, Gen. Supt., Jersey City, Hoboken and 

Paterson St. Ry. Co. 

" " Thomas W. McAndrews, Supt., Jersey City, Hoboken 

and Paterson St. Ry. Co. 

Houston, Tex H. K. Payne, Gen. Supt., Houston Elec. Co. 

Huntington, W. Va.John Graham, Pres., Camden Inter-State Ry. Co. 
" " " J. C. Lugar, Dir., Camden Inter-State Ry. Co. 

" " R. Moore, Dir., Camden Inter- State Ry. Co. 
" " W. W. Magoon, Supt., Camden Inter-State Ry. Co. 
" " James Fagan, Elec. Eng., Camden Inter-State Ry. Co. 
" '* H. Wellman, Supt. of M. P., Camden Inter-State Ry. Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. ..Hugh J. McGowan, Pres., Indianapolis St. Ry Co. 
" . ..P. A. Hinds, Pur. Agt., Indianapolis St. Ry. Co. 
" " ...Charles Remelius, Supt. of M. P., Indianapolis St. Ry. 

" " . ..Albert B. Herrick, Consulting - Eng., Indianapolis St. Ry. 

" . ..Thomas B. McMath, Civil Eng., Indianapolis St. Ry. Co. 

" ■ " ...George Townsend, Pres., Indianapolis, Lebanon and 

Frankfort Traction Co. 

American Street Railway Association. 33 

Indianapolis, Ind.. .William M. Moran, Eng., Indianapolis, Lebanon and 

Frankfort Traction Co. 

" " ...W. Gray, Eng., Indianapolis, Lebanon and Frankfort 

Traction Co. 

Jacksonville, Fla.. .William H. Tucker, Man., Jacksonville Elec. Co. 

Jersey City, N. J...C. M. Shipman, Gen. Supt., North Jersey St. Ry. Co. 

" . . J. M. Yount, Mast. Mech., North Jersey St. Ry. Co. 

Johnstown, Pa H. C. Evans, Dir., Johnstown Pass. Ry. Co. 

Joliet, 111 A. S. Kibbe, Chief Eng., Chicago and Joliet Elec. Ry. 


" R. E. Moore, Elec, Chicago and Joliet Elec. Ry. Co. 

Kalamazoo, Mich. . .D. A. Hegarty, Gen. Man., Michigan Traction Co. 

" . . .R. L. Rand, Supt., Michigan Traction Co. 

" . . .E. C. Corey, Div. Supt., Michigan Traction Co. 

" . . .L. D. McElroy, Div. Supt., Michigan Traction Co. 

" " . . . M. Miers, Elec. and Mast. Mech., Michigan Traction Co. 

Kansas City, Kan.. .Charles O. Evarts, Treas., Kansas City-Leavenworth 

Ry. Co. 

" ...Herbert W. Wolcott, Man., Kansas City-Leavenworth 

Ry. Co. 

Kenosha, Wis Bion J. Arnold, Pres., Kenosha Elec. Ry. Co. 

" W. L. Arnold, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Kenosha Elec. 

Ry. Co. 

" R. V. Arnold, Sec. and Treas., Kenosha Elec. Ry. Co. 

Knoxville, Tenn. . .C. H. Harvey, Gen. Man., Knoxville Traction Co. 

Lancaster, Pa Frank S. Given, Gen. Man., Conestoga Traction Co. 

" H. B. Rhodes, Supt., Conestoga Traction Co. 

" J. D. Maguire, Dir., Conestoga Traction Co. 

Lebanon, Pa Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., Lebanon Valley St. Ry. Co. 

Lexington, Ky R. E. Hunt, Gen. Man. Lexington Ry. Co. 

Little Rock, Ark. . .J. A. Trawick, Gen. Man.,. Little Rock Traction and 

Elec. Co. 

. . .A. G. Moser, Dir., Little Rock Traction and Elec. Co. 

London. Ont. ...... .Charles E. A. Carr, Gen. Man., London St. Ry. Co. 

" John Break, Supt., London St. Ry. Co. 

" R. H. Wellburn, Chief Eng., London St. Ry. Co 

" E. R. Carrington, Special Agt., London St. Ry. Co. 

Louisville, Ky T.J. Minary, Pres. and Gen. Man., Louisville Ry. Co. 

' Samuel G. Boyle, Sec. and Treas., Louisville Ry. Co. 

" J. T. Funk, Gen. Supt, Louisville Ry. Co. 

Lynchburg, Va D. C. Frost, Supt., Lynchburg Traction and Light Co. 

" A. T. Powell, Accountant, Lynchburg Traction and Light 


Menominee, Mich. . .Edward Daniell, Supt., Menominee Elec. St. Ry. and 

Power Co. 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Meriden, Conn. . 
Merrimac, Mass. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mobile, Ala 

Montreal, Can 

New Bedford, Mass 
New Brunswick,N.J 

New York, N. Y . 

it a 

N. H. Heft, Pres., Meriden Elec. R. R. Co. 

E. P. Shaw, Pres., Haverhill and Amesbury St. Ry. Co. 

James F. Shaw, Dir., Haverhill and Amesbury St. Ry. 

John I. Beggs, Pres. and Gen. Man., Milwaukee Elec. 

Ry. and Light Co. 
H. C. Mackay, Aud., Milwaukee Elec. Ry. and Light Co. 

E. W. Olds, Supt. Rolling Stock, Milwaukee Elec. Ry. 
and Light Co. 

F. G. Simmons, Supt. of Way, Milwaukeee Elec. Ry 
and Light Co. 

M. M. Austin, Supt. of Transportation, Milwaukee Elec. 
Ry. and Light Co. 

C. D. Towsley, Right of Way Agt., Milwaukee Elec. Ry. 
and Light Co. 

O. M. Rau, Chief Elec. and Supt. of Lighting, Mil- 
waukee Elec. Ry. and Light Co. 

C. G. Goodrich, Vice-Pres., Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 
J. H. Wilson, Pres. and Man., Mobile Light and R. R. Co. 
S. M. Coffin, Mast. Mech., Mobile Light and R. R. Co. 
W. G. Ross, Sec. and Treas., Montreal St. Ry. Co. 

D. Robertson, Asst. to Gen. Man., Montreal St. Ry. Co. 
T. W. Casey, Pur. Agt., Montreal St. Ry. Co. 
.Elton S. Wilde, Treas., Union St. Ry. Co. 
Edward E. Potter, Gen. Supt., Union St. Ry. Co. 

.Andrew Radel, Vice-Pres., Middlesex and Somerset 
Traction Co. 

Thomas F. Walsh, Gen. Man., Middlesex and Somerset 
Traction Co. 

.James Butler, Supt., Middlesex and Somerset Traction 

. D. W. McGregor, Elec, Middlesex and Somerset Trac- 
tion Co. 

. W. G. Mock, Mast. Mech., Coney Island and Brooklyn 
R. R. Co. 

M.W.Conway, Trackmaster, Coney Island and Brook- 
lyn R. R. Co. 

Herbert H. Vreeland, Pres. and Gen. Man., Interurban 
St. Ry. Co. 

. Oren Root, Jr., Asst. Gen. Man., Interurban St. Ry. Co. 

Henry A. Robinson, Solicitor, Interurban St. Ry. Co. 

. R. W. Meade, Asst. to Pres., Interurban St. Ry. Co. 

.A. C. Tully, Pur. Agent, Interurban St. Ry. Co. 

, T. A. Delaney, Supt. of Transportation, Interurban St. 
Ry. Co. 

American Street Railway Association. 35 

New York, N. Y Thomas Millen, Gen. Mast Mech., Interurban St. Ry. Co. 

" ...\V. Boardman Reed, Eng. Maintenance of Way, Inter- 
urban St. Ry. Co. 
"... Hon. J. F. Daly, Interurban St. Ry. Co. 
" . . .H. E. Yreeland, Interurban St. Ry. Co. 
" ...Frank Wells, Interurban St. Ry. Co. 
" . ..W. C. Gotshall, Pres., New York and Port Chester R. R. 

" ...CO. Mailloux, Eng., New York and Port Chester R. R. 

" . . .F. P. Maize, Supt. M. P., New York and Queens County 

Ry. Co. 
" ...C. G. Fitch, Supt. of Transportation, New York and 
Queens County Ry. Co. 
North Adams, Mass. W. T. Nary, Supt., Hoosac Valley St. Ry. Co. 

Oakland, Cal J. Q. Brown, Asst. Gen. Man. and Eng., Oakland Transit 


Oil City, Pa J. H. Forbush, Supt., Citizens' Traction Co. 

Oneida, N. Y C. Loomis Allen, Pres., Oneida Ry. Co. 

" W. K. Auhbold, Dir., Oneida Ry. Co. 

Oshkosh, Wis E. E. Downs, Vice-Pres., Winnebago Traction Co. 

" J. W. Hinebaugh, Dir., Winnebago, Traction Co. 

Ottawa, Ont T. Ahearn, Pres., Ottawa Elec. Ry. Co. 

" Warren Y. Soper, Dir., Ottawa Elec. Ry. Co. 

Peoria, 111 L. E. Myers, Gen. Man., Peoria and Pekin Terminal Ry. 

Co. • 

" N. C. Draper, Gen. Supt., Peoria and Pekin Terminal 

Ry. Co. 
Philadelphia, Pa.. .R. G. Oliver, Mast. Mech., Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

" ...Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., Roxborough, Chestnut Hill 

and Norristown Ry. Co. 
" .. .William S. Bell, Aud., Roxborough, Chestnut Hill and 
Norristown Ry. Co. 

Pittsburg, Pa W. B. Carson, Sec, Consolidated Traction Co. 

. . .C. S. Mitchell, Aud., Consolidated Traction Co. 
. . .C. W. Lepper, Pur. Agt., United Traction Co. 
. . .Fritz Uhlenhaut, Chief Eng., United Traction Co. 
. . .H. P. Clark, Mast. Mech., United Traction Co. 

Plymouth, Mass CD. Wyman, Man., Brockton and Plymouth St. Ry. 


" L. R. Nash, Elec. Eng., Brockton and Plymouth St. Ry. 


Po\iEROY,Ohio John Blair MacAfee,. Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Ohio 

River Elec. Ry. and Power Co. 

36 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Pomeroy, Ohio W. H. MacAfee, Pur. Agt., Ohio River Elec. Ry. and 

Power Co. 

" " W. N. Walmsley, Chief Eng., Ohio River Elec. Ry. and 

Power Co. 
Port Chester, N. Y.G. S. Heft, Sec. and Treas., New York and Stamford Ry. 


Portland, Me William R. Wood, Pres., Portland R. R. Co. 

" " Edward A. Newman, Treas. and Gen. Man., Portland 

R. R. Co. 

" Charles F. Libby, Gen. Cousel, Portland R. R. Co. 

" Charles H. Prescott, Dir., Portland R. R. Co. 

Providence, R. 1. . .W. E. Elliott, Comptroller, Rhode Island Co. 

" . . .Albert E. Potter, Supt. of Transportation, Rhode Island 

Quincy, 111 H. E. Chubbuck, Gen. Man., Quincy Horse Ry. and 

Carrying Co. 

" A. Johnson, Elec, Quincy Horse Ry. and Carrying Co. 

Reading, Pa Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., United Traction Co. 

" " William S. Bell, Sec, United Traction Co. 

Rochester, N. Y...T. J. Nicholl, Vice-Pres., Rochester Ry. Co. 
" ...C. T. Chapin, Dir., Rochester Ry. Co. 
" ...J. W. Hicks, Supt., Rochester Ry. Co. 
" . . .A. Green, Mast. Mech., Rochester Ry. Co. 
" . . . J. H. Stedman, Transfer Agt., Rochester Ry. Co. 

Rockford, 111 R. N. Baylies, Pres., Rockford and Interurban Ry. Co. 

" " T. M. Ellis, Gen. Man., Rockford and Interurban Ry. 


" " F. W. McAssey, Aud., Rockford and Interurban Ry. Co. 

" " John H. Comlin, Dir., Rockford and Interurban Ry. Co. 

" " F. N. Baylies, Supt., Rockford and Interurban Ry. Co. 

•' ...... George W. Knox, Consulting Eng., Rockford and Inter- 
urban Ry. Co. 
" " R. M. Heskett, Consulting Eng., Rockford and Inter- 

urban Ry. Co. 

" " F. A. Poor, Stockholder, Rockford and Interurban Ry. 


Rockland, Me George E. Macomber, Pres., Rockland, Thomaston and 

Camden St. Ry. 

" " Sidney M. Bird, Vice-Pres., Rockland, Thomaston and 

Camden St. Ry. 
" Thomas J. Lynch, Sec, Rockland, Thomaston and Cam- 
den St. Ry. 
" " Thomas Hawken, Supt., Rockland, Thomaston and Cam- 
den St. Ry. 

American Street Raihvay Association, 37 

Rockland, Me W. T- Tones, Dir., Rockland, Thomaston and Camden St. 


Saginaw, Mich F. D. Ewen, Treas., Saginaw Valley Traction Co. 

" P. P. Crafts, Gen. Man., Saginaw Valley TractionCo. 

" T. B. Redmond, Supt., Saginaw Valley Traction Co. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.W. P. Read, Vice-Pres., Consolidated Ry. and Power 

" W. S. Patterson, Mast. Mech., Consolidated Ry. and 
Power Co. 
San Antonio, Texas. Reagan Houston, Pres., San Antonio Traction Co. 
" . . Henry L. Doherty, Eng., San Antonio Traction Co. 
" . . Paul Doty, Eng., San Antonio Traction Co. 
San Jtjan, Porto Rico.H. S. Collette, Sec, San Juan Light and Transit Co. . 

..C. G. Young, Supt. Construction, San Juan Light and 

Transit Co. 
. .E. L. West., Elec, San Juan Light and Transit Co. 
. .S. Gilbert Averill, Dir., San Juan Light and Transit Co. 
Savlt Ste. Marie, Mich.G. W. Chance, Gen. Supt. and Chief Eng., Interna- 
tional Transit Co. 

Savannah, Ga G. O. Nagle, Man., Savannah Elec. Co. 

" L. A. Bowers, Asst. Treas., Savannah Elec. Co. 

Schenectady, N. Y.John J. Magilton, Aud., Schenectady Ry. Co. 
" . .J. C. Welch, Elec. Eng., Schenectady Ry. Co. 
" . .W. J. Floyd, Clerk, Schenectady Ry. Co. 

Scranton, Pa Frank Silliman, Jr., Gen. Man., Scranton Ry. Co. 

Seattle, Wash George W. Dickinson, Man., Seattle Elec. Co. 

" W. H. Blood, Jr., Elec. Eng., Seattle Elec. Co. 

Sioux City, Iowa. . . .E. L. Kirk, Gen. Man., Sioux City Traction Co. 

South Bend, Ind....J. McM. Smith, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man. Indiana Ry. 


" H. M. Ashenfeltts, Supt., Indiana Ry. Co. 

Springfield, 111 .... T. H. Minarv, Gen. Supt., Springfield Consolidated Ry. 

" .... T. J. Minary, Dir., Springfield Consolidated Ry. Co. 
Springfield, Ohio. .John H. Miller, Gen. Man., Springfield Ry. Co. 

" G. A. Mitchell, Mast. Mech., Springfield Ry. Co. 

St. Joseph, Mich W. Worth Bean, Pres., Benton Harbor and St. Joseph 

Elec. Ry. and Light Co. 

" H. C. Mason, Supt., Benton Harbor and St. Joseph Elec. 

Ry. and Light Co. 

St. Joseph, Mo John H. Van Brunt, Gen. Man., St. Joseph Ry., Light, 

Heat and Power Co. 

St. Louis, Mo G.J. Smith, St. Louis and Suburban Ry. Co. 

" John Grant, Gen. Supt., St. Louis Transit Co. 

" C. L. Stone, Asst. Mast. Mech., St. Louis Transit Co. 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

St. Louis, Mo C. A. Moreno, Chief Eng., St. Louis Transit Co. 

*' W. O. Mundy, Mast. Mech., St. Louis Transit Co. 

" Meile R. Griff eth, Mech. Dept., St. Louis Transit Co. 

Syracuse, N. Y E. G. Connette, Vice-Pres., Syracuse Rapid Transit. Ry. 


Tacony, Pa.. Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., Holmesburg, Tacony and 

Frankfort Elec. Ry. Co. 
" " William S. Bell, Sec, Holmesburg, Tacony and Frank- 

fort Elec. Ry. Co. 

Tampa, Fla H. H. Hunt, Man., Tampa Elec. Co. 

Terre Haute, Ind. .C. D. Wyman, Man., Terre Haute Elec. Co. 

Toledo, Ohio Albion E. Lang, Pres., Toledo Rys. and Light Co. 

" " L. E. Beilstein, Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Toledo Rys. 

and Light Co. 

" E. O. Reed, Aud., Toledo Rys. and Light Co. 

" " J. F. Collins, Supt., Toledo Rys. and Light. Co. 

" " E. J. Bechtel, Elec. Eng., Toledo Rys. and Light Co. 

" Charles Munz, Pur. Agt., Toledo Rys. and Light Co. 

" " Joe Young, Pass. Agt., Toledo Rys. and Light Co. 

" " Joe Enright, Asst. Supt., Toledo Rys. and Light Co. 

" " William Long, Chief Eng., Power Station, Toledo Rys. 

and Light Co. 

" " E. Kuney, Asst. Elec. Eng., Toledo Rys. and Light 


" C. A. Brown, Mast. Mech., Toledo Rys. and Light. Co. 

Topeka, Kan A. M. Patten, Topeka Ry. Co. 

Toronto, Can James C. Grace, Sec. and Treas., Toronto Ry. Co. 

.... .Edward H. Keating, Gen. Man., Toronto Ry. Co. 

W. H. Moore, Sec. to Pres., Toronto Ry. Co. 

Robert C. Brown, Consulting Eng., Toronto Ry. Co. 

M. Power, Mast. Car Builder, Toronto Ry. Co. 

W. H. Nix, Head Roadmaster, Toronto Ry. Co. 

G. H. Sweetlove, Armature Dept., Toronto Ry. Co. 

D. Sutherland, Mech. Dept., Toronto Ry. Co. 

A. M. Smith, Motor Dept., Toronto Ry. Co. 

, H. Cowan, Track Dept., Toronto Ry. Co. 

Trenton, N. J Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., Trenton St. Ry. Co. 

" William S. Bell, Sec, Trenton St. Ry. Co. 

Utica, N. Y C. Loomis Allen, Gen. Man., Utica and Mohawk Valley 

Ry. Co. 

" " A. L. Linn, Jr., Asst. Sec. and Treas., Utica and Mohawk 

Valley Ry. Co. 

" Paul T. Brady, Dir., Utica and Mohawk Valley Ry. Co. 

Venice, 111 Fred E. Allen, Pres., Granite City and St. Louis Ry. Co. 

" " Arthur S. Partridge, Granite City and St. Louis Ry. Co. 

American Street Railway Association. 39 

Washington, D. C. George H. Harries, Vice-Pres., Washington Ry. and 

Elec. Co. 
" . . W. F. Ham, Comptroller, Washington Ry. and Elec. Co. 

Webb City, Mo W. S. Gunsalus, Supt., Southwest Missouri Elec. Ry. Co. 

Wheeling, W. Va.. .Paul O. Reymann, Pres., Wheeling and Elm Grove R.R. 

" .. . W. A. Shirley, Sec. and Treas., Wheeling Traction Co. 
" .. .C. E. Flynn, Gen. Man., Wheeling Traction Co. 

" H. L. Kerr, Supt., Wheeling Traction Co. 

Wichita, Kan S. L. Nelson, Gen. Man., Wichita R. R. and Light Co. 

" W. R. Morrison, Supt., Wichita R. R. and Light Co. 

Wilkesbarre, Pa.. .Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., Wilkesbarre and Wyoming 

Valley Traction Co. 
" . .William S. Bell, Sec, Wilkesbarre and Wyoming Valley 
Traction Co. 
Wilmington, Del. . .Frank L. Fuller, Gen. Man., Wilmington City Ry. Co. 

" . . .William S. Bell, Sec, Wilmington City Ry. Co. 
Worcester, Mass. .J. W. Lester, Treas., Worcester Consolidated St. Ry. Co. 
" . .R. T. Laffin, Gen. Man., Worcester Consolidated St. Ry. 

" . .William Pestell, Supt. of M. P. and Machinery, Worces- 
ter Consolidated St. Ry. Co. 
Youngstown, Ohio. .A. A. Anderson, Gen. Man., Mahoning Valley Ry. Co. 
" . .W. C. Smith, Gen. Supt., Mahoning Valley Ry. Co. 
" . .M. E. McCaskey, Supt., Mahoning Valley Ry. Co. 
" . .E. R. Larter, Supt. of Shops, Mahoning Valley Ry. Co. 

(Arranged Alphabetically According to Cities.) 

Companies not members of the Association were represented 

as follows: 

Alliance, Ohio A. S. Van DeMark, Alliance St. Ry. Co. 

Amsterdam, N. Y.. .Julian Du Bois, Supt., Amsterdam St. R. R. Co. 

Bangor, Me Louis Pfingst, Bangor St. Ry. 

" W. H. Snow, Supt. of Operation, Bangor, Hampden and 

Winterport Ry. Co. 
Bloomington, 111 C. H.Robinson, Chief Elec, Bloomington and Normal 

St. Ry. Co. 

Buffalo, N. Y A. M. Bannister, Buffalo & Rochester Trunk Line R. R. 

Charleston, W. Va. William W. Lindsay, Charleston Traction Co. 

Chicago, 111 Charles L. Hull, Chicago General Ry. Co. 

" Warren Bicknell, Sec, Aurora, Elgin and Chicago Ry. 


40 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Chicago, 111 Ernest Gonzenbach, Elec. Eng., Aurora, Elgin and Chi- 
cago Ry. Co. 

" " Ed. J. Hunt, Aurora, Elgin and Chicago Ry. Co. 

Cincinnati, Ohio George Bender, Chief Elec, Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg 

and Aurora Elec. St. R. R. Co. 

" J. M. Wilson, Cincinnati, Milford and M. Traction Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio. . .F. A. Little, Chief Eng., Miami and Erie Canal Trans- 
portation Co. 

" " . . .W. J. Hillier, Supt., Cleveland, Elyria and Western Ry. 


" " . . . F. L. Fuller, Sec, Cleveland and Southern Ry. Co. 

Detroit, Mich Orrin J. Price, Pres., Detroit, Pontiac, Lapeer and North- 
ern Ry. Co. 

" " W. S. Parker, Detroit, Pontiac, Lapeer and Northern 

Ry. Co. 

Erie, Pa A. C. Harrington, Man., Erie Rapid Transit St. Ry. Co. 

Green Bay, Wis. ... Charles F. Goodrich, Supt., Fox River Elec. Ry. and 

Power Co. 

Indianapolis, Ind. . .J. W. Chipman, Indianapolis and Eastern Traction Co. 

Lima, Ohio F. D. Carpenter, Gen. Man., Western Ohio Ry. Co. 

Logansport, Ind . . .E. C. Folsom, Man., Wabash-Logansport Traction Co. 

Lorain, Ohio T. C . Cherry, Gen. Man., Lorain St. Ry. Co. 

Mansfield, Ohio. . . .Arthur J. Haycox, Supt., Citizens Elec. Ry. Co. 

Marion, 111 Denis Ayer, Man., Coal Belt Elec R. R. Co. 

Michigan City, Ind. A. A. Boyd, Lake Cities' Elec. Ry. Co. 

Middleboro, Mass. .Charles H. Cox, Supt., Middleboro, Wareham and Buz- 
zard's Bay St. Ry. Co. 

Middletown, N. Y. . J. W. Sloat, Middletown-Goshen Traction Co. 

Moline, 111 John Balch Blood, Moline, East Moline and Watertown 

Ry. Co. 

Philadelphia, Pa. .A. E. Meixell, Supt., Fairmount Park Transportation Co. 
" " . .John H. Clevenstine, Fairmount Park Transportation Co. 

Port Huron, Mich. .E. M. Thomas, City Elec. Ry. Co. 

Poughkeepsie, N.Y.John L. Hinkley, Poughkeepsie City and Wappingers 

Falls Elec. Ry. Co. 

Selma, Ala John F. Knowlin, Chief Elec, Selma St. and Suburban 

Ry. Co. 

Syracuse. N. Y W. B. Rockwell, Gen. Man., Syracuse, Lakeside and 

Baldwinsville, Ry. 

Tiffin, Ohio. ...... .A. Kaup, Supt., Tiffin, Fostoria and Eastern Elec. Ry. 


" " C. S. Everingin, Elec, Tiffin, Fostoria and Eastern Elec 

Ry. Co. 

Toledo, Ohio M. H. Griffin, Toledo and Indiana Ry. Co. 

" " John S. Files, Toledo and Indiana Ry. Co. 

Washington. Pa 

American Street Raikvay Association. 41 

Toledo, Ohio C. A. Denman, Toledo and Lima Traction Co. 

.F. E. Seagrave, Sec, Toledo and Western Ry. Co. 

. Charles F. Franklin, Gen. Man., Toledo and Western Ry. 

.Charles E. French, Aud., Toledo and Western Ry. Co. 

... J. S. Clark, Pur. Agt., Toledo and Western Ry. Co. 

. . .F. H. Froehlich, Toledo and Western Ry. Co. 

. . .F. B. Perkins, Toledo and Western Ry. Co. 

. . .James Kent, Supt., Washington and Canonsburg Ry. Co. 

Windsor, Ont William J. Pulling, Sandwich, Windsor and Amherst- 

burg Ry. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. W. Phillips, Supt., Winnipeg Elec. St. Ry. Co. 

Youngstown, Ohio. .Godfrey Morgan, Gen. Supt., Youngstown and Sharon St. 

Ry. Co. 


Representatives of the technical press were in attendance at 
the meeting as follows : 


Charles K. Thomas. 


E. B. Biggar. 


Stephen H. Goddard. Charles W. French. 

Fred. E. Colbert. Philip S. Dodd. 

T. C. Martin. James M. Wakeman. 

E. E. Russell Tratman. 


S. W. Hume. 


Hugh M. Wilson. John N. Reynolds. 


Willard A. Smith. 


Henry W. Blake. J. B. O'Hara. W. K. Beard. 

A. C. Shaw. C. A. Babtiste. Roy N. Berry. 

Harold S. Buttenheim. H. B. Abbott. James R. Cravath. 

42 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


Fred. S. Kenfield. Daniel Royse. H. J. Kenfield. 

C. B. Fairchild, Jr. W. G. Thomas. George H. Barnes. 

William Padget. A. C. Willis. J. H. Barnes. 

William E. Keily. Frank L. Perry. C. G. Whitney. 

T. E. Crossman. 


The following named gentlemen were also present: 

William T. Benallack, State Electrical Inspector, Detroit. 

W. Elwell Goldsborough, Chief of Dept. of Electricity, Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, St. Louis. 

Albert L. Judson, Accountant, Board of Railroad Commissioners, Albany 
N. Y. 

Charles P. King, Philadelphia Commercial Museum, Philadelphia. 

N. C. Keeran, Wabash Railroad Co., Chicago. 

Edwin B. Katte, Mechanical Engineer, New York Central Railroad Co., 
New York. 

Ira A. McCormack, Div. Supt., New York Central Railroad Co., New York. 

A. H. Smith, Gen. Supt., New York Central Railroad Co., New York. 

Willard A. Smith, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis. 

William U. Stuart, United States Census Bureau, Washington. 

W. W. Wheatly, Brooklyn, New York. 


President Yreeland — The next order of business is the 
reading of the minutes of the last meeting, and unless objec- 
tion is made the minutes will stand approved as printed. (No 

We now extend an invitation to those companies represent- 
ed at this meeting which do not belong to our Association, to 
join us if there be any here of that class; or, if the representa- 
tives of such companies have not time to do this at present, 
they can do so later by applying to Secretary Penington. 

American Street Railway Association. 43 

(Arranged Alphabetically According to Cities.) 

The following companies acquired membership just prior to 
or during the meeting : 

Anderson, Ind Union Traction Company of Indiana. 

Boston, Mass Boston and Worcester Street Railway Company. 

Chicago, 111 Northwestern Elevated Railroad Company. 

DeKalb, 111 DeKalb and Sycamore Electric Railroad Company. 

Detroit, Mich Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor and Jackson Railway 


Detroit, Mich Grand Rapids, Grand Haven and Muskegon Rail- 
way Company. 

Detroit, Mich Rapid Railway System. 

Greenburg, Pa Pittsburg, McKeesport and Greenburg Railway 


Huntington, W. Va. Camden Interstate Railway Company. 

Indianapolis, Ind. . .Indianapolis, Lebanon and Frankfort Traction Co. 

Menominee, Mich. .. Menominee Electric Light Railway and Power- 

North Adams, Mass.Hoosac Valley Street Railway Company. 

Oshkosh, Wis Winnebago Traction Company. 

S'lt Ste. Marie, Ont.The International Transit Company. 

Wichita, Kas Wichita Railroad and Light Company. 


President Vreeland — A number of gentlemen, who have 
been active in the affairs of the Association, have found it im- 
possible to be present at this meeting, and have sent letters 
of regret, which the Secretary will read. 

The Secretary read the following letters : 

Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 9, 1902. 
Mr. H. H. Vreeland, President American Street Railway Association, 

Detroit, Mich. 

My Dear Sir — I am in receipt of your very kind invitation of the 
2d instant to attend the meeting of the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation in Detroit. It would indeed give me a great deal of pleasure 
to meet with the Association again, and I greatly appreciate your kind 
invitation. It is out of the question at present for me to accept on 
account of my business engagements. It is great pleasure to be remem- 
bered by the Association and it recalls many very pleasant acquaint- 

44 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

ances, and as I have before stated I would like very much to meet many 
of them again. 

With many thanks for your kind invitation, I am, 

Yours very truly, 



Kansas City, Mo., Oct. 8, 1902. 
H. H. Vreeland, President American Street Railway Association, Light 

Guard Armory, Detroit. 

The kind invitation of the Association through you to be present 
at its Detroit Meeting is acknowledged. I had hoped I could attend, 
but urgent business prevents. In presenting my sincere regrets please 
assure the members of my esteem and best wishes for the most suc- 
cessful meeting in the Association's history. I cherish my honors from 
the Association as one of the most delightful episodes of my life, with 
thanks and highest regards for yourself and my former associates. 


Chicago, Oct. 6, 1902. 
Mr. H. H. Vreeland, President American Street Railway Association. 
My Dear Sir — Please accept my thanks for the courtesy of a 
personal invitation to attend the meeting of the American Street Rail- 
way Association. If I stay at home I can send you a large delegation, 
which I shall do, and thus perform a more patriotic duty to the Asso- 

With best wishes for the pleasure and profit of the meeting, both 
of which are already assured, I am, 

Sincerely yours, 


Mr. H. H. Vreeland, President American Street Railway Association, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 3, 1902. 
My Dear Sir — I am in receipt of your favor of the 2d instant, 
extending to me an invitation to be present on the occasion of the 
Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation to be held in Detroit on October 8th, 9th and 10th, 1902. 

I regret exceedingly that my engagements are such that I shall 
not be able to be with you on that occasion. Kindly convey my com- 
pliments to the members of the Association and to such of my old 
friends as you may meet. 

Thanking you for your kind letter, I am, 

Very truly yours, 


American Street Railway Association. 45 

Chicago, Oct. 7, 1902. 
Mr. H. H. Vreeland, President American Street Railway Association, 

Detroit, Mich. 

Dear Sir — I regret very much that I will be unable to attend the 
Convention on account of the Board of Arbitration being in session 
this week, at which I am in daily attendance. I expected to be present 
and avail myself of the benefit of this convention, which is of great 
importance in conducting large enterprises similar to those in which 
most of us- are engaged. 

Hoping that this convention will eclipse all former conventions, 
I am, Yours truly, 


Boston, Mass., Oct. 3, 1902. 
Mr. H. H. Vreeland, President American Street Railway Association, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Dear Sir — I thank you sincerely for your cordial invitation of the 
2d instant to attend the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American 
Street Railway Association. My interest in the Association and its 
prosperity has not diminished ; nevertheless, I find it impossible this 
year to attend the Convention, as I have just returned from a long 
absence. Our company will, however, be adequately represented, and 
I sincerely trust that the Convention may be both profitable and 

Yours very truly, 


President Vreeland — On behalf of the Executive Commit- 
tee and the officers of the Association I desire to express our 
thanks for the large and representative attendance we have 
this morning on the opening exercises of the convention. This 
is certainly a larger attendance at this hour of our first day's* 
meeting than I have ever seen in the many conventions I have 

It devolves upon the President each year to deliver what is 
known as the President's address. For the first time in ad- 
dressing a body of railroad men I am going to read that ad- 
dress. There are some points connected with it that are rather 
novel in connection with the work of a street railway associa- 
tion. There will undoubtedly be selections made from it by the 
Press, without the context in some cases, to shade some of the 
points, and I want to be careful in what I say. A gentleman 

46 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

who is connected with the Press in a large way, who hap- 
pened to read my address the other day, said : "If you ever 
expect to run for Governor of the State of New York or 
President of the United States, do not read that address." 


The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : It is exceedingly appropriate that the Twenty-first 
Annual Meeting of the American Street Railway Association should be 
held in the beautiful city of Detroit, for, while the city street railways of 
the country have not been idle during the last year, the greatest de- 
velopment in electric railway work since our last Convention, and, in 
fact, for several years, has been in the direction of interurban electric 
railways, and in this class of road Detroit railway enterprise has 
always been prominently identified. Radiating from this city can be 
found some of the largest and most modern of interurban railways, 
and Detroit ranks with Cleveland, Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Dayton 
as the important centers in this country of the interurban railway 
industry. It is connected by high-speed electric railways with Port 
Huron on the north and Toledo and Cleveland on the south and east, 
while the lines to the west extend with only a slight break as far as 
the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, and will probably before long find 
entrance into Chicago. 

The interurban railways have long since passed the stage when 
they could be considered simply as suburban extensions of city lines. 
They are doing a through business, which is constantly growing, and 
the later and more ambitious examples of roads of this class are built 
with a track construction inferior in no respect to the best practice of 
the steam railroad companies. They operate usually for the greatest 
part of their distance over private rights-of-way, and attain speeds 
which enable them to compete successfully with their steam-railroad 
rivals for nearly every class of traffic except long-distance passenger 
and freight business. This extension of the electric railway has intro- 
duced new problems of discussion, such as fares, transportation of 
freight, etc., into the operating department, as well as the exercise of 
the most advanced electrical engineering methods, not only in the trans- 
mission of the power at high voltage necessary to operate the cars, but 
in the car equipment as well. Up to the present, direct current has 
been used on the trolley wire or third rail, but if the experiments with 
single-phase motors, which it is announced are soon to be tried, prove 
successful, the possibility of the direct application of alternating cur- 
rent to railway work will remove some of the inconveniences which 
now exist in the present system. 

American Street Railway Association. 47 

I will not take the time of the convention to give the statistics 
showing the advances made in street railroading during the last year. 
Some of them will be brought out in the papers to be read, and statistics 
on the subject are published in the technical press from time to time. 
It is interesting in passing to note, however, that eleven years ago 
there were about 1,800 miles of electric railways in the country, while 
to-day there are between 24,000 miles and 25,000 miles, and that 
against an investment eleven years ago in street railways of about 
$75,000,000, the total capital invested to-day is in the neighborhood 
of two billion dollars. These figures show that the time has come 
when we should no longer apologize for our existence, but should 
take a stand individually and as an Association for the protection of 
our rights as a corporation. 

It is a venerable saying that corporations have no souls, and, per- 
haps, the credit that has attached to this aphorism accounts for the 
evident belief of the public that they have no feelings. We are here 
as members and managers of a class of corporations which is more 
intimately related than any other to the comfort, convenience and 
success of the people who live in cities and towns. Upon the orderly 
operation of a street railroad depends substantially everything else that 
goes on in a thickly settled community. It is true that what we are 
operating is a valuable privilege granted by the public, but its value 
depends chiefly upon the sufficiency with which the public is served, 
and the public was moved to grant it solely from considerations of its 
own comfort and interest. The contract between the public and the 
street railroads, therefore, is a contract of partnership and the interest 
of the partners is identical. What the public wants is the best possible 
service, and only by giving the best possible service can we obtain the 
largest possible returns for our money. 

And yet, despite this close association of interest, it is the experi- 
ence of all of us that there is scarcely any limit to the impositions 
which the public will permit, and rather cheerfully permit, to be laid 
upon street railway corporations. Legislatures and boards of alder- 
men seem to regard street railroads as fair game to be hit at as 
often and as viciously as anybody chooses, and the public newspapers, 
so far from taking into account the service we are rendering and 
protecting us against the schemes of demagogues, are rather inclined 
to regard injuries so inflicted with amused indifference, if not with 
positive favor. 

In every other form in which property manifests itself, except 
in shares of corporate stock, it has well-defined rights and valuable 
privileges. One thousand dollars invested in bank notes or govern- 
ment bonds, or even in real estate mortgages, are surrounded with 
legal safeguards to maintain their value, and if the hand of the 

48 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

despoiler for one moment seems to menace them everybody begins 
to talk about the sacred rights of property. That is just as it should 
be. But money lent to the government at a comfortable rate of 
interest is no more directly employed upon the public business than 
that which is represented by the stock of a street railroad, and it is 
no answer to the claim that it ought to have fair treat- 
ment, that it ought not to be the object of special prejudice 
and attack to say that it is particularly valuable. Its value 
is strictly measured by the public service it renders. The contract, 
of which our charters and certificates of incorporation are the witnesses 
authorizes us, as the universal law of business authorizes every one, so 
to employ our abilities and resources as to obtain from them the 
greatest possible result to ourselves, and if, in recent years, street 
railroad shares have been especially good income earners, it is be- 
cause the street railroad companies are meeting the public ends for 
which they were organized, because they have studied and facilitated 
the public interests and needs, because they have put themselves in 
advance of the development of the cities and towns they run through, 
because at vast expense they have introduced new methods, new 
machinery, swifter, more frequent and improved accommodations, and 
it has never been laid down by the courts that a contract could be 
broken and new conditions imposed because either of the parties to it 
had done better than was anticipated, and certainly not because both 
had. And yet the contracts between the public and the street rail- 
road companies are being continually infringed upon by the imposi- 
tion of new taxes and new requirements, and it has come to be 
considered almost an impertinence for a corporation so injured to 
offer ever so mild a protest. 

In the theory of the law a corporation is an individual, but 
apparently only for the purpose of enabling it to be got at. It has 
all the obligations of individuals, but of their rights few. The poli- 
ticians of all parties talk themselves hoarse with eloquent protesta- 
tions of their love of individual liberty and individual rights, and 
so well have their laws justified these pretensions that no man in 
this country is so idle, so worthless, so bereft by his own acts of 
character, property or position but that if he contrives to keep out of 
prison he has a vote and the opportunity of making his equal influ- 
ence felt in the determination of public questions. But a corporation, 
even such a corporation as is organized to serve the public conven- 
ience, may neither vote nor in any other way participate in making 
the laws by which it must be bound. The proposition before the 
public on which an election is to be held and a policy defined for 
future legislation, may be one which vitally concerns the interests, 
even the life, of a corporation, but if it were to undertake to express 

American Street Railway Association. 49 

its views from a public platform or to influence the votes even of 
those persons who derive their means of livelihood from its opera- 
tions, the very foundations of social order would seem to be attacked. 
It must stand by on such occasions in submissive silence. It must 
affect an attitude of indifference, and if it does not actually proclaim 
to its employes their title to vote as they please, it becomes at once 
the object of suspicion and prejudice. 

Wars have been fought and governments formed to vindicate the 
principle that there shall be no taxation without representation, but 
if a corporation should ask to be represented in a public body that 
had the power of taxation and was proposing to exercise it upon 
corporations, its action would be observed with indignation and amaze- 
ment. Even in the courts its standing is prejudiced, and before a 
jury sworn to render an impartial verdict upon the facts, its first 
and constant care is to remove from the minds of the jurymen a 
frankly admitted antagonism. 

It is not remarkable that in this situation the law should dis- 
criminate against corporations. The failure to assert rights when 
they are threatened is always taken as a confession that they do not 
exist, and encroachment follows encroachment with ruthless certainty. 
Timid counsels have so far prevailed among the street railroad com- 
panies in the adjustment of their affairs with the public that in many 
States there is a gross discrimination in the taxing laws against such 
corporations. When by Federal legislation it was proposed to tax the 
incomes of individuals, although a limit was placed which protected 
the poorer classes, public protest made itself felt so powerfully that 
the Supreme Court of the United States, after holding that an income 
tax was lawful, proceeded to reverse itself and to find constitutional 
objections that absolutely killed the income tax law. And yet an 
income tax upon the earnings of corporations is found upon the 
statute books of many of our American commonwealths, and corpora- 
tions with which a State has made definite contracts fixing and 
limiting the obligations on either side are required, notwithstanding 
these contracts, to pay other and additional taxes upon their gross 

When money is invested in a public franchise upon terms and 
conditions expressed in a charter or a certificate of incorporation 
under a general act, the shareholders have a moral, and it ought to be 
a legal, right to understand that what they are to pay and to do in 
making their franchise effectual is nothing more than or different 
from the conditions of which they had notice and to which they 
agreed. The rule that there can be no impairment of the obligations 
of a contract is to be found in the fundamental law of the United 
States and of every State, and in controversies between individuals 

50 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

no constitutional guarantee is more carefully protected by the courts. 
And in a contract between the State and a corporation there is no 
trouble about holding the corporation. If it violates its contracts, or 
if it does not give the promised service or duly make the promised 
payments, the Attorney-General is authorized to institute proceedings 
for its dissolution. But the rule of performance does not work both 
ways. It appears to bind only the corporation. The State can pass 
new laws imposing new conditions and the corporation will have its 
pains for its protest. 

I look forward to the day when the shareholders in street rail- 
way corporations will stand up for their rights as shareholders in 
the same sturdy spirit which they would at once bring to the 
defense of their rights as individuals. The great street railway 
properties of this country, and even the little ones, are no longer in 
the hands of a few rich men. They are distributed in hundreds of 
thousands of shares ranging in par value from five dollars to a 
hundred dollars among a countless body of people. The heads of 
these properties are no longer in any material degree their owners. 
They are, and are coming more and more to be, simply the salaried 
employes of a great number of shareholders. They conduct the busi- 
ness of these properties as a trust, and they have nothing to do with 
the stock market. Their one concern is to earn a dividend for their 
shareholders and pay it where it belongs. Every shareholder is as 
much, interested to protect the property against unjust discriminations 
in the laws and to protect its reputation as a business organization 
as are any of us who are placed for the time being in charge of the 
property. It is no less their duty than it is ours to insist that public 
officials shall treat these corporations equitably and honestly. 

It will not be denied that inasmuch as our opportunity to earn 
money proceeds out of a public privilege we should pay to the public 
a fair return for what we get. But what we give in the way of 
service and what it costs us to give it are elements just as much 
entitled to consideration in the making of the contract as any other ; 
and when the contract is once made it ought to be as little subject 
to repudiation or change as any other contract. The faithful dis- 
charge of our obligations requires a continually increasing invest- 
ment, the constant incurring of new risks. It is not enough that we 
shall meet the demand as it exists from day to day; it is necessary 
that we should anticipate it. And if the profits upon our investment 
prove in the end to be considerable, that is the reward to which 
intelligent foresight, courage and good management are always en- 
titled. The spirit that seeks to confiscate anybody's legitimate earn- 
ings is unfair and reprehensible, and honest-minded men should be 
strong to oppose it. 

American Street Railway Association. 51 

This association has served an honorable and useful purpose for 
twenty-one years, but the time may be at hand when the scope of its 
usefulness can be materially increased. I have already pointed out the 
injustice which is done corporations by municipalities and the need 
for public enlightenment, not only on the equity of their cause, but 
also on the service which they are rendering the public. There is 
one other point to which, however, I would like to direct your atten- 
tion, and that is in connection with the broader field of electric rail- 
roading which this country will certainly see during the next decade. 

I have already referred to the immense mileage of interurban 
electric railways which has been built during the last few years, 
especially in the Middle West. Many of these roads are hauling freight, 
and it is a matter of great importance, not only to these roads them- 
selves, but to the cities and towns which they serve, that the facili- 
ties which they should enjoy as regards the interchange of freight 
with the steam railroads should be as free as those between the 
steam railroads themselves. The first point requisite to this end is to 
have convenient connections with the neighboring steam railroads, so 
that the freight cars can be passed from one to the other. The right 
of the electric company to demand this has only recently been decided 
in New York State in a case which was contested between the Hudson 
Valley Railway Company and the Boston & Maine Railroad Company, 
in which the Court of Appeals reversed the decision of the Appellate 
Division and rightly decided that an intersection and connection of 
the electric road and the steam road should be made in the interests 
of the local shippers. This right should be of great advantage to 
the electric railroad company, but the full benefit to the local shippers 
will not be derived until the full privileges of an interchange of freight 
cars between the two systems shall be as universally recognized as 
they now are between steam railroads, so that freight can originate 
on either the steam or electric road. Heretofore in many cases the 
steam railroad companies have shown an unwillingness to interchange 
freight with the competing electric roads, on the plea that the latter 
were not responsible in the same degree as the steam railroads, and 
by this means considerable freight transportation has been diverted 
from the electric railroad. 

The points just mentioned indicate the broader problems which 
are being forced upon the electric railway interests of the country, 
through the large increase in interurban electric railway companies, 
which naturally look to this Association as the exponent of their 
interests. This is only natural, because while these lines do not 
operate upon the streets, the electrical equipment problems connected 
therewith, as- well as many of the other questions which arise in con- 
nection with their operation, are the same as those which interest 

52 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

"street railway" managers proper. And while it may appear inad- 
visable to change the name of the American Street Railway Associa- 
tion to accord with the broader field of electric railroading in which 
many of its members are engaged, it should be understood that the 
Association is not merely a street railway organization, but its scope 
covers the entire field of electric railway transportation. More than 
this, it may seem desirable to welcome the participation of all com- 
panies engaged in electric railway transportation, for the reason that 
there is no organization in the country which has accomplished so 
much, or at its annual conventions and exhibitions can afford any- 
where near the same opportunity for instruction to those interested 
in electric transportation in its different phases. Heretofore no man- 
ager or engineer of a trunk line company which is contemplating or 
has installed a system of electric traction could join this Association 
except as a representative of some street railway company; but in 
view of the interest which is being taken in electric railway equipment 
by some of the large trunk line interests and the undeniable future 
which electric power will have for such transportation, especially for 
terminal and suburban work, the question will arise in the near future, 
if it has not already done so, whether the benefits which this Associa- 
tion can confer are available for companies which are not now eligible 
to membership. 

I will not attempt to suggest an answer to this question, but all 
signs indicate that it will be an important one during the next few 
years, if it is not so already. 

Mr. N. H. Heft, Meriden — I move that the thanks of this 
Association be tendered to our ^President for his able and cour- 
teous address, that it be spread upon the minutes, and that the 
Secretary be instructed to have the address printed, and that 
each member of the Association be furnished with several 

Secretary Penington put the motion, which was carried. 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, I thank you for that ex- 
pression, on behalf of the Association. Those of you who 
are connected with electric railroads in the Eastern section 
of the country have heard expression of such sentiments from 
me a number of times and to that point. I felt that it was a 
duty I owed to the street railway interests of the United States 
to take a stand on this question as I did in the East a few 
months ago. The problem we have confronting us, as I have 
indicated in the address, is not the problem that confronted the 

American Street Railway Association. 53 

managers of street railroads ten years ago. The man who ran 
a street railroad at that time usually owned a large part of the 
capital stock and dictated its policy with his hand on his 
pocketbook. The policies of the street railroads of to-day are 
dictated by men who are technically and scientifically educated 
in the methods of management, control and operation of these 
large corporations. The character of the service which is ren- 
dered to the public throughout the country, the development 
going on in the hands of men who have nothing to do with 
the financial questions connected with the property, is what 
has brought the electric railroad properties up to their present 
state. The electric railroad system has no history back of it. 
The man who works in this field is a pioneer, whether he is an 
operating manager, or the electrical engineer or mechanical 
engineer. He has no literature to go to from which to gather 
information relating to the operation of these systems ; all ex- 
perience in connection with this work must be obtained by hard 
work, and the hard knocks that come from the actual opera- 
tion of these properties. That electric railroading has ad- 
vanced to the stage in the world's transportation affairs that 
it represents to-day, particularly in the United States and 
Canada, is an evidence of how hard we have worked and how 
well directed our efforts have been, and how ably we have been 
supported by the great electrical and mechanical equipment 
companies in this country. They have spared no expense and 
no pains in the developments which have had to do with 
the success of our industry, and it is but fair to them 
to say in the Convention that they have had just 
as much to do with placing the electric railway on the high 
pinnacle of advancement it occupies to-day as any distinctly 
operating or mechanical men in the country. Gentlemen, I 
thank you. 

The next order of business is the report of the Executive 

54 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


The Secretary read the report as follows : 

To the American Street Railway Association — ■ 

Gentlemen : The report of your Executive Committee will con- 
sist, as in past years, of the minutes of the several meetings held 
during the year, which will show what has been done by your com- 

ARY 24, 1902. 

The President called the meeting to order at 10 a. m. 

Present: Herbert H. Vreeland, President; Charles W. Wason, 
First Vice-President; Elwin C. Foster, Second Vice-President; H. M. 
Sloan, Third Vice-President; Walton H. Holmes, Daniel B. Dyer, T. 
J. NicholL George W. Dickinson, and T. C. Penington, Secretary- 

The Secretary read a letter from John A. Rigg regretting his 
inability to be present, as an important matter compelled him to remain 
at home. 

The Secretary-Treasurer presented a financial report of the condi- 
tion of the Association to date, also a list of members in arrears for 
dues, and amount of space rental at New York unpaid. 

Upon motion of Mr. Wason, the report was placed on file. 

The Secretary stated that the President, on November 29, 1901, 
appointed the following gentlemen a Committee on Standards for the 
ensuing year : 

N. H. Heft, New Haven, Conn. 

E. G. Connette, Syracuse, N. Y. 

C. F. Holmes, Kansas City, Mo. 

John I. Beggs, Milwaukee, Wis. 

E. A. Newman, Portland, Me. 

R. T. Laffin, Worcester, Mass. 

Will Christy, Akron, Ohio, 

all of whom had accepted. 

The renewal of the Treasurer's bond issued by the American 
Surety Company of New York in the amount of Ten Thousand Dol- 
lars ($10,000.00), renewed to February 1, 1903, was presented to the 
committee by that officer and placed in the possession of the President. 

Mr. Sloan moved that the salary of the Secretary-Treasurer be 
continued at $1,500.00 per annum, as in previous years. 


American Street Raihvay Association. 55 

Mr. Dyer moved that the payment of the admission fee of $25.00 
be waived to any company becoming a member of the Association 
prior to October 1, 1902, provided the annual dues of $25.00 to Oc- 
tober, 1902, be paid at the time application for membership is made. 


Mr. Swart, of the Cadillac Hotel, appeared before the committee 
and stated that the regular rates would prevail during the meeting, 
making the suggestion that two persons occupy one room, if possible. 

At this point a recess was taken for luncheon and for the pur- 
pose of visiting the Armory, where it was proposed to hold the Con- 

After visiting the hall and other hotels with the local commit- 
tee, the committee reconvened at 2 :30 p. m. 

Mr. Wason moved that the twenty-first annual meeting of the 
Association be held in the Light Guard Armory, Detroit, on Wednes- 
day, Thursday and Friday, October 8, 9 and 10, 1902 ; that two sessions 
of the Convention be held on the 8th and 10th ; that the 9th be set 
aside for the inspection of the exhibits and that the banquet be held 
on the evening of the 10th. 


Mr. Dickinson moved that the price of space be ten cents per 
square foot, as heretofore. 

Mr. Holmes moved that the Cadillac Hotel be selected as the 
headquarters of the Association and that no rooms be assigned prior 
to April 15 ; the assignment to be made under the supervision of 
the local committee, preference to be given to representatives of 
members of the Association. 

Mr. Foster moved that the papers be printed in advance of the 
Convention, and copies sent to each member of the Association at 
least two weeks previous to the meeting, and that the President be 
authorized to select a speaker to open the discussion on each paper. 


The following subjects were selected on which papers should be 
written and presented to the Association : 

"The Registration of Transfers" — Mr. C. D. Meneely, Secretary 
and Treasurer Brooklyn Heights R. R. Co., New York. 

"Benefit Associations" — Mr. Oren Root, Jr., Assistant General 
Manager Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., New York. 

"Steam Turbine Engines" — Mr. E. H. Sniffin, New York. 

"Discipline of Employes by the Merit System" — Mr. W. A. Satter- 
lee, General Superintendent Metropolitan St. Ry. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

"The Transportation of Light Express and Parcel Delivery" — Mr. 
George W. Parker, General Express Agent Detroit United Ry., De- 
troit, Mich. 

56 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

"Signals for Urban and Interurban Railways" — Mr. G. W. Palmer, 
Electrical Engineer Old Colony St. Ry., Fall River Mass. 

"The Adjustment of Damage Claims" — Mr. M. B. Starring, Assist- 
ant General Counsel Chicago City Ry. Co., Chicago. 

Mr. Wason moved that the exhibits remain under the charge of 
the Association as heretofore, and that the Executive Committee 
recommend to the Association that no change be made. 


• On motion of Mr. Holmes, the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed by the President as a standing Committee on Rules for the 
Government of Employes : 

J. C. Brackenridge, General Manager Brooklyn Heights R. R. Co., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

E. C. Foster, Vice-President and General Manager Old Colony St. 
Rv. Co., Boston, Mass. 

T. E. Mitten, General Manager International Traction Co., Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 

W. E. Harrington, Vice-President and General Manager Camden 
& Suburban Ry. Co., Camden, N. J. 

Mr. Nicholl moved that the President and Secretary be authorized 
to perform any necessary work that would properly devolve upon 
the Executive Committee between the present time and the next 


Mr. Foster moved that the Secretary be directed to request the 
chief executive officer of the different companies to notify delegates 
and heads of departments attending the Convention for the companies 
they represent, that they will be expected to attend each session and 
take part in the discussions. 


Mr. Sloan moved that a vote of thanks be extended to Mr. 
Hutchins, Mr. Stanley, Mr. Fullerton, Mr. Fry and others for the 
courtesies extended to the committee during the present meeting. 


On motion, adjourned, subject to call of the Chair. 

TOBER 7, 1902. 

The President called the meeting to order at 12 -.30 p. m. 
Present : Herbert H. Vreeland, President ; Charles W. Wason, 
First Vice-President; Elwin C. Foster, Second Vice-President; H. M. 

American Street Railway Association. 57 

Sloan, Third Vice-President; Daniel B. Dyer, T. J. Nicholl, George 
W. Dickinson, and T. C. Penington, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Minutes of the meeting held February 24, 1902, were read and 

The Secretary-Treasurer presented his annual report. 

The President appointed Messrs. Wason and Dyer an Auditing 
Committee to examine the accounts of the Treasurer. 

The Auditing Committee reported the accounts of the Treasurer 
in proper form, and supported by proper vouchers. 

Mr. Foster moved that the report of the Secretary-Treasurer be 


The President appointed Messrs. Foster and Nicholl a Committee 
on Memorials of Deceased Members. 

Mr. Xicholl moved that the Local Committee be provided with 
all necessary tickets for the banquet, in recognition of the excellent 
work performed by that committee. 


Air. Sloan moved that a vote of thanks be extended to the Detroit 
Club for the many courtesies shown the committee. 


Mr. Foster moved that a vote of thanks be extended the members 
of the Local Committee for the efficient services performed by them 
in the arrangements for the Convention. 


On motion, adjourned, subject to call of the Chair. 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, you have heard the report 
of the Executive Committee of your Association for the past 
year. What is your pleasure ? 

Air. C. O. Mailloux, New York — I move that the report be 
received and printed in the minutes. (Motion carried.) 

President Vreeland — We will now hear the report of the 


The Secretary read the report as follows : 
To the American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : Your Secretary and Treasurer respectfully submits 
the following report : 


The following companies acquired membership at and since the 
last meeting : 

% ■ 

58 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Altoona, Pa.— Altoona and Logan Valley Electric Railway Company. 

Ashtabula, O. — Pennsylvania and Ohio Railway Company 

Atlanta, Ga. — Atlanta Rapid Transit Company 

Atlanta, Ga.— Georgia Railway and Electric Company 

Austin, Texas— Austin Electric Railway Company 

Belleville, 111. — St. Louis and Illinois Suburban Railway Company... 

Boston,. Mass.— Boston and Northern Street Railway Company 

Boston, Mass. — Old Colony Street Railway Company 

Canton, O. — Canton- Akron Railway Company 

Cleveland, O. — Cleveland and Eastern Railway Company 

Cleveland, O. — Lake Shore Electric Company 

Columbus, Ga. — Columbus Railroad Company 

Denison, Texas — Denison and Sherman Railway Company 

El Paso, Texas — El Paso Electric Railway Company 

Exeter, N. H. — Exeter, Hampton and Amesbury Street Railway Com- 
pany __ 

Florence, Colo. — Florence Electric Street Railway Company 

Hancock, Mich. — Houghton County Street Railway Company 

Holland, Mich. — Grand Rapids, Holland and Lake Michigan Rapid 
Railway Company 

Jacksonville, Fla. — Jacksonville Street Railroad Company 

Kenosha, Wis: — Kenosha Street Railway Company 

Little Rock, Ark. — Little Rock Traction and Electric Company 

Maynard, Mass. — Concord, Maynard and Hudson Railway Company. 

New Orleans, La. — New Orleans Railways Company 

New York, N. Y. — New York and Port Chester Railroad Company... 

Oneida, N. Y. — Oneida Railway Company 

Pittsburg, Pa. — Pittsburgh, McKeesport and Connellsville Railroad 

Plymouth, Mass. — Brockton and Plymouth Street Railway Company. . 

Pottsville, Pa. — Pottsville Union Traction Company 

Providence, R. I. — Providence and Danielson Railway Company 

Richmond, Va. — Richmond Passenger and Power Company '.. 

Richmond, Va. — Virginia Passenger and Power Company. .". 

San Antonio, Texas — San Antonio Traction Company 

Savannah, Ga. — Savannah Electric Company . 

Utica, N. Y. — Utica and Mohawk Valley Railroad Company 

Wheeling, W. Va. — Wheeling and Elm Grove Railroad Company 


Atlanta. Ga. — Atlanta Railway and Power Company • 

Atlanta, Ga. — Atlanta Rapid Transit Company 

Bridgeport. Conn. — Bridgeport Traction Company 

Brockton, Mass. — Brockton Street Railway Company 

Brookfield, Mass. — Warren, Brookfield and Spencer Street Railway 

American Street Railway Association. 59, 

Detroit, Mich. — Detroit, Rochester, Romeo and Lake Orion Railway- 

Detroit, Mich. — Detroit and Pontiac Railway Company 

Fall River, Mass. — Globe Street Railway Company 

Highwood, 111. — Chicago and Milwaukee Electric Railway Company. . . 

Kansas City, Mo. — East Side Electric Railway Company 

Lowell, Mass. — Lowell, Lawrence and Haverhill Street Railway Com- 

Lynn. Mass. — Lynn and Boston Railroad Company 

Meridian, Miss. — Meridian Light and Railway Company 

Mobile, Ala. — Mobile Street Railroad Company 

Xew Haven, Conn. — Winchester Avenue Railroad Company 

New Orleans, La. — New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad, Light and 
Power Company 

New Orleans, La. — New Orleans City Railway Company 

Pittsburg, Pa — Monongahela Street Railway Company 

Port Huron, Mich. — City Electric Railway Company 

Richmond, Va. — Richmond Traction Company 

Richmond, Va. — Richmond Passenger and Power Company 


Lansing, Mich. — Lansing City- Electric Railway Company 

Portsmouth, Va. — Portsmouth Street Railway Company 


Arkansas 1 Kansas 3 

Delaware 1 Tennessee 3 

Louisiana 1 Virginia 3 

Maryland 1 Wisconsin 3 

New Hampshire 1 Georgia 4 

Nebraska 1 Iowa 4 

Oregon 1 Connecticut 5 

South Carolina 1 Indiana 5 

Utah 1 Missouri 5 

Alabama 2 Texas 7 

District of Columbia 2 Michigan 8 

Florida 2 New Jersey 9 

Kentucky 2 Massachusetts 12 

Maine 2 New York 17 

Minnesota 2 Illinois 18 

Mississippi 2 Ohio 19 

Montana 2 Pennsylvania 22 

Rhode Island 2 Mexico 1 

Washington 2 Porto Rico 1 

West Virginia 2 Canada 5 

California 3 

Colorado 3 191 

60 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


October i, 1901 179 

New members since last meeting 35 


Withdrawn 21 

Suspended 2 

— 23 

October 1, 1902 191 


Space in Exhibit Hall, 1901, unpaid — 

Fowler & Robert Mfg. Co., New York $21.50 

Francis Granger, New York 68.70 


Cash in bank October 1, 1901 $10,128.68 

Receipts to October 1, 1902 — 

Annual dues $4,675.00 

Rent of space Exhibit Hall, 1901 1,848.50 

Rent of space Exhibit Hall, 1902 1,669.50 

Interest on deposits 185.85 



Printing and stationery $1,897.27 

Postage 264.20 

Salaries 1,500.00 

Miscellaneous expense ... 50.00 

Executive Committee, 1902 647.45 

Twentieth Annual Convention, 1901 3,341.11 

Twenty-first Annual Convention, 1902 548.41 

Committee on Standards 311.06 


Cash in bank October 1, 1902 9,948.03 



Continental National Bank of Chicago. 

Chicago, September 30, 1902. 
I hereby certify that the balance due the American Street Railway 
Association on the books of the Continental National Bank of Chi- 

American Street Railway Association. 61 

cago at the close of business on the 30th day of September, 1902, was 
Nine Thousand Nine Hundred Forty-eight and 3-100 Dollars ($9,- 


(Signed) B. Mayer, Assistant Cashier. 


Detroit, October 7, 1902. 
To the Executive Committee of the American Street Railway Associa- 
tion — 

Gentlemen : We have examined the report of the Treasurer, T. C. 
Penington, for the past year and find the same correct as appears by 
proper vouchers accompanying the same. 

(Signed) Charles W. Wason, 
(Signed) D. B. Dyer, 

Auditing Committee. 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, you have heard the re- 
port of the Secretary-Treasurer. What is your pleasure ? 

Mr. W. Worth Bean, St. Joseph, Mich. — I move that the 
report be received and placed on the minutes. (Carried.) 
The following rules of the convention were then adopted : 


1. No member shall be recognized by the President unless he shall 
announce distinctly his name and address. 

2. Speeches will be limited to ten minutes, unless the time shall 
be extended by the Convention. 

3. Members who desire to offer resolutions or other matters to 
be considered by the Convention are requested to submit them in 
writing over their signatures, to the Secretary. 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, the next order of busi- 
ness is the discussion of technical subjects. Before taking up 
these papers, I want to say, for the information of those who 
are not connected with the Executive Committee, that Presi- 
dent Hutchins of the Detroit United Railway, who has done 
everything in his power, assisted by his able staff, to make 
this a successful Convention and to add to the comfort and 
convenience of the Association, as well as its guests, has been 
quite ill the past week, confined to a hospital. He was able 
to come out for a few minutes yesterday, and call upon the 
Executive Committee while in session, and I see this morn- 

62 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

ing that his doctor has again allowed him to come to this ses- 
sion of our Convention. I told him yesterday that in view 
of the condition of his health we would fully understand his 
absence and the causes of it if he did not appear. I am glad 
to know that he is so far improved as to be able to be with us 
this morning. You must not expect any response from Mr. 
Hutchins to what I am saying. I only wanted you to knOw 
he is here and to know the reason why he has not personally 
greeted you this morning. He is not in a condition to do any 
talking, but I know he will appreciate my sentiments, as well 
as those of you gentlemen who are directly connected with the 
work of the Association. (Loud applause.) 

(Mr. Hutchins bowed his acknowledgments.) 
President Vreeland — The first technical paper is on the 
"Registration of Transfers." This is an important subject to 
ihe members of this Association, as evidenced by the many let- 
ters I have received within the past year, asking our practice 
in New York regarding transfers and the opinion of the man- 
agement of the company on this question. It was considered 
by your Executive Committee as one of the important ques- 
tions. It was a very hard matter to get any one to write the 
paper, and it has been absolutely impossible to get any one 
who would open the discussion on it. Some gentlemen who 
have written to me within the last year and asked an expres- 
sion of opinion from me on this question have flatly refused 
to write or speak on this topic. I did not know but what 
this question occupied the same position as some of the larger 
questions I indicated in my address. Certainly, nothing in 
connection with the practical part of the business is as neces- 
sary to decide as the method by which the revenue of the com- 
pany shall be cared for. If any of our members have views on 
this subject, they should certainly be willing to express them. 
I asked Mr. Charles D. Meneely, secretarv and treasurer of 
the Brooklyn Heights Company, to prepare this paper, and he 
has done so, but it was impossible for him to be present at the 
Convention. There is no necessity of reading it as a whole, 
for the reason that we have succeeded this year in getting all 

American Street Railway Association. 63 

•of our papers very early, and the Secretary has distributed them 
at an early date, and they should be in the hands of every dele- 
gate. The purpose of having the papers prepared in advance 
is to do away with the reading of the paper as a whole, as the 
discussion is fully as valuable as the paper. Mr. Meneely 
treats of the subject of transfers under two heads; first, "Does 
Non-Registration Divest the Transfer of Its Cash Value?" 
The second subdivision is under the head of the "Registration 
of Transfers," and takes up the practical questions connected 
with that subject. The points are pretty fully covered in the 

A number of gentlemen have said that, owing to the paper 
being short, they would like to have it read. Mr. Robinson, 
who is a good reader, will present the paper. 

Mr. H. A. Robinson, of New York, read the paper. 


The American Street Railway Association — ■ 

Gentlemen : Regarding the registration of transfers there is wide 
diversity of opinion in the street railway world. While there is a large 
contingent which advocates the registration of transfers, there is a 
numerous body which strenuously opposes it, and many who have 
studied the problem have been unable to reach a definite conclusion 
concerning it. 

No mathematical solution of the problem has yet been offered, nor 
will I attempt any, but will here briefly outline for discussion the 
chief arguments for and against the registration of transfers with a 
view to determining, if possible, the weight of evidence from which 
to draw a conclusion. 

Those who advocate the non-registration of transfers place great 
stress upon the contention that this course divests the transfer of its 
cash value, and focuses the attention. of the conductor on the collec- 
tion and registration of the real revenue, namely, the cash fares. 

On the other hand, the advocates of registration are equally in- 
sistent that the non-registration of the transfer does not eliminate its 
cash value, except to the extent of preventing trading between con- 
ductors, and the consequent substitution of transfers for cash fares. 

First, does non-registration divest the transfer of its cash value? 

Undoubtedly, the fact that the transfers of other lines cannot be 
turned in at a cash value prevents the conductor from obtaining 
fraudulently, either directly or through an intermediary, the transfers 

64 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

of intersecting and transferring lines and converting the transfers so 
obtained to his own dishonest gain. Nevertheless, while the non- 
registered transfer may not be used by the conductor in this particular 
manner, its value has not been one whit diminished to the traveling 
public, to whom the conductor may, within limits determined by the 
accounting, either sell or give away rides on the company's cars, which 
would otherwise go to swell its earnings ; for no accounting method 
has yet been devised which will accurately check the issue of transfers 
on a large system without undue expense. 

Moreover, the non-registration of transfers renders so easy the 
appropriation of cash fares by conductors that many conductors, who 
would otherwise be indisposed to take the risk of open stealing, become 
dishonest. This has been forcibly illustrated on the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company's system. In the summer of 1900, during the months 
of May, June and July, conductors were instructed to discontinue 
the registration of transfers. On August 1st of the same year the 
registration of transfers was resumed, and, coincidently therewith, a 
large number of supposedly reliable conductors, long in the service, 
were detected stealing the company's revenue. The increase in the 
number of old conductors, previously possessing excellent records, 
who were at that time discovered appropriating fares was so marked 
as to lead to the conclusion that during the preceding three months 
the ease and safety with which the company's revenue was plundered 
had tempted these men to steal, and, that upon the resumption of the 
registration of transfers, the exercise of the habit then formed proved 
too strong to be deterred by the added chances of detection. 

Second, as to the registration of transfers. 

It will be conceded, I think, by all practical street railway men 
that the ideal method of obtaining revenue, assuming one uniform 
rate of fare and a sure method of preventing transfer trading, would 
be to register all fares and transfers upon a single register. 

Under the above noted assumption the advantages of such a method 
are obvious. The query naturally arises, do these advantages more 
than compensate for the loss occasioned by transfer trading? On the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit System we think that they do. 

By taking transfers out of the hands of conductors and placing 
transfer agents at points where cars from the same depot intersect 
and transfer, thereby preventing conductors from trading directly with 
each other and compelling the use of an intermediary, we endeavor to 
keep this evil in check and supplement it by the vigilant watchfulness 
of our inspectors and secret service operators. Our system of sta- 
tioning uniformed register inspectors between all principal terminal 
points and the first transfer intersection practically protects the revenue 
between the outer transfer and terminal points, and enables us to 

American Street Railway Association. 65 

concentrate our secret service in the central portion of the system to 
locate register shorts and detect transfer trading. 

To further limit the risk of trading to the day of issue we intro- 
duced and, I believe, were the first to use a daily dated transfer ticket, 
which has since been adopted by many of the principal systems in the 

Doubtless, a further check upon transfer trading is provided by 
the turning in of transfers by trips and the subsequent checking of 
line exchanges by the Accounting Department. 

Were it not, however, for the lottery law and a certain demoralizing 
effect that distribution of property by chance has upon the community 
by inculcating the gambling spirit, it would be possible to offer such 
inducements to street railway patrons as would absolutely check the 
cash fares received and the transfers issued. Such a governing induce- 
ment would be, to offer cash prizes of a large amount monthly, which 
would yet form in the aggregate only a small fraction of the amount 
which is now diverted from the company's revenue by conductors. 

In addition to carrying a pad of transfers the conductors would 
be provided with a pad of numbered cash-fare receipts, each one of 
which receipts would bear on its face an injunction to hold until the 
end of the month, when the bearer might be entitled to any one of a 
number of prizes, determined impartially by a drawing; the prizes 
consisting of a capital sum, together with lesser sums graded down 
to a large number of small premiums, which would distribute the cash 
prizes as far as possible. 

The operation of the above plan would involve the issue of a 
transfer only for a cash fare. In practice it would work as follows : 

A passenger, boarding a car, would be asked by the conductor, 
upon payment of fare, if he wished a transfer. Upon receiving an 
affirmative reply, the conductor would issue a* numbered transfer to the 
passenger from his pad, and upon turning in his pad would have to 
produce one cash fare for each transfer ticket detached from his pad. 

Since transfers asked for are necessary for the ride on the trans- 
ferring line, conductors would therefore not be able to secure and 
reissue detached transfers. 

On the other hand, if a passenger, upon paying his fare, stated 
that he did not wish a transfer, it would become the conductor's duty 
to detach a cash fare receipt and hand same to the passenger. For 
every cash fare receipt so detached the conductor would also be held 
accountable for one cash fare. 

The inducement for a passenger to take a cash fare receipt would 
be even stronger than in the case of a transfer ticket, as it might mean 
a large sum of money in case the number of the ticket drew a prize, 
and when a passenger, ignorant of its possible value, refused to accept 
his fare receipt, others would eagerly seek its possession. 

66 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Assuming that both transfer tickets and cash fare receipts were 
taken by passengers for all fares paid, the stubs returned by the con- 
ductors would accurately indicate the number of fares collected and 
would insure the turning into the treasury of all the revenue collected 
on the cars. 

Several marked advantages would follow from the adoption of this 
plan, as for example, the reduction in the number of transfers used, 
since many persons, who would ordinarily take a transfer for a short 
ride after a long one, would prefer the chance offered by the cash 
fare receipt and decline the transfer, which carried with it no chance 
for a prize. 

Moreover, the number of short-riders would, probably, be in- 
creased to an extent that would realize a larger sum than the aggre- 
gate of the prizes offered, and again, the trading of transfer tickets 
between conductors would be rendered absolutely impracticable, for 
each transfer detached from a conductor's pad would mean a corre- 
sponding cash fare to be turned into the company's treasury, and he 
would, therefore, be debarred from substituting transfers from other 
lines for cash fares. 

Though the operation of this plan would not violate the letter of 
the Lottery Law in most of our States, inasmuch as no consideration 
is asked, or given, for the cash prizes distributed, yet the Federal Lot- 
tery Law, which . absolutely prohibits the circulation of notices of 
drawings through the mails, together with the decisions thereunder, 
render a trial of the plan in the opinion of counsel inadvisable. 

Possibly its adoption might foster a speculative spirit in the com- 
munity, but it is unfortunate from the point of view of street railway 
companies that some method can not be devised which, without under- 
mining public morals or contravening State or Federal Law, would 
achieve similar results in 'the protection of revenue. 

So long as street railways continue to operate there will be more 
or less dishonesty on the part of conductors, which no mechanical 
appliances can wholly prevent ; but while the careful choosing of 
material, fair and considerate treatment and the encouragement of a 
spirit of honesty and integrity will always be the best safeguards for 
the protection of revenue, at the same time the study of improved 
methods of protecting the revenue by mechanical, or other means, 
should not be neglected, for, though perhaps an uncomplimentary 
commentary on human nature, it is none the less true, that many men 
remain honest only because of the fear of detection, and to such it 
should be our object to minimize the opportunity by all means in our 

Respectfully submitted, 


American Street Raikvay Association. 67 

President Yreeland — We shall be glad to have discussion 
on this paper. Will Mr. Root open the discussion? 

Mr. Oren Root, Jr., New York — I agree with Mr. Meneely 
to a certain extent when he says that the non-registration of 
transfers does not eliminate entirely their cash value, but the 
non-registration of transfers eliminates their cash value to such 
an extent as is possible ; in other words, there still remains the 
possibility of the conductors giving away tickets to other con- 
ductors or to their friends, which possibility still remains if 
vou register the transfers. Eliminating that point, it seems to 
me the only thing to be decided, in the question of registration 
or non-registration of transfers, is the question whether the 
cash value — which I think all admit is given a transfer by its 
registration — balances the possible difficulty which secret serv- 
ice men have in detecting - the non-registration of cash fares. 
It has been our experience in New York (which is contrary, 
apparently, to that which Mr. Meneely has had in Brooklyn), 
that the non-registration of transfers does not induce or assist 
the conductors to steal the cash fares — it has not that tendency, 
and on the other hand it does not in any way confuse our secret 
service men. This is, perhaps, peculiarly so in New York, on 
account of the great number of short riders. With us our 
secret service men pay absolutely no attention to whether the 
number of passengers on the car corresponds with the number 
of passengers indicated on the register, for the reason that a 
car starting at any terminus of a line may take on ten passen- 
gers, five of whom will get off within a half mile. This is 
more so in New York, on account of the great number of short 
riders, than in any other city in the country, and for this rea- 
son, more than any other, we are very emphatic in our opinion 
that the non-registration of transfers is the best for our sys- 
tem ; but I personally am of the opinion, for an interurban or 
suburban road, where they carry passengers for long distances, 
and have comparatively few riders, and check to a large ex- 
tent the honesty of their conductors through a comparison of 
the number of passengers in the car as against the number 
registered, the registration of transfers in that case may be 

68 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

advisable. But for a city service, like New York, I am em- 
phatically opposed to the registration. 

Mr. W. E. Harrington, Camden — We had been operating 
for some years prior to last summer without registering our 
transfers. We had reason to believe there might be some 
trouble in connection with it, and we started to register the 
transfers last summer and did it for three months. Our secret 
service department showed such a wholesale trading in trans- 
fers that we stopped it, and since that time we do not allow 
the conductors to register the transfers. We are not register- 
ing our transfers, and are of the opinion that we are pursuing 
the right course. 

Mr. H. M. Sloan, Chicago — It seems to me if transfers are 
to be registered at all, it should be done by a double register. 
My company was one of the first to put in the double register, 
and I was anxious about the outcome of their use. I thought 
the conductors might register the cash fares on the transfer 
side ; that is, when they collected a cash fare they would ring 
it up on the transfer side of the register, and the inspectors were 
given particular instructions to watch that matter, which they 
could easily do on our road at the transfer points. I found to 
my astonishment there was very little of it. It seems to me the 
only proper scheme for registering transfers on the same regis- 
ter with the cash fares is to introduce some such system as 
they have in St. Paul. They have a very elaborate system 
there, and I believe a paper was read on the subject some 
years ago, I think at Niagara Falls, explaining the system in 
detail, and the system as described was that all the cars pass 
a given point, and when a conductor gets off the car his trans- 
fers are taken from him, and when he gets on they are given 
back to him, and following this up they have an elaborate sys- 
tem of checking in their office, and with that method they are 
able to eliminate all misuse of transfers. 

Mr. E. G. Connette, Syracuse — The conductors of the 
Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway Company are required to 
register transfer tickets. It occurs to me that a non-registra- 
tion of the transfer ticket onlv eliminates the value of the ticket 

American Street Railway Association. 69 

to the conductor. It does not prevent the conductor from giv- 
ing away transfer tickets to people along the road, or to agents 
at points where they may be sold at a reduced price. The 
registration of transfers, of course, gives them the same value 
as a five cent fare ; and we use. as a rule, a single register, 
because we have not yet received an explanation of the ad- 
vantage of a double register that would justify a separate 
registration of cash fares and transfers. The advantage in 
registering the transfers, as we have discovered, was that if 
there is any peculation on the part of the conductors, it occurs 
to a great extent when cars are crowded, at which time it is 
difficult for inspectors to detect whether a passenger pays his 
fare with a transfer or with money, but it is not difficult to 
ascertain the number of passengers on a car, and by that 
means, at least get a check on the car load of passengers. The 
trading of transfers can, to a large extent, be detected without 
very much expense by proper clerical help. If there is any 
wholesale trading between the conductors, the conductors are 
bound to maintain the sequence of time in which the tickets are 
issued, and from time to time we check the transfer tickets 
that are turned in with a view of seeing whether or not the 
time limit on the tickets is punched with regard to the sequence 
of time, so if there is any trading between the conductors, they 
must observe the sequence of time in which the tickets are 
issued, otherwise they can be detected when the tickets are 
checked up. 

Mr. John I. Beggs, Milwaukee — I believe it necessary to 
give to the transfer, and every other evidence of the right to 
ride, all the value that is given to a nickel paid on the car. 
Under our system the transfers are placed in envelopes by the 
conductors and deposited in boxes at the' terminals of the lines 
every trip. He likewise does not keep his pad of transfers, 
but turns it over to the man who takes his run when he leaves 
the car. If transfers are to be registered, I believe it should 
be done upon a double register ; not necessarily two registers 
in a car, but a double dial. Some four years ago we adopt- 
ed a double register. After four years' use of the double 

jo Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

register we have arranged for an exchange for registers which 
will show the two classes of fares collected on each trip, as 
well as two totalizers, and it is surprising to what extent the 
public notes the character of fares rung up and indicated on the 
dial, not at all times, nor all people, but many people do, and I 
believe it has a restraining effect upon the conductor. We have 
some fifty odd transfer points to our system — points at which 
transfers are given and to which they are given, consequently 
I do not believe it would be possible for any inspector to de- 
tect whether a passenger, particularly at the crowd hours, had 
paid a cash fare, a transfer or one of the various types of tick- 
ets we have. As Mr. Root said, the system in New York is 
peculiar because of the large number of short riding passen- 
gers, and the small amount, I presume, of anything but cash 
fares. Our system, controlling and operating all of the inter- 
urban lines centering in the city of Milwaukee, has many 
commutation rate points, the tickets for which are given on our 
city lines to carry the passenger out to suburban and interur- 
ban points ; the tickets being sold to represent the commutation 
rate. 'Instead of two straight fares of five cents each, we may 
have a combination fare of seven and one-half cents, the pas- 
senger getting a transfer beyond the first fare point ; conse- 
quently transfer tickets and three cent fares are indicated with 
a light-colored disk, and the five cent cash fares with a red 
disk, and in this way the public is to a certain extent a de- 
tective as to whether the conductor is ringing up the class of 
fare paid. We believe it facilitates the checking of a conduc- 
tor, and I would not consider disregarding the value attached 
to a transfer by failing to register it. To our trained men it 
has all the value of a cash fare and is treated as such. They 
never know when a particular line may be checked up. 

Mr. W. B. Tarkington, Council Bluffs — We register trans- 
fers. We cannot understand why any one should ride and pre- 
sent something for his fare which the conductor is not required 
to ring up. We require every passenger who crosses the 
bridge from Iowa into Nebraska to pay ten cents. If he has 
paid five cents on the local line and has a transfer, we want 

American Street Railway Association. 71 

the conductor to ring up that transfer. If the passenger has a 
commutation book which entitles him to a ten-cent ride for 
five cents, we want the conductor to ring twice for that cou- 
pon. If the passenger has a ticket to our summer resort, which 
costs twenty-five cents, we require the conductor to 
ring twice for the coupon which carries the passenger over the 
bridsre. We are thoroughlv convinced that- it is to our inter- 
ests to have the conductors ring for every class of ticket which 
they accept. We use a double register, and our experience 
has been that the passengers themselves take an interest in no- 
ticing what class of fare the conductor rings up. This is a 
matter which affects the revenue of the company, and we 
want to find out the best way to handle it. 

Mr. Connette — I would inquire, if a transfer has the same 
value as a five cent piece, what advantage there is in ringing 
them up on separate registers, or double registers ; and even 
if the passengers do know that a conductor makes a mistake 
and rings a transfer for a five cent fare or vice versa, what is 
the difference? 

Mr. Sloan — That is rather a difficult question to answer. 
The line of demarkation as to whether it is better to register 
a transfer or not, is so fine that it is merely a matter of opinion 
as to which is the better ; but my conclusion, after having put 
the system in and used it for four or five years, is that the 
transfer on a double register is registered very ^accurately, and 
that a conductor very seldom collects a nickel and rings up a 
transfer. I watch this matter very closely. Sometimes con- 
ductors believe that the passenger is watching him and he will 
ring the correct fare, even though he might be tempted not 
to do so. A register is a monitor. If the conductor supposed 
that nobody but an inspector was watching a register, the pecu- 
lations from the company would be very much increased. 
There are many passengers, as all of us know, who have an 
interest in the operating department, and a conductor will say 
that so and so is a spotter. I like to have the conductors be- 
lieve that such persons are spotters. I look upon the register 

72 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

as a monitor which reminds the conductors that the passengers 
are watching him. 

Mr. N. H. Heft, Meriden — I am willing to admit this is 
one of the subjects upon which I have spent considerable time 
racking my brain as to whether transfers should be registered 
or not registered. We have tried the system of not registering 
transfers and also the system of registering the transfer. We 
are also using now on our system the duplex transfer, which 
is printed in pads of one hundred, numbered consecutively. 
These pads are charged to a conductor when he goes out on his 
run, and credited to him when returned. He is required to 
punch the transfer, tear off the duplex, and return the original 
in his envelope, and give the other to the passenger, punching 
in the time-limit. When the passenger boards the car to 
which he is transferred, the conductor of that car is required 
to punch the time that he received the transfer. We have 
been unable to find more than one way in which the conductor 
could successfully beat this transfer ticket, and that is at a 
transfer point where there was an understanding with the 
meeting conductor, punching up tbe number of transfers he 
thinks the conductor would sell for cash fares on the meet- 
ing car. This is a risky piece of business, as the spotter on 
the car would detect it very quickly. With this system it does 
not seem possible for the original conductor to part with the 
company's transfers unless he turns the cash fare into the com- 
pany, and with our system of blanks it is very easy to keep 
track of the transfers and to make a complete accounting of 
them with this system, when both original and duplex are 
registered. W r e are just introducing this system on one of our 
other lines. As a general proposition I believe that every 
ticket or transfer received by a conductor as an evidence of 
fare should be registered. 

President Vreeland — A number of our delegates got in late 
this morning, after riding all night, and were not able to get 
breakfast. We will, therefore, adjourn the meeting until 2:45 
o'clock this afternoon. 

American Street Raikvay Association. 73 


President Yreeland called the meeting to order at 3 :i5 p. m. 

President Vreeland — We closed the discussion on the 
registration of transfers prior to adjournment. The paper on 
'"'Steam Turbines" has been laid over until Friday, at the re- 
quest of the writer and some two or three gentlemen who de- 
sire to discuss it, but could not possibly be here to-day. 

The next paper will be presented by Mr. Oren Root, Jr., 
of New York City, Assistant General Manager of the Interur- 
ban Street Railway Company, entitled "'Street Railway Mutual 
Benefit Associations." You all have copies of it. I will ask 
Mr. Root in a general way to present some of his points 
without reading the whole paper and then we will take it up 
for discussion. 


The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : While the purpose of this paper is to discuss Mutual 
Benefit and Assessment Insurance Associations as applicable to Street 
Railway employes, it will be well, before treating of that special subject, 
to say a word on the general topic of Mutual Benefit Associations and 
Assessment Insurance, the main features of which must be embodied 
in any plan intended to benefit the class we have under consideration. 

The history of Assessment Insurance, when extended beyond a 
single and continually recruited class, is not encouraging, and insur- 
ance practice demonstrates it to be, at its best, more expensive and 
uncertain than ordinary corporate insurance by strong companies. 

Assessment Insurance, however, when applied to particular crafts, 
which in the very nature of things must be continually recruited, has 
shown phenomenal results, especially when accumulated surplus has 
been invested for the benefit of the insured and not dissipated in 
executive salaries. 

I take a street surface railroad in a growing community to be in 
the indicated class where assessment insurance can be, so far as the 
beneficiaries are concerned, profitably applied, as is evidenced by a case 
in point — the Metropolitan Street Railway Association of New York, 
with whose workings I am familiar and concerning which some details 
may be of interest. 

This association was organized in the Spring of 1897 by the 
employes of the company at their own suggestion, and was so planned 
that any employe between the ages of 21 and 45, who had been in the 

74 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

service of the company three months, was eligible for membership 
upon the payment of an initiation fee of one dollar and dues of fifty 
cents per month. 

In return for these payments, the Association guarantees to its 
members : 

1st. In case of sickness, the payment of one dollar a day for a 
period not exceeding ninety days in any one year. 

2d. In case of death, the payment of $300 to any beneficiary 
named by the insured. 

3d. The free service of a physician who devotes his entire time 
to the members of the association. 

4th. The use of reading rooms which are supplied with weekly 
and monthly papers and magazines, technical journals and a library 
consisting of over 2,000 volumes. 

5th. Use of ten pool tables, for which one cent per cue is charged. 

6th. Free monthly lectures and entertainments during the Winter 
months at the association rooms. 

7th. Eligibility for pension under the pension regulations of the 
Metropolitan Street Railway Company. 

The Association started with thirty members and from that time it 
has steadily grown until to-day it has a membership of over 4,500. 

The Association is operated with absolutely no expense beyond the 
stipulated salary of a physician, as all the officers of the Association 
are officers of the company and their services to the Association are 
given gratuitously. The Association Rooms are given rent free by the 
Company; the Library and pool tables were donations from individual 
stockholders and directors. 

This plan, which I believe with slight modifications, is applicable 
to almost any railroad property of considerable size, has worked out, in 
its financial details, some surprising results; for instance, we found 
that the amount of the tax, fifty cents per month, is a trifle more than 
is necessary to pay sick benefits and supply a life insurance of $300, 
but it is so small, in each individual case, as to make an exact adjust- 
ment both inconvenient and impossible, and hente there has grown up 
in this association a practice of investing the surplus in the securities 
of the property on which the members are employed. And so we have 
in this Association the unique feature of every member contributing 
monthly, in an infinitesimal way it is true, to a proprietary interest in 
the property he helps to operate. 

Before going further into the details of the workings of the Asso- 
ciation and discussing the beneficent results it has accomplished for the 
men and owners of the property, I must, in order to be thoroughly 
understood, say a few words about certain human agencies, account 
of which can not be taken in any written rules of practice. 

The success of the Metropolitan Street Railway Association is 

American Street Railway Association. 75 

primarily due, not so much to its sound economic features as to the 
personal relationship established and maintained between the responsi- 
ble head of the railway company and its employes. 

All of us who have to do with masses of men are aware of the 
fact that it is not always easy to induce them to do that thing which is 
obviously for their betterment, whereas experience shows that when 
their sympathies are stirred and their feelings appealed to they can be 
and have been induced to the most suicidal courses. 

The phenomenal success of the Metropolitan Street Railway Asso- 
ciation is due primarily to an intelligent, sympathetic relation fostered 
and encouraged between the manager and his men who early realized 
that they were under the discipline of a man who was in thorough 
accord with them as a class and whose life experiences had been along 
the very lines they themselves were traveling. 

The fusing influence of this relationship, which is as active to-day 
as at any time since the formation of the Association, has welded the 
membership into a body, the tremendous force of whose loyalty has 
been frequently tested in critical emergencies. 

The impetus thus given to this Association is great enough to 
assure its permanence beyond the accidental loss of the influence of the 
individual who is responsible for its present energy. 

I have said this much in order that I may not be misunderstood 
as imagining so vain a thing as that the mere formulation of a beneficent 
plan is sufficient to secure its success. In the application of social 
benefits, as in everything else of human devising, some vivid personal 
influence is necessary to success, and this success can not be 
achieved by mere formal approbation' or endorsement. If you want 
to make a concern of this kind go you must give it your time and 
thought and above all you must be convinced at bottom that it is the 
right thing to do and that it will succeed. 

4 If I might presume, before proceeding to further discuss the 
results of Associations, to make a suggestion to those comtemplating an 
experiment in this direction, it would be to avoid patronizing the men. 
Many good things are spoiled by being overmagnified, and it is my 
experience that among American and Americanized working men 
there is a resentment of official patronage. The quickening influence 
of the idea that you and your men are engaged on the same job but in 
different capacities, when once fixed, is surprising. It would be well, 
too, not to lose sight of the fact that the benefits arising from helping 
your men to take care of themselves are not all one-sided. 

This thought brings me to a consideration of the benefits arising 
from associations. 

These benefits may be divided' into two classes: First; those 
derived by the employes, and second, those derived by the employer. 
There is nothing which appeals more strongly to the large majority 

y6 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

of people, certainly to those who have worked for a living, than those 
things which yield a direct or indirect financial return. No one can 
fail to see the great benefit which the distribution of from $20,000 to 
$25,000 a year means to the men who are working for wages, and with- 
out reserves to draw upon in cases of sickness or other disaster. The 
services of a physician, the free use of a library, the opportunity to 
play pool or billiards in a well lighted and well ventilated room at a 
nominal cost, are indirect financial benefits as well as pleasures which 
are assuredly appreciated by any body of intelligent workmen, such as 
are employed by street railway companies. There is a benefit not so 
apparent but equally real in the creation and strengthening of a com- 
mon spirit — "esprit de corps" ; a realization of common interest in a 
work of many details but of common end. The gain is the greater as 
all employes are included, from the helper to the manager. The per- 
fection of army organization is where the soldiers have entire confi- 
dence in the leader, and the leader absolute trust in the soldiers. 
When something of the strength of all goes into the work of each, 
tasks are more easily done ; there is more careful attention to details, a 
common interest taking hold beyond the working hours gives heart 
to labor, when the time comes. A street railway touches the public at 
numberless points ; the work of its employes is at each of these points ; 
work with something of heart in it is easier and better than mere hand 
and head work. 

When one remembers that in such a scheme as I suggest there is 
no demoralizing taint of official charity and that the men are gradually 
realizing that in truth they are doing all the helpful work with their 
own money, he will realize that the moral uplift far exceeds any of 
the material advantages. 

The benefits of the second class from these associations — those to 
the employer or stockholder — are not so tangible as those received by 
the employe, but, nevertheless, exist to a large extent and are apparent 
to those who are in close touch with the workings of such associations 
and their bearing upon the management of the Company's affairs. It 
may be difficult to demonstrate to an outsider, or to put your finger 
upon particular cases where the use of the library or the association 
100ms or the pool tables accrues to the advantage of the Company. It 
is unquestionably true, however, that all of these things create 
a certain sentiment in the mind of the employe favorable to his 
employers, and which in times of labor troubles, when the misguided 
and unscrupulous agitator attempts to cause dissatisfaction, crystallizes 
into a feeling of loyalty toward the company which could not have 
been gained in any other way. 

At the monthly meetings of the Metropolitan Association, which 
are held in the association rooms and at which men of prominence and offi- 
cers of the company speak to the men, the employer, as represented by 

American Street Railway Association. JJ 

the officials of the company, is brought into a personal relation with 
his employes, not as employer and employe, but as man and man, and 
in this way there is established a personal relation between them and 
a feeling of friendliness which certainly, in a large company like the 
Metropolitan, is not possible in any other way. I believe, as illustrated 
in the late trouble in Ohio which a large manufacturing company had 
with its men, that it is possible to overdo this kind of work. When 
you begin to wet-nurse and patronize working men, you are offending 
them and making trouble. The idea is to teach them to help themselves. 

As an illustration of what opportunity for amusement means to 
working men one of the pool rooms located at 50th Street and 7th 
Avenue, takes in on an average of $45 per week. Several games of 
pool, at a cent a cue, must be played in the course of a week to make 
the receipts $45. 

There are, to my mind, three dominant problems in the handling of 
a street railway property. First, is the relation of the management to 
its employes ; second, its relation to the public and the press ; and third, 
its relation to the state and city officials. Of these, the relation of the 
management to its employes is of the greatest importance. Fair, con- 
siderate treatment of men's natural rights, the establishment of friendly 
and harmonious relations between it and its employes, is a railway 
company's most valuable asset. The great successes in the street rail- 
way world have been made by ability to successfully handle men. > 

However unjust it may be to the responsible head of any street 
railway property, how often has it been the case that the faithful and 
efficient work of years has been practically forgotten and nullified by 
differences which have arisen with the Company's employes. The 
fact that a manager has been able to operate his road at a less cost 
than ever before and has brought the standard of equipment and the 
roadbed and the entire physical condition of the property to a higher 
level, is apt to be overlooked by the company's directors and stock- 
holders in case serious labor difficulties arise. The stockholders of a 
property not only look to the management for a return upon their 
investment but values once established they look for their stability and 
permanence. To assure this stability and permanence, moral forces 
must be set to work and carefully fostered until they gradually be- 
come traditional with the concomitant result of loyalty and efficiency 
of service. 

I believe that the interest the employes take in # a financial in- 
vestment of 50 cents a month in an association and the enjoyment 
of the opportunities afforded by the libraries, pool rooms, and en- 
tertainments, etc, together with the personal contact between the 
employes and management, bring about a relation between them 
similar to that which the millions deposited in the savings banks 
bring about between citizens and their government. I think, with 

78 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

rare exceptions, that there will be found among savings bank de- 
positors but few anarchists, socialists, or those dissatisfied with ex- 
isting conditions. The millions of savings bank depositors are among 
the strongest influences toward the proper government of the country, 
and I believe that the financial and other interests of employes in a 
street railway company through their association are equally strong 
influences for good. 

We are living in an age in which no industry had made more 
rapid strides than the street railway. What was considered ten years 
ago a liberal policy on the part of street railway companies toward 
their employes would be considered penurious to-day. The methods 
of ten years ago cannot be used ffectively at the present time. 

The relation of capital and labor as represented in street railway 
properties has undergone a radical change in favor of the condition 
of labor. The betterment of labor conditions has been just and fair, 
and, in my opinion, any street railway management will do well to 
recognize it and meet it with liberality. There is no better way of 
keeping abreast of this movement than the encouragement and foster- 
ing of mutual benefit associations. 

There are many things that are necessary to establish proper re- 
lations between the management of a company and its employes, but 
I believe that the most potent factor of all is the benefits received 
by the employes through a voluntary association and the relations 
which the social side of such an association establishes between the 
management and its men. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Mr. Root — Mr. President, I do not know that I care to go 
over the paper. The paper is short and gentlemen present can 
glance it over and get the gist of it probahly as quickly as I 
can tell you. 

About the same time, or shortly after the Association was 
formed, another subject, which is very closely allied to this 
was taken up, and that was the Pension System. It has oc- 
curred to me that it might be of some interest to this Conven- 
tion to have a brief statement made of the pension system which 
has been adopted by the Metropolitan Street Railway Company 
of New York, since this system is so closely correlated with the 
workings of the mutual benefit association and is really sup- 
plementary to the work which I have briefly described in this 
paper. The employes who are retired under the pension sys- 

American Street Railway Association. yg 

tem which has been adopted in New York City may be divided 
into two classes. First, all those employes who are seventy 
years of age and who have been twenty-five years in the service 
of the company. Second, all those employes of the age of 
sixty-five to sixty-nine years inclusive who have been twenty- 
five years in the service of the company. All those employes 
who are seventy years of age are retired by the age limit itself. 
That is compulsory. And all those employes between sixty- 
five and sixty-nine years of age are retired at the discretion of 
the board of trustees of the pension fund, if they are found, in 
the opinion of the trustees, to be incapacitated for active work. 
The allowance as paid to these retiring employes is divided in- 
to three classes. If service in the company has been for thirty- 
five years or more, these retiring employes are paid at the rate 
of forty per cent of their annual average wages for the previ- 
ous ten years. If service has been for thirty years, they are 
paid thirty per cent of the annual average wages for the previ- 
ous ten years ; and if their service has been twenty-five years, 
they are paid twenty-five per cent of their annual average 
wages for the previous ten years. The fund from which these 
allowances are made is appropriated solely by the company 
and the employes contribute in no way to it. The object in 
establishing this pension fund is to step in where the Mutual 
Benefit Association leaves off and to preserve the welfare of 
the aged and infirm employes and to recognize loyal and effi- 
cient service. We believe that all the employes who are now 
and who will hereafter enter the employ of the company, un- 
less they should be subjected to very unusual periods of ill- 
ness, will feel that both they and those dependent upon them 
will be taken care of if they remain in the service of the com- 
pany, from the time they enter the service of the company to 
the time of their death. We, of course, do not intend that all 
our employes, for instance, men who are engaged in the opera- 
tion of the cars as motormen and conductors, should continue 
in such positions until they are sixty-five years of age, at which 
period they are eligible to retire under the pension ; but we do 
believe that on the average a conductor or motorman, for ex- 

80 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

ample, can properly operate his car up to, we will say, fifty- 
five years of age. And from that time to the time when he is 
sixty-five, when he is eligible for a pension, we expect to take 
care of him in such positions as that of transfer agents, switch- 
men, flagmen, messengers, etc., which positions a man in that 
time of life can, we think, perform with satisfactory efficiency 
and without any hardship to the man himself. It is scarcely 
necessary for me to say that our employes and their families 
have deeply appreciated the establishment of this pension sys- 
tem. You might consider, upon first thought, that the allow- 
ances paid, that is, forty and thirty and twenty-five per cent 
of the annual average wages, which I have spoken of before, 
is not a material sum; but if you will stop and consider that 
for every man who retires under the forty per cent clause of 
the pension system he is practically having held in reserve for 
him the sum of ten thousand dollars from the time he retires 
under this system to the time of his death, you will appreciate 
it. In other words, if a man has been earning an average of a 
thousand dollars a year and retires under the forty per cent 
clause of the pension system, he will receive four hundred dol- 
lars a year, or four per cent on $10,000 ; which is a half of one 
per cent more than the savings banks pay in New York City 
This brings about a situation that any employe who enters the 
service of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New 
York to-day can say to himself when he reads over the pension 
system, "If I stay in the service of the company until lam sixty- 
five years old, with twenty-five years of service, I can have 
placed at my disposal from that time until the time of my 
death $10,000." Where is there in this country any other 
similar situation, or where is there a company or a business in 
which a man with the same amount of skill or with the same 
ability that we require in the street railway work — where is 
there such a situation that a man, eliminating this pension sys- 
tem, can, if he enters the services of any concern at, say, the 
age of twenty-five years, during his entire life save and have 
the amount which the Metropolitan Street Railway Company 

American Street Railway Association. 81 

to-day says that they will place at their employes' disposal after 
they are sixty-five years old, with twenty-five years of service 
behind it ? We do not wish our employes to consider, and we 
do not consider ourselves, that we are going- to pay these men 
this amount in any spirit of charity, but we feel and we believe 
that they will feel, and do feel, that we are merely paying to 
them something which they have themselves earned through 
their years of service and their loyalty to the company. I have 
made this statement outside of the paper, because, as I say, it is 
so closely correlated with the work of the Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation, and is merely fulfilling President Vreeland's idea 
which he had when that association was formed through his in- 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, the paper is before you 
for discussion. .Mr. Root is very familiar with the facts of 
the management in connection with the Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation and with the pension system. I know he will be very 
glad to answer any questions that may occur to you. You 
gentlemen, quite a number of you, who have written me letters 
about this matter, can have your letters answered now. I will 
ask Mr. E. G. Connette, General Manager of the Syracuse 
Rapid Transit Railway Company, to open the discussion. 

Mr. Connette — The Mutual Benefit Association of the 
Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway Company was organized in 
1898. The admission fee is one dollar. The monthly dues 
are fifty cents. The question of joining the association is en- 
tirely voluntary on the part of the employe. The association 
has paid in the last two years, according to their financial 
statement, in sick claims, $1,945.50, and in death claims $600, 
making a total of $2,545.50, paid in two years. Upon Sep- 
tember 1st of this year the association had to its credit $952.17, 
$500 of which was invested so that it was getting an interest 
return. They also have a special or contingent fund, amount- 
ing to $349.48, for the purchase of such things as they may 
need to make their rooms more pleasant and agreeable, which 
they have secured by holding entertainments from time to time. 
They have rooms equipped with pool tables, card tables, and 

82 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

reading rooms with all the weekly and daily periodicals where 
the men can rendezvous at times when they are not on duty 
and enjoy themselves. The association is entirely controlled 
by the employes. The board of trustees is composed of mem- 
bers of various departments of the system and membership is 
not limited to the employes, but the heads of the departments 
and the officers of the company are also members of the Mu- 
tual Benefit Association. We have a meeting once a month, 
and we not only have a meeting of the employes, but the heads 
of departments and the officers of the company meet with the 
men. We not only discuss matters pertaining to the Mutual 
Benefit Association but from time to time we take up subjects 
of interest to the railroad company, such as accidents, for in- 
stance, and we have the employes participate in discussing 
those subjects and the best methods of avoiding accidents and 
things of that sort. We bring out what is in the minds of the 
employes themselves. You will find, or at least we have found, 
that such benefit associations result not only in the relief of 
the sick and the afflicted and bereaved families of the em- 
ployes ; but it results in a friendly relationship being estab- 
lished between the employes, the subordinate officers and the 
management of the company ; and by reason of that close re- 
lationship which is brought about by the intermingling at the 
meetings of the association, we learn to know each other better. 
We learn to feel an interest in each other's welfare, and in the 
management of the property ; and it has been impressed upon 
the employes that the success of the company does not depend 
entirely upon the management, but that every employe imparts 
his share to the success of the enterprise. It has been a means 
of bringing about a cooperative feeling between the manage- 
ment and its employes, and we feel that the Mutual Benefit 
Association, so far as our company is concerned, is a great 
success. The fees are deducted each month by the auditor 
of the company when the men are paid off ; and the amount 
then is turned over to the treasurer of the association and de- 
posited to its credit by him. All checks that are payable for 
sick and death benefits have to be approved by the general 

American Street Raihvay Association. 83 

manager of the company before the checks can be paid by the 
bank, so that there is no possible way for any defalcation or 
for any diversion of the funds of the association. The board 
of trustees, which is composed of the employes of the com- 
pany, are allowed one-half day each month on pay to assemble 
in the association rooms to. discuss matters in connection with 
the management of the association, and to arrange for its 
monthly meetings. The secretary, who is one of the conduc- 
tors on the road, is allowed two days each month on pay'for the 
purpose of arranging his books and making up his checks 
to pay death and sick benefits, etc. Altogether Ave feel that 
the Mutual Benefit Association of the Syracuse Rapid Transit 
Raihvay Company is a success from every standpoint. 

Mr. D. A. Hegarty, Kalamazoo — I would like to ask the 
gentleman in case an employe is a member of the association 
and then leaves the company's service, what procedure they 
take in regard to his membership ? 

Mr. Root — As soon as a man severs his connection with 
the company he severs his connection with the association. 

Mr. Hegarty — Does he get any return of the money he has 
paid in ? 

Mr. Root — No, sir. 

President Vreeland — The question just asked has been 
asked very frequently, and the answer to that is, the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company's Relief Fund. The Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, you know, by their relief system, handle 
over $300,000 a year. In their regulations they put every case 
in a question and answer form, and their proposition is that 
it is exactly the same as if you buy a traveler's insurance policy 
for twenty-five cents to protect you twenty-four hours, and you 
get that twenty-four hours' protection. They have done their 
duty and you get your return for your money. The Pennsyl- 
vania road has always conducted their relief fund under that 
system and they have been sustained in it by law. They have 
the oldest and largest association in the United States. The 
theory of it is a man pays fifty cents for a month's protection in 
the association, and all that goes with his protection. If a 

84 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

man leaves on the fifteenth of the month, he gets twenty-five 
cents back that he has paid. If he leaves on the twentieth, 
he gets a proportionate amount. In a word, the idea is that a 
man is not paying for anything but one month's protection 
when he pays under the system under which it is conducted. 

Gentlemen, the paper is before you and we will be glad to 
hear from anybody on this subject. We have a good deal of 
work to do and we would like quick discussion. 

Mr. John I. Beggs, Milwaukee — I ask Mr. Root what pol- 
icy the Metropolitan Street Railway Company pursues as to 
the care of the funds provided for the pension expenditure, 
which will naturally grow greater as time goes on and more 
men because of length of service in the company become en- 
titled to the benefits of the pension system. I ask whether 
the Metropolitan Company has made an appropriation to its 
pension fund, which will meet these pension demands as they 
accrue, or whether it is made an annual charge against opera- 
tion ? I ask this because I am interested at the present time in 
formulating plans for a similar pension fund. I would like, 
furthermore, to know what the experience of Mr. Root is with 
the Metropolitan Company, and likewise Mr. Connette, of the 
Syracuse Company, as to men laying off a day or so in order 
to obtain sick benefits. I ask this more particularly for the 
reason that many years ago I gave a great deal of time to a 
number of beneficial organizations in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. I believe they would have been wrecked ultimately 
had it not been for the principles adopted under which a 
man had to be incapacitated from work a certain length of time 
before the weekly sick benefits began to accrue. I was wonder- 
ing whether in these organizations any experience of that kind 
had been encountered ; whether there were, as there is in nearly 
every body of men, a certain number who feel they must get 
square with the organizations to which they are paying dues. 
I would furthermore ask what is the rule when a man is in- 
jured in the company's service. I would ask, also, whether it 
is considered by the two companies which are running these 
beneficiary organizations that the dollar per day or half-pay, 

American Street Railway Association. 85 

which is sometimes allowed, acquits the company from any 
further obligation to the employe? 

Mr. Root — Mr. President, as to the first question I will say 
that the directors of the Metropolitan Company have author- 
ized the officials to spend as high as $50,000 to pay these 
pension allowances. There is a provision in the regulations 
themselves which permits the board of trustees at any time 
when they consider a payment under this system excessive, to 
make a revision of the ratio of payments, so that they are not 
bound by anything they do to-day or a year from now. 

Mr. Beggs — You have struck just the point I wanted to 
get at. Are you not running it somewhat upon the plan of a 
great number of assessment associations that have been formed 
throughout the United States in the past few years? In the 
early stages they were well able to meet the amounts payable, 
but as the number of members increased it became more dif- 
ficult. With these men that remain in your service a considera- 
ble length of time, if in the future an effort is made to reduce 
the amount that you have paid to employes before that time, 
will that not be a source of dissatisfaction and create a feeling 
of injustice? Will they not say if they had been able to> retire a 
few years earlier they would have received forty per cent, 
whereas you may be compelled to reduce the amount so that 
they will receive less than their fellows received? That like- 
wise raises an important question in my mind, and you have 
touched upon it in your paper, whether it would not be well 
to exact from them, let the amount be ever so small, but some 
amount, during the time they are in your service, to be paid 
into this permanent pension fund and that fund be invested, the 
revenue from which would provide and guarantee the pay- 
ment of these amounts in the years after your men had grown 
old in your service? That has "been the complaint against 
many organizations that have been attempted in this country 
with very good purposes but which it has been found impos- 
sible to carry along. I belonged to a number of them for a 
considerable length of time. I am throwing out a number of 
suggestions, some I would not have thought of without Mr. 

86 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Root's suggestion, because I believe there are many companies 
throughout the country that are feeling the very results that 
were felt by these assessment companies. It seems to me that 
it is important that before it goes too far it should be well con- 
sidered. I throw out these questions more particularly for the 
purpose of arousing a spirit of inquiry among those who are 
charged with the very serious responsibility of operating these 
public utilities throughout the country. 

Mr. Root — I do not believe that the contingency of over- 
running the allowance is apt to arise, but if the payments 
should be at any future time greater than the amount that we 
have now appropriated the benefits the company have received 
through the length of service of the increased number of retir- 
ing employes will be proportionately greater and the com- 
pany can well afford to pay them at the same rate as they do 
now. That was merely put in as precautionary, because the 
pension idea has not been fully worked out. We are, I think, 
the pioneers in the street railway world. The Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, I believe, was the first to adopt it in this 
country. It is about two years since it was established and we 
have got to fall back on some precautionary measure, so that 
if we do get into trouble we can pull out, but we do not antici- 
pate that we will. We have got a good deal of precedent from 
Germany and England, where they have done a great deal 
of this pension work, and they have found there that where 
the superannuated body contributed themselves, it has not 
been as satisfactory as where the Government has taken the 
fund entirely in its own charge. This is a matter, however, 
which only time can work out. We have not the experience,, 
but we are going into it now and making such regulations as 
we deem best. When unforeseen conditions arise, ten or fifteen 
or twenty years from now, as they may, as Mr. Beggs sug- 
gests, we will have to w T ork it out on new lines then. 

As far as the association itself is concerned, about the men 
attempting to defraud the association through laying off when 
they are not sick, our regulations provide that any employe may 
receive ninety dollars in one year at the rate of a dollar a day, 

American Street Railway Association. 87 

but his benefits do not begin until he has been sick for seven 
days, unless he is injured in the service of the company. If 
he is injured in the service 'of the company, his benefits begin 
from the day on which he was injured. There can be very lit- 
tle question about the facts of a case when an employe is in- 
jured in the service of the company. The association's physi- 
cian is a man who is very reliable, and upon whose judgment 
we place entire confidence ; and there is no one who receives 
any benefits from the association unless he makes a prompt ap- 
plication to the secretary and is examined by the association's 
physician. Even if a member elects' to have his own physician, 
he is not paid any benefits from the association until the asso- 
ciation's physician makes an examination and reports to the 
secretarv that he is entitled to this benefit for which he has 
made a claim. 

Mr. Beggs — I do not think the seven day clause appears in 
your paper. 

Mr. Root — -I think that is an amendment which has been 
passed and perhaps is not in the regulations as originally 

Mr. Beggs — I think it is a very important one to have 
brought out here. It did not appear in your paper, but it covers 
the point I am getting at. 

Mr. Root — No, I do not think it is in the paper. 

Mr. Beggs — I am very glad indeed that this has been 
brought out for the benefit of any one who intends to estab- 
lish a system of this kind. You will find men that will lay off, 
but Mr. Root's amendment, which does not appear in his paper, 
is a very important one. 

Mr. Root — I shall be very glad if any of the members of 
this Association desire our regulations, which enter more into 
detail, to send them a copy. 

Mr. Connette — As far as our association is concerned, the 
by-laws specifically state that the benefits do not commence un- 
til a member has been disabled for seven days. Furthermore, 
the association employs its own physician, and when a member 

88 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

is sick that physician must wait upon the member, and the as- 
sociation pays the doctor's bill. 

Mr. N. H. Heft, Meriden — If I understand Mr. Root cor- 
rectly he said when the company organized the pension fund it 
set aside the sum of fifty thousand dollars, believing that to be 
adequate to take care of all pensions. I ask him if this sum 
has been set aside and is at present drawing interest ; or if it 
is an assessment against the operating expenses of the cor- 
poration, to be taken care of at the time they are called upon 
to pay these pensions? 

Mr. Root — I said that the Board of Directors authorized 
the officials to expend that much money, $50,000, in any one 
year in payment of these allowances, and that will be consid- 
ered as an operating charge and will be charged up just as if 
these men were working in their regular duties which they held 
before they were retired under the pension. 

Mr. Heft — I understand that it does not become a charge 
against the operating expenses of the corporation until such 
time as you are required to make payment? 

Mr. Root — That is correct. 

Mr. Heft — That would be some twenty years from now, 
or longer? 

Mr. Root — We have retired men already under the pen- 
sion. It went into effect July 1st, and any employe who was 
sixty-five years old and who had been twenty-five years in 
the service was eligible for retirement, and they have been re- 

Mr. Heft — How can you treat him as being twenty-five 
years in the service when your corporation is only some four 
or five years old? 

Mr. Root — There is a provision in the pension articles 
which says that "in the service" refers to service with any 
constituent company, either prior or subsequent to its acquire- 
ment by the Metropolitan Street Railway Company. 

President Vreeland — Anything further on this paper, gen- 
tlemen? .If there is nothing further to be said on this subject, 

American Street Raikvay Association. 89 

we will order this discussion closed and proceed to the next 



Air. A. E. Lang-, Toledo — I desire to ask the attention of 
this convention for a moment. I would like to offer a resolu- 
tion at this time, in order that a certain matter may get to the 
ears of as many of our members as possible, and there now 
seems to be a good representation here, and there may not be 
later in the session. I have a motion to make following the 
reading of this resolution which may be of interest to every 
one : 

Whereas, The American Street Railway Association, in Conven- 
tion assembled, has learned with much gratification of the extensive 
plans that have been made by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition for 
the proper presentation at the Exposition of the American Street 
Railway interests, 

Resolved, That this Association extends to the Transportation and 
Electricity Departments of this International Exposition assurances of 
its hearty interest in the work they have undertaken, and its hope 
that the plans will be brought to a full realization. 

The resolution was adopted. 

Mr. Lang — Professor Goldsborough, of Purdue Univer- 
sity, Lafayette, Ind., received the managing directorship of 
the electrical department of the Louisiana Exposition and he 
is present to-day for the purpose of enlarging a little upon the 
scope of these resolutions and giving a little better under- 
standing of them, and I would ask the Convention to extend 
to Prof. Goldsborough five or ten minutes' time in which to 
speak upon this resolution. I move that the privilege be given 
to Prof. Goldsborough. (Motion carried.) 

President Vreeland — Prof. Goldsborough, will you come 
forward? I ask the Professor not to take more than ten min- 
utes, because we have a great deal of work to do. 


Prof. Goldsborough — Mr. President and Gentlemen : I 
greatly appreciate the honor you confer upon me, in permit- 

go Tzi'euty-First Annual Meeting 

ting me to tell you something of what we intend to do for the 
street railway interests at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 
I come here to-day as a representative of the Exposition and 
of the Business Men's League of St. Louis, to invite you to 
meet in St. Louis in 1904, because we are preparing for you 
there a feast that I believe every one of you will thoroughly 
enjoy. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, as you probably 
know, will, by the time the gates open, have expended fifty 
million of dollars in preparing what we hope will be the great- 
est of international expositions. I believe that our hope of this 
will be realized. The National Government has made a most 
generous appropriation toward the work. This' has been sec- 
onded by the city of St. Louis, by the citizens of St. Louis, and 
by the State of Missouri, so that the Exposition Company 
starts out with seventeen million dollars to devote to the Expo- 
sition. The Chicago World's Fair, which at that time was 
the greatest exposition the world had known, started out with 
but thirteen million dollars ; so that you see from the financial 
standpoint our initial movement is well backed. We also have 
ample space in which to present the picture of our national 
growth. Chicago used Jackson Park with its six hundred 
acres in presenting its picture. The St. Louis Exposition has 
a part of Forest Park in which there are twelve hundred acres 
available for World's Fair purposes, or double the amount of 
ground used in Chicago. Of the fifteen large exhibit build- 
ings on the ground the smallest has an area of four ordinary 
city blocks. I use this measure because we are all in the 
habit of thinking of a city block being three hundred feet on a 
side. The largest of the buildings will have an area of ten 
city blocks ; this is the largest building under one roof that 
has ever been built or attempted. I am quite certain that when 
you know we are organizing a power plant which will have a 
capacity of over 30,000 horse power you will feel that the 
illuminations which will be shown at St. Louis will probably 
equal those of any other exposition. Buffalo presented beyond 
all doubt the most beautiful picture of illumination which the 
world has ever seen. It has been very aptly termed by Dr. 

American Street Railway Association. gi 

Kenelly the Crescendo in illuminations. There they used 
about 5,000 horse power. With six times this amount of 
power used at St. Louis, we will probably be able to present to 
you a picture glorious indeed, when viewed by the electrical 
engineer ; and I think it will be one that we will all be glad to 
feel we have some part in as electrical engineers and as people 
interested in electricity. 

When we come to consider the presentation of the street 
railway at the Exposition, we have a very pleasing problem. 
Naturally, since your work is part electrical and part mechani- 
cal, a division must be made at some point. Mr. Willard 
Smith, Chief of Transportation, is using every effort to exploit 
all the mechanical details of the railway problem on very broad 
lines in the Transportation Building. There all matters per- 
taining to traffic maintenance, maintenance of way, trucks, car 
bodies, mechanical construction of lines, etc., will be shown. 
In the electrical department the electrical side of the problem 
will be pictured. All matters relating to the generation and 
the distribution of electricity and to. the control of cars and 
trains by electrical methods come in the electrical department. 
In other words, the electrical engineer in the Electricity Build- 
ing will study the street railway, or the electric railway, prob- 
lem from the generator through -the transmission system, 
through the transforming devices, through the sub-stations and 
storage battery, out over the line, through the motors to the 
car axle. In the Transportation Department he will study all 
those things that pertain to the building of the track, ballast- 
ing, the construction of bridges, of car bodies, of automatic 
signal devices and other matters that pertain directly to the 
mechanical side of this great problem. 

Mr. Smith and myself have been working for some months 
past on a matter which I think will give our exposition an 
added interest to you. We want to have a double track some 
thirteen hundred feet in length/ on which tests can be made of 
all street railway traffic systems. Whether these be pneumatic, 
steam, gas or electric systems, they are all to be exploited. We 
want to 'organize these tests on very broad lines. I think you 

92 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

will all agree with me that at the time of the fair there will 
probably be a large number of systems using alternating cur- 
rent, as well as the systems we now have using a direct cur- 
rent, and I cannot imagine a picture which will present a 
greater interest to you than that of seeing these various sys- 
tems all exploited on the same ground and at the same time 
by the engineers of the various companies exhibiting there. 

This in a nut shell gives you a slight idea of the great 
undertaking which confronts us at St. Louis. We must ad- 
vance the St. Louis Exposition ten years ahead of the Colum- 
bian as gauged by our national growth. We realize that, un- 
less our exposition is ten years in advance of Chicago, it will 
be a failure. The directors have taken up the work in this 
spirit, and I feel as time goes on and I am brought closer and 
closer in contact with the work, that they will succeed. 

President Vreeland— Mr. George W. Parker, General 
Freight Agent of the Detroit United Railway, has prepared a 
paper on "Electric Express and Package Delivery." Mr. 
Parker will present the salient points in his paper. 

Mr. Parker — The paper which I have prepared is really a 
digest of the conditions existing in Detroit. I will abstract the 
paper as briefly as possible and to the point. 


The American Street Railway Association- 
Gentlemen : The establishment of the electric service is a boon to 
interurban towns, to which lines are being rapidly extended in all direc- 
tions within a radius of from 75 to 100 miles, and in a great many cases 
reaching towns and villages which have never heretofore enjoyed a rail- 
road connection, or at the best, in a roundabout way entailing great de- 
lay and almost prohibitive expense. Electric service has also made next- 
door neighbors of communities between which, before its establish- 
ment, even wagon communication was not satisfactory or feasible, so 
that the electric service may justly be regarded as the chief factor in 
suburban progress, though not yet a decade old. 

To the lay mind, the express and parcel business of the electric 
line or system would appear to be an additional and profitable use 
of the franchise, involving no additional expense beyond suitable 
rolling stock, and the necessary train crew ; but my experience has been 
that the operating expense tends to become greater than that of the 

American Street Railway Association. 93 

passenger service, for the latter calls for no local stations or agents, 
the company assuming no responsibility before the passenger has been 
sighted and after he alights, while it does become an insurer of freight 
or express from the moment of the giving of a receipt until it has 
taken one, thus necessitating a salaried agent and suitable depot facili- 
ties, stationery, etc. 

In addition to the foregoing handicap to a profitable operation of 
the express service, I find myself confronted, in Detroit, by an ordi- 
nance which prohibits the use of trailers, and worse still, which levies 
a tax of one dollar (Si) per car per round trip, regardless of whether the 
car is empty or loaded. This tax is a radical departure from the good 
old days, when the town or its public-spirited citizens gladly raised a 
bonus to encourage a railroad connection, and then considered them- 
selves highly favored. 

The management of a system should show a proper appreciation 
of the importance of the express department, and its bearing on the 
continued and increasing prosperity of the system, in the building up of 
an interurban patronage, for it seems a necessary conclusion that the 
out-of-town dwellers will avail themselves of the mail-order and tele- 
phone facilities of the large city stores because of the convenient and 
speedy electric express car delivery to their doors, and the habit once 
formed of sending their shipments or orders via the electric express 
car must eventually result in more frequent trips on passenger cars for 
personal and wider selections of their requirements. 

But it must not be assumed that all branches of the system, or 
even all towns and villages on a branch, warrant the establishment of 
an electric express service. The population, situation, products and 
future of each individual place, and the competition of existing steam 
roads, if any; also the old-established express companies, must be 
carefully weighed, or that terrible ledger must be faced at the end of 
the year. 

To secure and hold the favor of the public I have found it necessary 
to insist upon and maintain high-class service, which means all the 
little details of careful handling, prompt transit and courteous treat- 
ment. This naturally calls for the co-operation of the entire manage- 
ment, especially in the operating department, and the personal atten- 
tion of the general express agent, and his assistant, at all hours, in 
all kinds of weather, and the ability to avert disaster when least ex- 
pected. But he must not at any time neglect his office, to which all 
matters pertaining to the handling of express should be referred, and 
from which all instructions as to rates, claims, complaints, etc., should 
issue. The best results can be only obtained by the employment of a 
traveling express agent, whose special duties should be the soliciting of 
business and the securing of routing orders from consignees on ship- 

94 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

pers, which routing orders are instructions to shippers to forward all 
shipments in connection with the electric express. 


Form 77 2512 

3)dtvoit %6nite.d Siaifioay. 


1 90 

Until Further Advised Please 
Ship All My Orders Via 


Sample of a Routing Order. 

The traveling express agent should have an open ear for all com- 
plaints, diplomacy, and a knack of handling people so he can always 
retain their friendship. In addition to the above, the traveling express 
agent should have the oversight of the local agents at the various 
points, who are usually subject to frequent lapses by reason of inex- 
perience. He should, moreover, be capable of acting as trainmaster in 
the proper distribution of rolling stock, especially in case his road or 
system should be so unfortunate as to be in the vicinity of the sugar- 
beet business, or in close proximity to freight of that character. 

Where the system includes leased or other lines, in addition to its 
own, a central freight or express depot and a joint agent are absolutely 
necessary as a measure of economy and the proper handling of the 
business. At Detroit, the most important thing to contend with has 
been the expense of handling, which prior to the consolidation of the 
electric lines was cared for through three separate depots. For in- 
stance, express from the rapid railway system was handled through one 
depot; that from the Detroit & Pontiac, Detroit & Wyandotte, Detroit 
& Northwestern and the Detroit, Rochester, Romeo & Lake Orion 
roads through another depot, and that express for the Detroit, Ypsi- 
lanti, Ann Arbor & Jackson Railway through yet another. This en- 
tailed an expense for each depot of an agent and staff, which till only 
recently has been changed and the stations consolidated in one large 
joint depot, now located on the corner of Fifth and Congress streets, 
in close proximity to depots of steam roads and navigation companies, 
thus also decreasing cartage expense where interchange is necessary. 

The building is 45 by 195 feet. On one side is the team track or 
driveway, where freight is received and delivered. The illustrations 
give a fair idea of the traffic handled. On the east side of the shed 

American Street Raikvay Association. 95 

Tracks for Cars on East Side of Electric Depot at Detroit. 

Team Track Delivery on West Side of Electric Depot, Detroit. 

9 6 

Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Interior View of Electric Depot at Detroit. 

Interior View of Milk Car. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Express Office and Milk Platform at Clawson, Mich. 

Interior View of Express Car. 

9 8 

Tzventy-First Annual Meeting 

there are double tracks with accommodations for four cars on each 
track, with ample room for switching. The interior of the shed is 
clear of all posts, thus giving ample floor space necessary for prompt 
receiving, sorting and loading the express and freight. There is also 
cold storage for the protection of perishable goods during the winter 

The joint express agent who would have charge of a depot of this 
kind must of necessity be an experienced railroad man, also an account- 
ant of no mean ability, as the duties covered are manifold, from the 
handling of a truck on a pinch, in the depot, to the settlement of his 
station accounts, which latter job becomes complicated at times from 
various reasons, such as change in rates, errors of agents, careless 
checking and handling of freight, etc. 

It may be asked to what class of freight or express should an 
electric service be confined ? In this part of the country, the electric 
express service may be said to have its origin in the transportation of 
milk, which was originally handled in the small compartment on pas- 
senger cars, reserved for baggage, but which has now grown to such 
proportions as to tax daily the capacity of entire cars. 

In the handling of milk our experience has been that the best 
results are obtained by the issuing of milk tickets, which are consecu- 
tively numbered, and taken into account through the cashier's office. 
These tickets resemble our ordinary shipping tag; they are perforated 
in the middle, the lower portion being detached by the conductor 
carrying the cans when filled, and the other portion being left on to 
pass the empty cans on return trip. This ticket, as per sample, you 


Form No. 240 No. 3446 

q IF FILLED forward to 

<u : 


5 IF EMPTY return to 




Shipper must fill out this ticket 
in full before forwarding can 

No. 3446 



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will notice, shows the point of shipment, shipper, destination and to 
whom consigned; this information being on both portions of ticket, 
eliminates the possibility of errors in delivery of cans when either 
filled or empty. These milk tickets are charged for at so much per 
ticket, according to distance the milk is to be carried, and by their 
use assures protection from loss through bad accounts. 

American Street Railway Association. 


It may be added that the conductor, when accepting shipments of 
milk, notes carefully that there is a ticket for each can. After the 
shipment is loaded, he detaches the lower portion and encloses same 

3)atzo-U United Si ail) i 


Form 158. 


Car No Init 

WAY-BILL of Express Forwarded from To 

Conductor Time Via W. B. No 

Pro. No. 



Consignee and [No 
Destination Pks 

of Express 






Total to 
Collec t 



Form No. 248 

3)etzoit %Cnit<z9 SxaiCwa 


G. E. A. Pro. No. 

Station 190____ Agents Pro. No. 

Report of Express over, short, damaged, or wrongly consigned. 

From Way-Bill No. 


Car No. 


Transferred by From Car 

Condition as noted at transfer 

to Car 


Was Car left or Express unloaded from Car? 


Received from Car No. Date 190 

State whether Over, Short or Damaged. 
Give Full Particulars. 

Consignee, Marks 
and Destination 



ioo Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


By whom and in what condition loaded? 

By what Car? Conductor Forwarded? 

For what other Stations did you load similar freight? 

What other Cars loading at same time? 

Destination of same? 

If Over express is from you, furnish billing and advise 

Are you short, and on what billing? 

Have you any record of express over? 

Was express properly and securely stowed? 

NOTE— Agents must make a separate report 

of each consignment, and send one each to 

Billing Station and General Express Agent 

by first passenger train. 
Report for General Express Agent to be filled Agent 

out with copying ink, but do not copy. 

to the auditor at the end of his trip with regular way-bill showing 
full particulars of cans loaded, ticket numbers, consignees' names, etc., 
who in turn checks over the number of tickets enclosed, and if any 
irregularities, promptly advises the general express agent who takes 
the matter up with the conductor for explanation. 

When delivering the full cans on arrival at destination, the upper 
portion of ticket is left on the full can, which portion must be on the 
can when it is to be returned for refilling, otherwise the conductor 
should not accept it until a ticket is provided. These instructions are 
necessary on the return empties, otherwise there is possibility of your 
service being imposed upon, through unscrupulous milk dealers send- 
ing their milk in by wagon or steam road, and leaving your line to 
carry the empties back free of charge. 

The question may be asked, what is done with the last portion of 
the ticket? This portion is left on the can until the conductor starts to 
distribute cans along the line, when this portion is detached and also 
returned to auditor at the end of trip, and handled in the same manner 
as the first portion. 

Tapping a great deal of territory that has hitherto had no rail- 
road connection has necessarily thrust upon the electric express service 
at Detroit a class of freight that ought not to be carried in^ equipment 
of that character, and which cannot be discriminated against, the rates 
charged being governed by railroad tariffs for similar class of freight 
are in some cases insufficient, and therefore unsatisfactory from the 
revenue standpoint. 

It may be interesting to know how the express is handled on the 
system in this vicinity, so the following is a brief outline : For use 
in this service a full set of blanks has been designed and 
prepared with care. The shipper fills in the receipt. (See next page.) 
Showing the date, from whom received, to whom consigned, destina- 
tion and a complete list of articles making up the shipment. This re- 
ceipt is made in duplicate, a carbon copy being taken. The Detroit 

American Street Railway Association. 


United Railway receives the property "subject to the conditions on 
the back hereof," which are in the form usually adopted by common 

When express is received at the depot, it is checked in on this 
shipping bill, or that part of the form marked "Duplicate." If the 
shipment agrees with the shipping bill, the original is receipted by 
the checker signing agent's name with the checker's initials. This 
receipt is retained by the shipper, and the duplicate is kept by the 

Form 184 


3)ctzoit QCnitcd Slaifioatf. 



Received from- 

By DETROIT UNITED RAILWAY, the property described below, in apparent 
good order, except as noted (contents and condition of contents of packages unknown), 
marked, consigned and destined as indicated below, which said Company agrees to 
carry to the said destination, if on its road, otherwise to deliver to another carrier on 
the route to said destination. 

Marks, Consignees 
and Destination 


Subject to Correction 


Form 184 



The DETROIT UNITED RAILWAY, will receive and carry the property marked, 
consigned and destined as indicated below to the said destination, if on its road, other- 
wise will deliver to another carrier on the route to said destination. 

Marks, Consignees 
and Destination 


Subject to Correction 


Shipping Receipt. 

102 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

company and the shipment rechecked into car, thus giving the com- 
pany a double check on each shipment. Any exceptions as to ship- 
ment being in bad order, etc., are noted on these shipping bills, thus 
enabling the company in case of claim to know the exact condition 
the goods were in when received and forwarded. 

After goods have been received and loaded into express cars, they 
are then billed out on a way-bill, this form being printed in three sizes — 
quarter sheet, half sheet and full sheet — the latter being 12^x16 inches. 
The way-bill is the same as express and railroad way-bills, forwarding 
point, destination, date of shipment and way-bill number showing in 
proper places. The way-bill numbers are arrived at by commencing 
with number one the first of each month, and numbering them con- 
secutively until the end of the month. This way-bill number is used 
as reference in all correspondence relating to any particular matter 
coming up in regard to any shipment covered by this particular way- 
bill. The facts shown on the way-bill are designated by the headings 
of the various columns, which includes consignor, consignee, number ol 
packages, description, weight, rate, charges, advances, amount prepaid 
and total to collect. 

The rate is taken from the company's regular express tariff, which 
is governed by the rules of the official classification. 

The rate on the different commodities handled are according to 
the value, dimensions and weight of each article. For example, ship- 
ments of glassware, furniture or any articles liable to damage from 
breakage are given a much higher rating than articles that are packed 
in such a manner as to occupy less space in the express car and which 
will weigh more than the articles first mentioned. 

After this way-bill is complete, it is then copied in a tissue book, 
one extra tissue being taken. These extra copies are forwarded to the 
auditor daily, who checks the weights, rates and extensions, and files 
the tissue copy for future reference. 

On arrival of the shipment at its destination the receiving agent 
checks the various shipments billed to his station from the original 
way-bill, noting exceptions, if there be any, as to condition of ex- 
press when received from car. In case of there being any articles 
damaged, over or short, the receiving agent makes report of the fact 
on a special form, filling in the information called for in the various 
blank spaces. This form is made out in duplicate, the original being 
sent to the forwarding agent for his report, on that portion of this 
form designated "Forwarding agent answer following questions." This 
enables the forwarding agent to advise the receiving agent to correct, 
in case of error in billing, and what course to pursue in case of over? 
and shorts. This form is 9x8j4 inches and is shown reduced in Fig. I. 
The duplicate of this form is sent to the general express and pas- 
senger agents' office, where it is recorded in what is known as "The 








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104 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Over, Short and Damaged Register." These records remain open unti! 
the matter has been finally settled, thereby making it impossible for 
either the forwarding or receiving agent to allow the matter to drag 
along without receiving the prompt attention due such matters. 

The way-bill is then entered by receiving agent in his "Express 
Received" book. The pages of this book are 16^2x22 inches, and the 
column headings are shown in Fig. 2. 

The keeping of this book correctly is the key to what is known 
as a Station Balance, as the various amounts shown under the headings 
of "Weight," "Pre-Paid." "Express." "Advance Charges," "Total of 
Way-Bill," etc., must agree with the corresponding columns of the 
"Abstract of Way-Bills Received." This form is, as its name desig- 
nates, an abstract or summary of the totals of all way-bills received, 
and is made up for periods ending 7th, 14th, 21st and last of each 
month, and a like abstract of "Way-Bills Forwarded" is made up on a 
similar form. 

The abstracts of way-bills forwarded is compiled from the tissue 
book copies and shows Date, Way-Bill No., Weight, Freight, Advance, 

After the particulars have been entered in the Express Received 
book an "Expense Bill," shown reduced in Fig. 3 (original size 9x6 
inches), is made out, a carbon copy being taken. When the shipment is 
delivered, the consignee's receipt is taken on the duplicate and the agent 
receipts for charges on the original. Collections are made on delivery 
unless the consignee has a regularly authorized ledger account. 

When money has been collected by the receiving agent, he makes 
an entry of it in his cash book. Agents make daily remittances of 
money collected, holding in the cash drawer only a small amount for 

At designated times a balance sheet, form No. 166, is made out 
by the agent ; the particulars of the debits and credits are shown 
opposite the various numbers on this sheet, and are arrived at from 
the totals of the different forms and books already described. 

Form No. 166 is a double sheet 13^x854 inches when folded once. 
The balance sheet is on the first page. The second and third pages 
show statements of express on hand, forwarded and received, arranged 
under the heads in Figs. 4 and 5. On the fourth page is a statement of 
the remittances for the month. 

This system for the express service on electric lines radiating from 
Detroit was adopted with a view to handling express and all accounts 
relating thereto in as simple, practical and systematic manner as 

Baggage is no longer carried in and out of Detroit on regular 
passenger cars, but follows on the next express car at a uniform rate 
of 25 cents per piece not exceeding one hundred and fifty pounds. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Where the actual weight exceeds the latter-mentioned minimum, the 
first-class rate named in the express tariff is applied from and to the 
point to which baggage is going at actual weight. This arrangement 
was necessary on account of the additional expense involved in the 
handling of baggage and the low passenger rates in effect which would 
not allow of a free checking system. 

It is still an open question whether compartment cars could not 
handle both baggage and passengers during certain light hours of the 
day, thus giving baggage early preference and more suitable care. 

Under our present arrangement of checking baggage, a passenger 
can have his baggage checked from any point on our system at which 

tycfooit ^vUte^ cf{ cu&vvoiAj,. 

consign ee_ 





For Ckarjes on Express 

■ To 'Jctiovfc e lU\iitb 3laiUuai.j Or: 









Delivered the above property 

Received payment for ike Company, SSKSPK" Bet Dltd Ey. 

Baok Choc 

, ., _ Anent total 


:--:.: z-z". 


FIG. 3. 

we have agents, which arrangement, if the passenger is coming to 
Detroit, includes delivery to all hotels, steamboat landings, railroad 
depots and residences, is working out admirably in connection with 
the Detroit Omnibus Line Co. It might be added that this company 
(D. O. L. Co.) has representatives to meet all trains and boats, so 
that the passenger coming to Detroit can by turning over his checks 
to one of these representatives be relieved of all responsibility in con- 
nection with his baggage in case he desires to avail himself of the 
frequent electric service. 

There is a future in the parcel feature of the business, if properly 
conducted, which problem we have not yet been able to solve to our 
satisfaction, owing in a measure to the peculiar conditions existing 
at this point. Under our present arrangement we are accepting parcels 
weighing from one to fifty pounds for a minimum charge of 15 cents 
going to points within a radius of forty miles, and a charge of 25 cents 

106 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

when going to points beyond forty miles. This charge, it must be 
understood, is for the electric express service only, with a slight addi- 
tional charge for cartage in case the consignee wishes package de- 

Respectfully submitted, 


President Vreeland — In considering the subjects for this 
meeting, your Executive Committee went over the matter very 
thoroughly and took up some questions that had been pre- 
sented to them by correspondents, as questions some of the 
members would like to have brought up, being important new 
problems in connection with interurban electric operation, and 
this is one of the questions. Our Detroit friends consented 
to take this matter up from their standpoint, they probably hav- 
ing the largest express and freight service in connection with 
interurban operation. They have given us a very valuable 
paper, and I should like to hear it discussed or any questions 
asked that may enlighten the meeting with regard to this class 
of service. 

Mr. E. G. Connette, Syracuse — I would inquire of the 
author of the paper if the original franchise contemplated the 
hauling of freight through the streets of Detroit, and if not, 
what conditions did the city impose when it granted this right? 

Mr. Parker — The original franchise, as I understand it, 
did not allow the Detroit United Railway to carry freight 
through the streets of the city, but an ordinance was passed 
granting that privilege. The original franchise did not specify 
anything, if I remember correctly, about carrying freight, but 
the electric express and freight system was started, and while 
it was not satisfactory at the beginning, owing to various con- 
ditions, such as obstructing the streets, one thing and the other, 
the city council passed an ordinance prohibiting us from load- 
ing or unloading on the streets, compelling us to put up a 
depot of our own, and still further taxing us $i per car 
per round trip whether the car was loaded or empty. 

Mr. C. W. Wason, Cleveland — I would ask the gentle- 
man, from the moneys received, whether the business increases 
month by month? 

American Street Raihvay Association. 107 

Mr. Parker — It is only a year ago this month when the ex- 
press service was started, and the business shows some in- 

Mr. Connette — There is another question which suggests 
itself to my mind, which perhaps would be impertinent, but 
the gentleman can use his discretion as to whether or not he 
answers it. I wish to know if he keeps his accounts so that 
he can tell what proportion of the income from the operation 
of the freight and express service it costs to operate it ? 

Mr. Parker — As a matter of policy, I prefer not to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Crafts — I would ask Mr. Parker if he has noticed any 
material increase in the business of the passenger service, due 
to carrying packages and light express matter? 

Mr. Parker — Yes, there is ; it always has a tendency to in- 
crease the business. 

Mr. Crafts — -You think it gives you a marked advantage- in 
carrying the package business, that is, that you gain in your 
passenger service? 

Mr. Parker — Yes, sir. 

President Vreeland — I gave the president and general 
manager of the Metropolitan Express Company, which oper- 
ates in Xew York City, and in the annexed district, an invita- 
tion to attend this meeting, and expected he would be here, 
with some statistics which would answer many questions re- 
garding this subject, but some local business conditions have 
made it impossible for him to come. Under the conditions of 
operation that we have there, the railway company has nothing 
to do with the express service. The express company has a 
contract with the street railway company for operating on its 
tracks, and the business is only limited by the facilities which 
the express company have been able to establish at the present 
time. In other words, they have all the time at least thirty 
per cent more business offered them than they have facilities 
to care for it. As fast as they have increased the facilities, 
the business has increased in larger ratio. As to the question 
of the division as between the actual cost and receipts, based 

108 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

upon percentages, in the original operation of the system, 
which means, as you know, the operation of fifteen or twenty 
express cars for the first six months to establish the business, 
the average of the whole would more than pay for the opera- 
tion of the cars, and the interest on the investment is paid by 
the express company, so that answers your question as far as 
we are concerned in New York. There has been no expense 
entailed on our company in the operation of this service, even 
in its infancy. What the losses of the express company may 
be, that is not so easy for me to answer. 


Secretary Penington read the following: 
Mr. T. C. Penington, Secretary — 

Dear Sir : Will you kindly announce that there will be a meeting 
of all Master Mechanics at Power Station A, at 3 p. m. Thursday. 
This meeting is called for the purpose of organizing an association of 
Master Mechanics of the different street railway companies. 

Respectfully yours, 

Superintendent of Motive Power, 
Detroit United Railway. 

Mr. John I. Beggs, Milwaukee — May I say a word in con- 
nection with the announcement which has just been made? I 
presume this invitation includes the superintendents of main- 
tenance of way and all others connected with the mechanical 
department as well as master mechanics. I desire to impress 
upon the presidents and general managers who may be present, 
the importance of urging on their mechanical staff an attend- 
ance at the meeting as requested by Mr. Farmer. I think 
there are some here who recollect that at our last two meet- 
ings, I have suggested the very thing which is contemplated in 
this communication, a matter which is of great importance to 
our industries, and that is an organization of the master me- 
chanics of the various companies. We all know how important 
it has been in steam railroad practice. We have had an illus- 
tration ourselves of what has been accomplished by the Ac- 
countants' Association, composed of the men in charge of that 
branch of our business. I believe that even greater good will 

American Street Railway Association. 109 

accrue to the several companies by the organization and the 
annual getting together of those charged with the design, con- 
struction, and maintenance of the mechanical elements entering 
into our business. I heartily hope that this matter will be 
urged and that hereafter we may have an organization of me- 
chanical men as enthusiastic and as effective as has been the 
Accountants' Association. It would be the best standardizing 
committee we could have. 


President Vreeland — There were some seven topics for 
papers and discussions as arranged by the Executive Com- 
mittee. We have gone through with three of them, with all the 
rest of our Association business to-day, and it leaves four pa- 
pers for Friday. It is getting rather late, and is hardly worth 
while this afternoon for us to take up another paper. 

As your presiding officer, I want to thank you for your at- 
tendance and the interest you have taken in the Association 
meeting to-day, and I hope when we meet here next Friday 
morning at ten o'clock to continue the business of this conven- 
tion there will be as good, if not a better attendance than there 
has been to-day. The discussions that go with these papers 
and the work of the Association, can only be an advantage to 
the members of the Association if the purposes of the Execu- 
tive Committee in arranging for the meeting are carried out. 
The Association work and club work in connection with rail- 
road interests, with which I have been connected for the last 
twenty years, has indicated the value of these various associa- 
tions to the industries we represent, but much good cannot be 
secured from the meetings of any association, especially this 
Association, if there is not an interest taken in it by the mem- 
bers from all parts of the country, and more particularly those 
interested in interurban railroad questions at the present time. 

Following out the lines of Mr. Beggs' suggestion, I want 
to say to you, gentlemen, as showing what is being done in 
steam railroad work in connection with associations of this 
character, that I am and have been for four years president of 

no Tzventy-First Annual Meeting 

the New York Railroad Club, which takes in all of the trans- 
portation, mechanical and operating men of the whole Eastern 
section of the country, part of the Middle States, and in fact, 
portions of the entire country. That club has a membership of 
over twelve hundred. The average attendance at each monthly 
meeting last year was over two hundred, and went as high 
in some instances as four hundred and fifty, men coming from 
Chicago, St. Louis, Boston and numerous other points to at- 
tend these meetings for the purpose of getting what good 
there was in them. The discussions which we have had during 
the past year have had an important influence in connection 
with transportation and mechanical problems. The impor- 
tance of these meetings to the members in their work has been 
emphasized by the fact that there is scarcely a meeting 
of the association when the president does not have to stop the 
discussion so as to give the members an opportunity for lunch, 
so that they may catch the late trains for their homes. Suppose 
a superintendent of motive power is considering the question 
of compound locomotives, for example. He has had no experi- 
ence with them and has no data bearing on the subject and is 
brought face to face with the problem of what he shall do in 
regard to the matter. It has probably been suggested to him 
by his general manager that he attend a meeting of the club 
and he gets up and asks if any member of the association will 
give him the benefit of his experience with compound engines. 
We have in our club such men as Mr. Waitt, of the New York 
Central, Mr. Mcintosh, of the New Jersey Central, men from 
the New Haven road and the Erie road, who attend our meet- 
ings, who are always ready to give every member of the club 
the benefit of their experience, and the superintendent of mo- 
tive power in question goes home and the next day is equipped 
to talk to his manager, and this information makes him a bet- 
ter man in the eyes of his management and shows he knows 
what is going on. He not only gets the information in a gen- 
eral way, but gets actual data from these men. He probably 
would not have any other means of getting it so easily as at a 
meeting of the New York Railroad Club. 

American Street Railway Association. in 

As far as your Association work is concerned, I have al- 
ready said it — I have done so in connection with the New York 
State Association and it would certainly be true of this Asso- 
ciation — that the young- men who are connected with the vari- 
ous street railways in the country cannot over-estimate the 
value of this Association to them in their work and in bringing 
themselves into prominence. Any young man who reads a 
paper at one of these meetings which shows intelligence and 
ability to analyze, and good judgment, is bringing himself 
before every man who is connected with the prominent street 
railroad systems of the United States. I take this opportunity, 
as President of the Association this year, to call these special 
things to your attention, in the hope of creating an interest in 
the minds of young men in this particular work. In my twen- 
ty-five years of railroad experience I have been able to place a 
great many men in steam and street railroads, and the first 
knowledge I had of the capabilities or possibilities of these 
men was in listening to them before the American Society of 
Railroad Superintendents, the General Time Association, 
which is now known as the American Railway Association, the 
New York Railroad Club, the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation, or the New York State Street Railway Association. 
You may work earnestly in your own city, and feel that you 
are somebody there and attracting some attention, but the 
United States is large and there is a good deal going on in it. 
It is only by bringing yourself prominently before a large asso- 
ciation that the young men may hope to gain a reputation 
among the various managers of the country, at least in the 
majority of cases. 

I apologize for taking so much time, but in work of this 
kind, I either go into it to do something, or want to get out 
of it. I am glad to say that the two sessions that we have held 
here have been very much above the average of the sessions of 
this Association, both in attendance and in interest. I hope 
that this Association will go forward and occupy the place 
in the electrical railway world to which it should attain. If it 
does not go ahead and take its proper place, I, for one, do not 

H2 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

want to stay in it. I am too much pressed to give my time 
to an institution unless it is being pushed up hill by its mem- 


President Vreeland — I will appoint as the Committee on 
Nominations, to nominate officers for the ensuing year and 
recommend a place for the next meeting, the following named 
gentlemen : 

Robert S. Goff, Fall River, Mass. 

Nathan H. Heft, Meriden, Conn. 

Richard McCulloch, Chicago, 111, 

Calvin G. Goodrich, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Daniel B. Dyer, Augusta, Ga. 

I urge upon all the delegates that they visit the exhibition 
hall to-morrow so that they may examine the appliances which 
have been installed for our inspection. The day will be de- 
voted entirely to that purpose. 



President Vreeland called the meeting to order at 10 :zj.o 
a. m. 

President Vreeland — While the delegates are gathering we 
will hold the regular papers and discussion, and listen to the 
reports of committees. We will first have the report of the 
Committee on Standard Rules for the Government of Street 
Railway Employes. Mr. J. C. Brackenridge, of the Brook- 
lyn Heights Railroad Company, New York, is chairman of 
the committee. 

Mr. W. E. Harrington, Camden^-Mr. Brackenridge, the 
chairman of the committee, is not here, and it seems to be the 
sense of the committee that the rules which have been sub- 
mitted express only the preliminary work of the committee on 
this subject, and we would, therefore, request that either the 
committee be continued, if it is your pleasure, or that a new 
committee be appointed. 

American Street Railway Association. 113 




In effect 12 :oi a. m., . . . 

(Modeled on the standard code of the American Street Railway- 


The rules herein set forth apply to and govern on all lines operated 
by the Railroad Company. • 

They shall take effect , and shall supersede all 

prior rules and instructions in whatsoever form issued which are in- 
consistent therewith. 

In addition to these rules, special instructions will be issued from 
time to time, as may be found necessary, and such instructions posted 
on the various bulletin boards, whether in conflict with these rules or 
not, which are given by proper authority, shall be fully observed while 
in force. Bulletin boards are located at the following points and must 
be consulted daily by each employe of the transportation department : 

Every employe whose duty is in any way prescribed by these rules 
must always have a copy of them at hand while on duty and must 
be familiar with every rule. 

The head of each department will supply copies of these books to 
his subordinates, see that the rules are thoroughly understood, enforce 
obedience to them and report all violations to the proper officer. 

All employes are required to be polite and considerate in their 
dealings or intercourse with the public; the reputation and prosperity 
of the company depend upon the promptness with which its business 
is conducted and the manner in which its patrons are treated by its 

All employes will be regarded in line for promotion, advancement 
depending upon the faithful discharge of duty and capacity for increased 

While for the effective management of a large system the observ- 
ance of stringent rules and the maintenance of strict discipline are 
necessary, their enforcement must be impartial as between employes. 

Employes may be charged with and required to pay for any damage 
done to the property of this company for which they are responsible, 
or for any loss or expense incurred by the company by reason of care- 
lessness, neglect or disobedience of these rules. 

Employes must refrain from the use of profane or indecent Ian- 

H4 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

guage and from improper or ungentlemanly conduct ; politeness and 
courtesy must be observed in their dealings with one another as well 
as with every one with whom they come in contact in the performance 
of their duties. 

In the absence of the proper officials to whom they may apply for 
advice, assistance or authority all employes are expected to use good 
judgment and discretion in dealing with matters not covered in these 

(Chief Executive Officer.) 


1. The safety of passengers is of the first importance; all work 
must be entirely subordinated to safety, first, and then to. the regularity 
and punctuality of the service and the comfort and convenience of the 
passengers. Line repair men, emergency crews and track men will be 
required to subordinate their work in accordance with this rule to the 
requirements of the operation of the road. 

2. Employes of any grade will be considered as accepting or 
continuing in employment subject to the dangers incident to this haz- 
ardous occupation. 

(a) The fact that any person enters or remains in the service 
of the company will be considered as an assurance of his willingness to 
obey its rules. No one will be excused for a violation of them even 
though such rules are not included in those applicable to his depart- 

(b) Employes of this company will not be identified with or 
engage in any other business except with the specific permission of the 
head of the department in which employed. 

(c) Employes shall not make assignments of pay; such assign- 
ments will not be recognized or honored by the company. 

3. If in doubt as to the meaning of any rule or special instruc- 
tions, application must at once be made to the proper authority for an 
explanation ; ignorance is no excuse for neglect or omission of duty. 

4. If an employe become incapacitated from sickness or any othe r 
cause, the right to claim compensation will not be recognized; an 
allowance, if made, will be a gratuity justified by the circumstances of 
the case and the previous good conduct of the employe. 

5. When an employe is discharged from the company's service, 
he will not be re-employed without the consent of the head of the 
department from which he was discharged. 

6. Employes when' leaving the service of tbe company must sign 
receipt for their final pay and return to the company all of its property 
with which they have been entrusted; in default of such return they 
will be charged in final settlement for all such articles short. 

American Street Railway Association. 115 

7. No employe will be allowed to absent himself from duty with- 
out special permission from the proper officer, nor will any employe 
be allowed to engage a substitute to perform his duties while he is 

8. The use of intoxicating drink on the road or about the prem- 
ises of the company is strictly forbidden : no one will be employed or 
continued in employment who is known to be in the habit of using 
intoxicating liquor ; smoking by an employe while on duty is forbidden. 

9. In the event of derangement of any of the company's apparatus, 
breakage of the overhead line, charging of a pole in the public street, 
unsafe settlement of building or structures, etc., whereby imminent 
danger of personal injury is caused, the first employe discovering the 
fact must arrange to protect the danger point, advising the proper 
authorities by the first available means of the character and location of 
the trouble; he must not relinquish such responsibility until properly 

10. All medical examinations in behalf of this company of in- 
jured persons will be conducted by the regularly appointed medical 
examiner. Medical attendance to injured persons, whether employes 
or other persons, will not be supplied by this company except in un- 
usual emergencies. 

(a) Whenever, in emergency, any authorized official deems it ad- 
visable to call an outside physician such official must immediately 
notify the claim department, giving the name of the physcian called 
and the reason therefor. 

(b) In ordinary cases of personal injury, if proper attention to 
the injuries cannot be given by an employe using the "emergency 
cases" provided for rendering first aid to the injured an ambulance 
call is usually sufficient, accompanied by prompt notice to the claim 

(c) , In lease of an accident wherein the question may be raised 
as to the condition of the car, either motor or trailer, such car must 
be "run in" at once to either the home or nearest depot, passengers 
thereon transferred and the car immediately and thoroughly inspected 
by the shop foreman who will promptly make special report thereon 
to the superintendent. 

11. Information concerning the affairs of this company must not 
be given to any one except its authorized representatives, who, if 
unknown, shall in all cases show proper credentials before informa- 
tion is given. 

12. Each employe of the transportation service must have a re- 
liable watch, maximum variation allowed seconds daily, which 

shall be" kept in good and accurate condition and compared daily with 
the standard time of the road. 

1 16 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

13. The collection or solicitation of money by employes of this 
company from other employes or any other persons in the nature of 
fees, gifts, etc., is forbidden. 

(a) The solicitation of advertisements or contributions for enter- 
tainments or similar purposes by or on behalf of any employe or 
employes of this company is also prohibited. 

14. Intoxicated, disorderly or otherwise obnoxious persons are 
not allowed on the cars operated by this company; conductors are 
authorized to refuse to carry any such person. 

15. Large, bulky packages will not be carried in the passenger cars 
of this company — passengers will be accepted with only such bundle 
or packages as can conveniently be carried on the lap, or satchel or 
valise of reasonable size. Freight will be carried only under the con- 
ditions and the tariff as bulletined. 

16. Under no circumstances shall any article be hung on any brake 
handle of any car nor shall any obstruction be so placed or allowed 
to remain as to hinder access to and use of any brake. 

17. Dogs or small animals will be transported in the passenger 
cars of this company only under the conditions bulletined. 


18. Inspectors report to and receive instructions from their super- 
intendent, daily, before they are due to go on duty. 

19. They will be expected to set an example to the other uni- 
formed employes in the neatness of their attire, the excellence of their 
deportment and their loyalty and devotion to the company's interests. 

(a) Each inspector will be supplied with the following equipment : 

One pair rubber-handled pliers. 

One pair rubber gloves. 

Small roll adhesive insulating tape. 

Ten feet insulated wire. 

Supply of fuses — where used. 

Light switch plugs. 

20. Inspectors must be thoroughly conversant with all rules and 
instructions issued, render all assistance in their power in carrying 
them out and report all violations to their superior officer. 

(a) They will be responsible for all time tables, running times 
and time points ; they will see that cars are operated on schedule time 
and properly spaced ; when blockades occur the movement of cars 
will be under their direction. 

(b) They will also satisfy themselves that all new men under 
instruction within their territory by regular motormen or conductors 
are properly instructed. 

21. Inspectors will arrange for any extra service needed and 
withdraw unnecessary service on their lines in accordance with the 

American Street Railway Association. ny 

requirements of the traffic, keeping their superintendent advised there- 
of ; at all times their effort will be to improve the service. 

(a) They will facilitate the movement of cars or trains carry- 
ing mail and give special attention to chartered cars. 

22. Inspectors must be familiar with the different types of motors 
and controllers and be able to remedy slight defects occurring on the 

23. Inspectors have authority to relieve conductors and motor- 
men on duty while on the road on account of sickness or any other 
cause that would prevent them from properly doing their duty. 

(a) They must remain on that part of the line or division assigned 
to them unless it is absolutely necessary to take a car in charge. 

(b) They will see that line repair and track men and emergency 
crews while at work do not unnecessarily interfere with the regular 
operation of the road. ' 

(c) When a fire occurs to interfere with the operation of the 
cars they must notify terminal depots of the lines affected, order out 
the emergency crews of that district and see that hose jumpers or 
other appliances are procured as promptly as possible. 

(d) During the winter season they will see that heaters in cars 
are regulated in accordance with outstanding instructions ; electric 
heaters must be turned off to one notch in 'case the power runs low ; 
if necessary they will be cut out altogether. 

24. Inspectors will note in detail the condition of the cars, whether 
properly cleaned, heated, ventilated, lighted and equipped, and that 
all signs are properly displayed. 

(a) When a car becomes disabled so that it cannot be repaired 
on the road they will have the following car push it to the first turn- 
out and transfer the passengers to the next car of the same line ; 
after the delayed cars shall have passed, such car will be hauled to 
the nearest depot. When a car is being pushed a drawbar must be 
used to connect the two, movement must be slow, proper care exer- 
cised and the reversing switch set on the disabled car in the direction 
in which the car is moving. 

(bi They will carefully check the load with the register on every 
car they board ; in case of discrepancy they will take up immediately 
with the conductor, reporting the occurrence to the superintendent. 

(C) When transferring passengers from one car to another (Sec. 
a) they will require the conductor to whom transferred to ring up 
the number in their presence and will then note on that conductor's 
day card the number transferred, with statement of cause, signing 
the memorandum. 

(d) They will be familiar with the transfer points of all lines and 
be able intelligently to direct the traveling public. 

u8 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

25. Inspectors will promptly report all defects in track or over- 
head work to the proper officer and take necessary precautions to avoid 

(a) In case of break in the overhead line or serious derailment of 

cars they will at once notify the nearest emergency station, stating 
cause and location of trouble, which must be promptly repaired ; for 
this purpose the nearest telephone will be used — if charge therefor be 
made the superintendent will refund the amount. 

(b) Should the armature, terminal wires, brush-holders, brush or 
any part of a motor break that motor must be cut out. 

-(c) They must see that the track is properly sanded when neces- 
sary, especially on grades, approaching junction points, terminals and 
crossings ; they must see that switches and guard rails on curves are 
kept clean and properly lubricated. 

(d) If any buildings are to be moved across the track or any 
excavation made under or alongside the track, the fact must be reported 
to their superior officer at once. 

(e) In the event of a snow storm they will report to their superin- 
tendent promptly for duty and assignment as required. 

(f) They will render every assistance possible upon arrival at 
the scene of an accident, secure the names and addresses of as many 
witnesses as may be possible and make written report to the claim 
department, giving in detail all the information obtainable. Their 
aim will, however, be to so thoroughly train car crews that no accident 
occurring could have been avoided. 

26. They must arrange to be notified in case of fire, blockade 
or severe storms and must at once take charge of the operation of the 
line or lines until properly relieved. 

(a) In case of snow storms they must arrange for snow plows 
and sweepers to be run and the lines kept open. They must arrange 
to sand and salt the rail when necessary, giving special attention to 
grades, junction points -and railway crossings. 


27. Receivers will report to and receive their instructions from the 
superintendent ; they will comply with instructions from the account- 
ing or treasury department. 


28. Depot masters report to and receive their instructions from 
the superintendent or the inspector. 

29. The depot master will have charge of the depot, barn or 
terminal and the company's property at which they are located, and 
will see that all worn-out, broken or defective articles are returned for 
new; they will have charge of all persons employed thereat, unless 

American Street Railway Association. i ig 

otherwise instructed, and will see that every employe reads the bulletin 
board at least once daily. 

30. They must attend to the proper arrangement of cars, see that 
they leave promptly on time and that all cars are properly cleaned, 
heated, lighted, inspected and equipped. 

31. They must see that all employes reporting at that depot, ter- 
minal, line or division are prompt and efficient in the discharge of 
their various duties. 

32. They must see that conductors and motormen are ready for 
duty at the time required and are provided with all the appliances 
necessary for the safety and proper management of the cars. 

33. They must preserve order about the depots, preventing con- 
fusion, delays, lounging, drinking of liquor, gambling, etc. ; eating in 
cars is permitted only at those termini having no other facilities. 

34. They must not allow conductors and motormen to go on duty 
unless they present a neat and cleanly appearance, are properly uni- 
formed and are physically fit for duty. 

35. They must require all articles found in the cars or on the 
company's property to be promptly delivered to the designated office 
or person, all such articles to be plainly marked with the name of the 
finder, time and date when found, together with place or car in which 
found; persons inquiring for lost property will be directed to the 
lost property clerk. 

36. No transfer of cars or property shall be made from the depot 
without an order from proper authorities, and they must immediately 
notify their superintendent of the transfer desired or made. 

37. They must see that all the blank forms and reports used in 
the transaction of the company's business are properly filled out and 
forwarded — especially accident reports, which must be given utmost 

38. They must see that conductors and all others handling the 
company's money turn in .the money, transfer and other tickets, etc., 
to the designated persons promptly in accordance with the require- 
ments of the treasurer — they must promptly call to account any one 
failing to so do. 

31). In case of snow storms they must report promptly at their 
depots to assist in getting out plows, sweepers, sand and salt cars, 
etc., and assisting in so far as they may in keeping the road open. 

40. Conductors and motormen report to and receive their instruc- 
tions from the superintendent or his authorized representative ; con- 
ductors will also be governed by the instructions of the accounting de- 
partment which may be issued relative to the handling of transfers or 

120 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

(a) The bulletin board must be consulted before starting and at 
the end of each day's work. 

41. The conductor has charge of the car; the motorman is under 
his direction and will obey his orders (so far as reasonable). The 
motorman is directly responsible for the handling and condition of the 

(a) Under no circumstances shall both motorman and conductor 
be away from the car at the same time, unless properly relieved ; in 
the absence of the conductor the motorman is held responsible for the 
car and its management and must notify the conductor the number 
of passengers who have entered in his absence. 

42. Conductors and motormen must be neat and clean in appear- 
ance and wear the uniform and badge prescribed by the company — 
the badge must be kept in good condition and worn on the front of the 
cap, and the uniform must be clean and in good repair. 

(a) A deposit will be required for the small property of the 
company entrusted to conductors and -motormen; this deposit will be 
returned at termination of service, when such property must be re- 
turned ; in default of such return deduction from the deposit will be 
made in accordance with the bulletined penalties. 

(b) Under no circumstances shall employes exchange badges 
with each other; the official badge must never be worn by another than 
the person to whom issued. 

43. Before leaving the car house or starting from a terminal or 
after relieving a crew, motorman and conductor will see that all signs 
are properly adjusted and displayed — each will be held responsible for 
his end of the car. 

(a) While on the road all safety devices must be in place and 
the different articles of car equipment fully operative; for this the 
motorman and conductor will be held severally responsible. 

44. It is the duty of both motorman and conductor to be on the 
lookout for passengers ; motormen must never run by or pass passen- 
gers unless instructed so to do by the conductor or an inspector, when 
they must either point to the rear or call out "Take the next car." 

(a) When approaching passengers on a street on which several 
lines of cars are operated or on which the cars run to different desti- 
nations conductors and motormen must announce to intending passen- 
gers the route and destination of their cars. 

(b) Should a motorman at any time attempt to diminish the 
receipts of his car by running ahead of time or too near his leader or 
by not promptly stopping car for passengers, or shall directly or indi- 
rectly harass a conductor or be guilty of any misconduct, the con- 
ductor must report the fact at once to the inspector or the superin- 

45. When any fire department vehicle, ambulance or this com- 

American Street Railway Association. 121 

pany's emergency wagon is running on the street, cars must be promptly 
stopped until such vehicle has passed, avoiding as far as possible stop- 
ping on a cross street or alongside standing cars or wagons. 

(a) Motormen will receive and carry on their platforms, in lieu 
of a baggage compartment on the car or train, all mail sacks with which 
they may be entrusted, either United States or company mail. They 
will stow securely and handle carefully all such mail matter. 

-46. Conductors and motormen must conform to time table in run- 
ning their cars, be particular in making time points as laid out on the 
time cards and avoid loitering on the line. 

(a) When unavoidably delayed on the line the time lost is not 
to be made up by fast running as soon as the fact is noted, but by 
running slightly faster over the entire remaining length of- the trip, 
and then only when this can be done with safety. 

(b) When running through dark spots on the road or through 
fog banks or at any other time when the clear view of the tracks is 
limited, the motorman shall, except on private right of way, check the 
speed of his car and run at only such rate as will enable him to stop 
within the limit of his vision. Conductors for permitting a violation 
of this rule will be held equally responsible with the motorman. 

(c) Crews of all special, express, chartered, mail, supply or other 
cars while on the road are subject to and must be familiar with the 
rules, regulations and requirements of the lines on which they are to 
run; all cars running on the road are subject to the jurisdiction of the 

(d) When, in case of blockade, a cards run around such ob- 
struction and on tracks not usually used by cars of that line, or in 
handling mail, express, chartered, official or special cars, the crew 
must see that all switches used are left in the same condition as when 
found. When under these circumstances a motorman has occasion 
to turn a switch he shall, after passing over it, stop, give the con- 
ductor the proper bell signal notice and the latter will then reverse the 
switch, making sure it is fully and properly thrown before boarding 
his car and giving the signal to start. 

(e) In case of blockade it may be that several cars of one line 
will be bunched ; upon the block being lifted such cars will spread 
again and not crowd together to destination. For the observance of 
this rule conductors will be held equally responsible with motormen. 

(fj When either on or off their time a crew will not switch a 
car back or turn short of its signed destination without specific author- 
ity from an inspector or authorized representative of the superin- 
tendent, excepting in the single case of an accident occurring and the 
car being disabled or required, under these rules, for inspection. 

47. Conductors and motormen on duty are not allowed to sit 
down while the car is in motion except seats are provided for that 

122 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

particular purpose by the company, and then only on specified sections 
of the line as bulletined. 

(a) Conductors and motormen on duty must not shout, signal or 
telegraph to motormen or conductors on passing cars or on the street 
nor carry on any unnecessary conversation with each other or any 
other person. 

(b) The reading of newspapers, books or any other matter than 
pertains to the immediate conduct of the company's business, while on 
duty, is prohibited. 

48. No one but the duly authorized officers of the company will 
be allowed to stand on the front platforms of passenger cars or ride 
on any other cars run over these lines. Exception can be made only 
in favor of policemen on duty and then only in emergency cases. 

49. When passengers attempt to get off the car while it is in 
motion the motorman or conductor must call out to them, "Wait till 
the car stops." When passengers are alighting and a car is approach- 
ing in an opposite direction notify them to look out for the car on the 
other track. 

50. Employes while riding free must not occupy seats to the ex- 
clusion of paying passengers or hold any conversation with motorman 
or conductor of the car. This rule applies generally to all free pas- 

51. When cars are run in the house in the day or night the con- 
ductor will see that the lights are turned off and the seats in closed 
cars turned up ; the motorman must see that the controller is on the 
"off" position, the brakes are set, the power circuit is broken from the 
car (by removing the trolley from the wire, securing the shoe up from 
the rail, throwing off the main motor or overhead switch) and the 
power handles (also air when used) are deposited with the proper cus- 
todian or in the proper place, together with switch iron and all other 
tools or implements as required by bulletin. 

52. On double track when a car or train is standing still, receiving 
or discharging passengers, any car or train approaching in the oppo- 
site direction must make a full stop directly opposite the front of the 
standing car or train ; on single track when a car or train is approach- 
ing a car or train standing on a siding the motorman of the oncoming 
car or train will have his car or train under absolute control and run 
with extreme caution. 

53. No car or train shall under any circumstances be backed up 
more than feet without the pole (in overhead construction) be- 
ing changed, and then only with the conductor on the last or rear 
platform to give the back-up signal when the way is clear and to pro- 
tect the rear against accident. 

54. The motorman must bring the car to a full stop at steam 
railroad crossings, not nearer than one hundred (ioo) feet to the 

American Street Railway Association. 123 

nearest track. He will not proceed until the conductor has gone ahead 
to the track to be crossed, looked both ways and from that point given 
him signal by hand, flag or lantern to start. The motorman will also 
observe the utmost watchfulness for approaching trains and should, 
in his judgment, danger be imminent from any source he will refuse 
to start until the crossing is clear and free from all danger. When 
the conductor has gone ahead of car the motorman before starting will 
look back and see that no one is about to get on or off the car. This 
rule can only be abrogated by bulletin notice covering such crossings 
as are protected by gatemen or flagmen or tower-switchmen at points 
where the crossings are protected by interlocking signals and derail 
switches ; in such cases the conductor will remain on the car or train, 
holding the trolley rope over the crossing. 

55. The motorman must bring the car to a full stop at all trolley 
or electric road crossings and junction points, and must not proceed 
until' he receives the proper signal from the conductor. (This rule 
can be abrogated only as the preceding and only at similar points.) 
The conductor must not give the signal to go ahead until a full stop 
has been made. Conductors and motormen will be held jointly re- 
sponsible for a violation of this rule. 

56. If for any cause the motorman has stopped the car without a 
signal and a passenger should want to get on or off, the conductor will 
give the signal to stop the same as if the car were in motion. The 
motorman must wait for the conductor's signal before starting the car, 
whether he has received the signal to stop or not. 

57. Cars must not pass on curves unless the motormen know there 
is ample clearance. 

(a) Speed must be reduced on all curves and switches; on pub- 
lic thoroughfares the speed at such points must not exceed miles 

per hour. 

(b) The car must not be stopped on a curve except to avoid acci- 

< c . When running on public streets the conductor on any trol- 
ley line will signal the motorman to go ahead if he has the trolley rope 
in his hand when approaching a curve; should the motorman fail to 
receive the signal he will signal the conductor and, failing response, 
should stop before reaching the curve. The conductor must hold the 
trolley rope around curves and under special overhead work. 

08. Time tables of the different lines will be posted at 

for the government and information of employes. They will show 
the assignment of crews to the different runs and the starting time 
from the terminal of the several trips of each run. 

(a) Employes will receive notice j of temporary changes (or 
patches) of time tables by the posting at of a sign reading 

124 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

"new table" or "table changed." .They will be expected to keep them- 
selves posted concerning current time tables and all changes thereof. 

(b) New time tables wil be posted not later than o'clock 

p. m. of the day previous to their becoming effective. Temporary 
changes (or patches) of time tables on account of weather or other 
variable conditions are likely to occur at any time. 

50. There shall be a seniority list at each depot which shall show 
the names of all conductors and motormen in consecutive order accord- 
ing to the date of their assignment to that depot, excepting that for 
purposes of discipline a man shall have lost any numbers in his chrono- 
logical standing. When vacancies occur conductors and motormen, 
each on their own list, will be advanced in seniority in accordance 
with their then standing on the list. 

(a) When changes are necessary in the assignment of crews and 
runs on time tables (old or new) they will be made according to the 
seniority listing of the men, to take effect as far as possible on Mon- 
days only. 

60. Compensation will be a certain rate per hour or per trip, ac- 
cording to the line where employed ; the rate will be the same for 
conductors and motormen. 

(a) In assigning men for duty on regular runs or week-day time 
tables it shall be done in accordance with the seniority list and the 
runs given away in the following manner : 

1 — Full pay straight runs (early and late and night cars in se- 

2 — Full pay swing runs (early and late in sequence). 

3 — Straight trippers (early and late in sequence according to pay). 

4 — Swing trippers (early and late in sequence according to pay). 

61. All conductors and motormen shall be considered as either 
regular or extra men ; regular men are those that have regular runs 
on the week-day tables ; extra men are those that are not assigned 
to regular runs on the week-day tables. When first appointed con- 
ductors and motormen will serve as extras, working up gradually to 
regular runs. 

62. There shall be at each depot a daily working list which shall 
show the names of all extra men in the order in which they stand for 
work on the following day. 

(a) The daily working list shall be a revolving list; that is, when 
first for work is assigned for work his name (provided his work for 
that day shall have amounted in value to at least $ — ) shall be dropped 
to the bottom of the working list and work shall not fall to him again 
until every man whose name followed his on the working list of that 
day shall have been excused, jumped, suspended, discharged or put to 

American Street Railway Association. 125 

63. There shall be a daily excused list at each depot which shall 
show the names of all men, regular and extra, who have been ex- 
cused, suspended, discharged or resigned, and the names of those who 
will fill their places for the day. 

(a) When an extra man is excused for but one day his name shall 
be dropped to the bottom of the working list of that day, irrespective 
of whether work would have fallen to him or not. 

(b) No conductor or motorman will be excused from duty until 
he sees his name posted on the excused list, except in case of sick- 
ness, when his written statement of the fact must be sent to the agent 
to whom he reports at the depot by at least such time as he would 
personally report for duty were he going to work ; no telegraph or 
telephone message will be accepted. 

(c) It shall be understood that conductors and motormen ex- 
cused on account of sickness and so marked on the excused sheet are 
off for an indefinite time, which shall be not less than two days nor 
more than thirty days. At the end of thirty days, unless the sick leave 
shall have been extended upon proper application, the absentee may 
be dropped for non-attendance. 

(d) When an extra or regular man who has been marked off sick 
desires to return to work he must report to the designated agent before 

o'clock p. m. of the day previous to the one on which he wishes 

to return to work so he may be marked up for work the next day. 

(e) Any conductor or motorman absenting himself for ten days or 
more without having been excused and without being heard from 
shall, in the discretion of the superintendent, have his name dropped 
from the seniority list and be discharged for non-attendance. Should 
he return within ten days he shall give satisfactory explanation of his 
absence to the superintendent before resuming work. 

64. The working and excused lists shall be posted at each depot 
daily not later than o'clock p. m. 

(a) The names of conductors and motormen not shown on the 
time tables as in charge of regular runs will be shown on the ex- 
cused list or the working list. 

(b) Unless otherwise marked on the excused list or on the work- 
ing list, extras must be in attendance at the depot at least minutes 

before starting time of the first car out in the morning and be prompt 
in attendance on all changes during the day thereafter until assigned 
for work. 

65. Regular men shall be assigned, in so far as possible, on Sun- 
day, holiday or special day time tables according to the seniority list; 
extra men shall be assigned on such tables after the last regular man 
desiring it has been assigned, according to their standing on the daily 
working list — that is, the extra standing first for work on Sunday 
morning, for instance, shall be given the first run following the regular 

126 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

men, and so on. An exception may be made to this when necessary 
to insure to certain men their proper amount of rest between the time 
of their week-day and Sunday assignment. 

66. Conductors and motormen having regular runs must report 

verbally to the designated agent not less than minutes nor more 

than minutes before their starting time from the depot. If he is 

not at his post they will await his return and then report. 

(a) When a crew is to relieve another crew at a distant point 
from the depot the conductor and motorman must report to the above 
designated agent not less than minutes nor more than min- 
utes plus the running time before the starting time from the point of 

(b) No compensation will be allowed for reporting as required 
in the above rules. 

(c) The above rules apply as well to the latter part of swing 

(d) Extras when assigned temporarily for regular runs are sub- 
ject to the above rules. 

67. A conductor or motorman shall be considered to have been 
"jumped" when he has been superseded for work by another for the 
following reasons : 

1 — Failure to report to the designated agent in accordance with 
the requirements of rules 63 to 66 inclusive. 

2 — Failure of conductor or motorman to be on his car at the start- 
ing time, even though he had reported to the proper agent at the 
proper time. This is applicable to all trips, unless the employe has 
been excused by the same agent or authority. 

3 — Failure of extra men to report in accordance with the rules 
governing regular men when they are assigned for regular runs. 

4 — Failure of extra men to respond to call for work during 

5 — Failure to respond to call for work or to report at the expira- 
tion of time for which they have been excused or at time marked on 
the working list. 

(a) When necessary to assign conductors and motormen from 
one depot for temporary service at another depot, their names shall 
be shown on the working or excused list at their ow,n depot with the 
time they are expected to report at the depot where they are to work; 
and failure to so report in accordance with these rules will result in 
being jumped. 

(b) In case of delay from blockade, especially at hours of the 
day when headway is long, should it be clearly proven that a conductor 
or motorman was prevented by such blockade from reaching his depot 
previous to his reporting time, and providing there was no other way 
for him to reach the depot, the jump shall not be counted. 

American Street Railway Association. ny 

(c) In the matter of discipline for being jumped, regular and 
extra men shall be upon the same footing and so far as possible they 
shall be treated alike. An accurate record of each and every jump will 
be kept. 

(d) Penalties for jumps shall be as follows: 

68. Bell signal rules — 

Conductors to motormen — 


1 signal, car standing- at transfer point, motorman will then 

signal the number of passengers boarding the car by 
the front platform. 

2 signals, car standing, go ahead — all clear. 

3 sig - nals, car standing, back the car slowly — all clear. 

1 signal, car z« motion, stop at the next street, station or other 

designated point. 

2 signals, car in motion, conductor has hold of trolley rope and is 

on the rear platform ready to take the curve; or, on 
answer to the motorman's signal of a possible obstruc- 
tion standing or moving alongside the track near the 
car, that the car can pass slowly. 

3 signals, car in motion, clanger — stop immediately, emer- 


4 signals, car in motio)i, passengers to be transferred to the 

intersecting line — motorman will so signal. 

Conductors will be careful to give each signal clearly and dis- 

Motormen to conductors — 

Motormen must not assume any signal is INTENDED — they must 
require a clear and distinct stroke of the bell for each, except the emer- 
gency signal. 

1 signal, car standing, one passenger has boarded car by front 

platform, this to be repeated after the conductor's 
signal for the information as often as necessary to cover 
the case. 

2 signals, car standing, conductor will reverse switch over which 

car has just passed. 

3 signals, car standing, car must be backed — is all clear? 

4 signals, car standing, conductor is needed forward. 

1 signal, car in motion, approaching a curve — conductor will 
hold rope; or, on approaching a possible obstruction 

128 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

standing or moving alongside the track near the car, 
on receiving this conductor will promptly respond 
after taking proper action, as above. 
2 sig'Qals, car in motion, conductor will immediately set the rear 

brake and stop the car. 
A succession of quick signals is notice to conductor that trolley has 
left the wire. 

(a) Air, gong or whistle signals — 

1 signal, 

2 signals, to be sounded on approaching a cross street or any 

danger or to give notice of approach. 

3 signals, another car is following on the same time and rights, a 

. headway c behind. ON SINGLE TRACK LINES 

4 signals, approaching an intersecting line is notice to the crew 

of the car on that line that passengers are to be trans- 
ferred to them. 

(b) Classification Signals — 

These are conveyed to all concerned by a lamp or flag on the for 
ward end of the car, carried in the bracket provided for the purpose.- 
Their significance is as follows : WHITE light or flag signifies the car 
or train is an extra and running on no scheduled time. 

GREEN light or flag signifies another car or train is following a 
space distance behind and running on the same time and rights. Motor- 
man on any car carrying this signal must notify the motorman on 
each car passed (on single track lines) by the signal (Rule 68a), as 
provided, and the motorman so notified will repeat the signal in ac- 
knowledgment; in case a reply is not -promptly made the motorman 
giving the signal will stop and verbally notify the other, reporting 
the occurrence to the superintendent on reaching the end of the run. 

(c) Color signal rules — 

RED invariably signifies danger, and a red flag by day or a red 
light at night is the order to stop. Under NO circumstances will 
such a signal be passed without a full stop having been made within 
not less than ten nor more than one hundred feet BEFORE the signal 
is reached, and the conductor must make certain that any further 
order or instructions intended are received and thoroughly understood 
before he gives the signal to start. 

GREEN signifies the necessity for caution, and a green flag by 
day or a green light at night is the order to proceed with the car or 
train under absolute control. 

WHITE, when used for signaling, indicates safety; but the 
swinging of a white lantern at night over or alongside the track is a 

American Street Railway Association. 


signal to stop. A white lantern is also used at night hung on the 

gates protecting a railroad crossing to indicate the position of the 


(d) Fixed signal rules— 

SIGN signals, such as "stop," "slow" or "breaker" signs, are placed 
at points requiring special protection ; special instructions will be issued 
covering their position and use. 

SEMAPHORE signals, as shown in figures 1 and 2, are of two 
classes, "HOME" and "DISTANT." 

The home signal is supplied with a red lens, B, and the blade, A, 
of the signal is painted red and is square-ended, as shown by the 
full lines in the illustration. When in the position shown in Figure 1 
this signal will show a red light at night and the signal in this posi- 
tion is an absolute order to stop (see Section C above). Such stop 
must be made not less than ten feet nor more than one hundred feet 
distant from and BEFORE reaching the signal, and the car or train 
must not proceed, when so stopped, until the signal is "cleared." The 
clear or safety position of the home signal is shown in Figure 2 by 

the blade being in an inclined position which will show a white light 
at night, and when in this position gives permission to the car or train 
to proceed. 

The distant signal is supplied with a green lens, B, and the blade, 
A, is painted green and is "fish-tailed," as shown by the dotted lines on 
Figures 1 and 2. When in the position shown on Figure 1 this signal 

130 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

will show a green light at night and the signal in this position is an 
order to proceed only with the car or train under perfect control, this 
order to remain in force until the next signal is reached or the point 
or obstruction to be protected by slow speed has been passed. The 
clear or safety position of the distant signal is shown in Figure 2 
by the blade being in an inclined position, which will show a white 
light at night, and when in this position gives permission to the car or 
train to proceed without slackening speed. 

When two or more semaphore signals of the same class are located 
on the same post the top blade (and light) governs the right-hand 
track or route ; the next lower signal governs the next track or route 
to the left of the first, etc. 

USUALLY DISPLAYED must be regarded as a danger signal and 
the fact reported at the first opportunity to an inspector or the super- 

69. Conductors must be civil and attentive to all passengers, es- 
pecially ladies, children and elderly persons. They will endeavor to 
provide seats for all, when necessary requesting passengers to sit 
closer together. 

(a) Conductors must announce distinctly the names of streets 
and stations, in each case calling the following street or station imme- 
diately on leaving or passing any street or station. They will also 
announce the approach to any point of considerable travel and at trans- 
fer stations or points will announce the lines to which transfer is made 
and their destinations. 

(b) Conductors must keep the rear platform, doorway and brake 
free from obstruction as far as possible and not allow passengers to 
stand in front of the controller box. When the platform becomes 
crowded they will request passengers standing there to step inside the 

(C) On closed cars when passengers crowd inside the rear door 
the conductor must request them to move forward and make room for 
others. Under no circumstances will conductors allow passengers to 
ride on the bumpers, roof or side step (especially when crossing a 
bridge) except 

(cl) Conductors must see that passengers do not place their feet 
upon the seats. 

(e) Conductors must give particular attention to the ventilation 
of closed cars. No set rules can be issued to cover; good judgment 
must be employed to secure the comfort of passengers. 

American Street Railway Association. 131 

(f) Conductors will be governed in the handling of heaters in 
the cars by the instructions as bulletined. 

(g - ) Smoking will be permitted only 

70. Conductors must never under ANY circumstances operate the 
controlling mechanism of the car or train ; should the controller on 
the head end of the car or motor car prove defective and inoperative 
the conductor will take position at the head end of the car or train 
and transmit signals to the motorman, who will then run the car or 
motor car from the rear end of the car or from the rear end of the 
forward motor car of the train. In this event only half speed shall be 
used in such movement and the conductor must have protected the 
rear end of his car or train from any following car or train as per 
detailed bulletin instructions. While in this position the motorman 
will look out for any passengers desiring to leave the car. Should the 
motorman become incapacitated the conductor will at once stop the 
car or train and protect it. 

(a) On double-track lines the in-track gates front and rear must 
be kept closed and the in-track side steps securely fastened up. Should 
such appliances become out of order on the road the conductor will be 
particular to guard against accidents occurring therefrom and will 
turn the car in upon reaching the end of trip or the depot. 

lb) When possible to avoid it conductors must not give the go- 
ahead signal from any point other than the rear platform of the car 
or rear car of the train, and then only after being careful to see 
that all is safe. 

(C) The conductor shall never leave the car for any purpose 
while on the road without first notifying the motorman, who will then 
be in responsible charge of car and passengers. 

(d) In case of thunder storm the conductor will turn on the light 
circuit and keep lights burning until all signs of lightning are past ; 
in case any considerable stop is made the conductor will remove the 
trolley wheel from the wire until ready to proceed. 

(e) When another equipped car is being towed its pole must be 
drawn down and tied to the dash rail. 

(f) When two cars are coupled for running or a trailer is used 
the signal for starting must be given by the conductor on the rear car 
first, after each stop, and promptly repeated by the conductor on the 
forward car, each conductor being careful to know that passengers are 
safely on or off his car. Should the two cars be under the charge of 
a single conductor he must not give the starting signal unless standing 
on one of the platforms between the cars, and then only after satisfy- 
ing himself that all is safe. 

(g) Except in case of absolute necessity to avert accident, the 
conductor must never remove the trolley from the wire until after the 
power has been shut off and the car stopped. 

132 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

(ll) When not otherwise engaged the conductor must be on the 
rear platform of the car, or if a trailer is used on the front platform 
of the trailer on the lookout for passengers who wish to board or leave 
the car ; while on the stand the conductor must be near the rear plat- 
form of the car or train to solicit passengers and give information; 
when on a grade the conductor must be on the rear platform of the 
car or the front platform of the trailer used, ready to apply the brake 
if necessary; when passing any transfer point the.' conductor as well 
as the motorman must be on the lookout for the transfer signal from 
an approaching car on the other line, in order that passengers may make 
the transfer without undue delay. 

(i) The conductor will see that the light circuit of the car is in 
good order before' leaving the depot and will turn the lights on and 
off as needed ; in case other than electric lights are used he will be 
sure to see that they are always ready for use and light them when 
necessary, but will not fill kerosene lamps. He must, with the motor- 
man, make sure the headlight is burning brightly on the head end of 
the car after nightfall. 

(j) When tail lamps are used the conductor must see that they 
are in proper condition for use and at sunset he will see that they are 
lighted and kept burning on their proper position of the car. 

71. Conductors must not take charge of or become responsible 
for any article not paying transportation charges as per freight tariff 
posted, except only articles used in the company's service and placed 
on their car by an authorized employe of the company. 

(a) Conductors must promptly turn in to the authorized receivers 
of such property all articles found in their car or on the company's 
property, noting on a tag attached to each article their name, trip, 
date, time and place of finding. 

(b) Conductors will prohibit all begging, peddling or vending 
on their car or train except by the agents of the company authorized 
by this company to so sell ; in no case, however, should any attempt 
be made to remove such vendor, etc., from the car while it is in motion, 
and no threat or intimidation should be used to such persons. 

72. A day card or train card will be furnished the conductor upon 
reporting for work by the agent to whom he reports, such card calling 
for information which must be filled out in detail and in accordance 
with bulletined instructions for each half-trip. Conductors will make 
up this card at the end of every half-trip and will be held strictly 
responsible for the accuracy of each and every statement made thereon. 
On the back of this card conductor will note any occurrence on each 
trip of which memorandum should be made; such card shall be turned 
in with the transfers and money collected to the receiver of moneys at the 
end of each day's work or at the end of any number of consecutive 

American Street Railway Association. 133 

iai Conductors will receive transfer pads and a punch from 
before starting work each day or swing and will return the 

unused transfers with the punch to - - after each swing or day's 

work; when making such return they will be given a properly num- 
bered check which will serve as a receipt for the punch. 

(b) Each conductor must provide himself with $ in change be- 
fore going on duty. 

(C) Before taking car out of house or from terminal when be- 
ginning work, conductor must see and know that the register is secure- 
ly bolted and locked to the register block; for the condition of the 
register the conductor will be held strictly responsible. 

(d) The conductor will see that the register is set in the proper 
direction in which he is about to move and will turn the direction only 
as instructed by bulletin notice. 

(e) The conductor must promptly collect and register the fare of 
each passenger on the car, if possible within a block after boarding it, 
except at such points where an agent of the company shall have made 
the collection — as shown in bulletined orders— and excepting in such 
cases as scheduled herewith where the passengers are entitled to free 
transportation : 

(f) Conductors must not collect fares when approaching railroad 
crossings, transfer points, curves or switches. 

ig"i After making collections of fares conductors shall count the 
number of passengers on the car or cars and know that, excepting for 
the free, collection has been made from each and registration properly 
made. Fares must be registered singly as collected and not in bunches. 
When compelled to make change he will face the rear of the car, or, 
if on a trailer and working the train alone, face forward. 

(li) If, after his fare has been collected and registered, the pas- 
senger discovers he is on the wrong car, the conductor will exercise 
his judgment as to return of the fare; if refunded, the conductor 
must not fail to ring up each other fare collected thereafter, but will 
make a note of the occurrence on the back of his day card and deduct 
the amount from the amount thereon called for to be turned in to the 
company's receiver. Also, when a conductor registers more fares than 
he collects such mistake can be corrected only by reporting . it to the 

(ij When passengers are transferred from one car to another at 
any place other than a regular transfer point the number of persons 
transferred, cause of such transfer and number of each car will be 

134 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

noted on the back of each day card and signed by each conductor en- 
gaged in the transaction ; such persons will be registered on the car 
they board, but no further fares will be collected from them. If an 
inspector be present his signature must be secured on each day card 
as authorizing the transfer. The conductor must remain in charge oi 
the disabled car until relieved. 

(j) Should a conductor for any reason change his car after com- 
mencing his day's work he must not only note the number of the new 
car on the face of his day card opposite the half-trip on which the 
change occurred, but as well note on the back of the "card the reason 
for the change and any damaged or filthy condition in which the new 
car or its equipment may be found. 

73. When any conductor has any personal knowledge of an acci- 
dent occurring in which any property may be damaged or any person 
or animal is likely to or may have been injured he will make prompt 
report of all the facts in the case to his depot immediately upon arrival 
at that point and as soon as possible fill out in exact and full detail 
a blank form provided for his use in such cases headed "Conductor's 
Accident Report." If the conductor was a passenger on a car involved 
in the accident or a nearby eyewitness of the occurrence or reaches 
the spot in time to do so, he will render every possible assistance to 
the conductor of the car and secure the names of as many witnesses 
not on the car as he can. If in charge of a car involved in any dis- 
turbance or accident he will secure the names and addresses of all 
possible witnesses, whether they actually saw the occurrence or not, in 
any event securing the name and address of every lady on the car. It 
is much preferred to have a witness write his own name and address 
if he can be induced to do so. Soon as the accident report is filled out 
it must be delivered, with the name slips of witnesses, as promptly as 
possible to the authorized representative of the superintendent. 

(a) In case of serious accident the conductor or, if he so delegate, 
the motorman must immediately report the case by nearest telephone or 
telegraph to the nearest operating depot, dispatcher or division point, 
stating briefly the nature and probable extent of the trouble so that 
adequate assistance can be sent. 

(b) The conductor must never eject a person from the car for 
disorderly conduct or non-payment of fare unless they get the names 
and addresses of witnesses. They will use no more force than is 
necessary in making the ejectment, first bringing the car to a full stop 
at a traveled road, street or highway, a regular stopping point for pas- 
sengers or a station. 

(C) For each light of glass maliciously or wantonly broken by a 
passenger or bystander the conductor will collect from the offender 
the sum of $ — and turn in such collection with his fare returns for the 

American Street Railway Association. 135 

day or swing; a note must be made on the back of the day card to 
cover the occurrence and refer to the remittance. 


7-4. While the car or train is in motion responsibility for safe 
running and its safe handling lies with the motorman ; he must never 
attempt at such time to do anything but handle the controlling mechan- 
ism and watch the road ahead, being prompt to give warning of his 
approach to danger points or on the appearance of danger. This rule 
can be modified only under the circumstances covered by rule 70. 

(a) Under NO circumstances will any motorman permit another 
motorman or any person, other than a student placed by proper au- 
thority with him for instruction, to run the car or train of which he is 
in charge while he is on duty. 

(b) Upon leaving the operating position, box or platform for any 
reason whatsoever when the train or car is standing, the motorman 
must remove and carry with him the controller and reverse handles 
(together with the power brake handle where power brake is used), 
and must in all cases have shut off the current through the controller, 
broken the circuit through the car (by throwing the overhead circuit 
breaker, main motor or cut-out switch) and fully set the brake. 

(C) Under no circumstances and for no cause whatsoever shall 
the motorman leave the operating position, box or platform of any 
motor while the car or train is in motion, except in the single case 
that an accident endangering himself is imminent and he shall have 
done all he can to stop and reduce to a minimum the impending dam- 
age to person or property. 

7o. Motormen are expected to become familiar with the electrical 
and mechanical construction of the cars in order to be able to meet 
emergencies arising on the road ; they will be held directly responsible 
for the condition of that equipment. 

(a) They must make it their special business to carefully examine 
all parts of the car before leaving the barn, depot or terminal or taking 
charge of the car to see that all safety devices, signal gong, foot gong, 
air whistle, fender, controller reverse, sand boxes, etc., are in place and 
in good and fully operative condition headlight glass and reflector 
clean and after sunset the light on the forward end of the car or train 
is burning properly and brightly. 

(b) They will see that all tools required to be carried are on the 
car or motor; where fuses are used they will be sure to have a suffi- 
cient supply of the proper design and amperage and shall never use 
heavy wire or any substitute therefor for a fuse. They must have at 
all times an ample supply of sand to cover any possible demand. 

(c) Motormen must apply to the shop foreman in charge of cars 
for any specific information regarding operation which they do not 

136 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

thoroughly understand or regarding any part or parts of machinery 
or electrical apparatus or wiring which is liable to get out of order on 
the road or during service. 

(d) They will never attempt to do any work on motors unless 
the circuit through the car has previously been broken by throwing the 
main motor switch, the overhead circuit breaker or withdrawing the 
trolley from the wire ; they will never do such work with any loose 
metal article in an upper pocket, which is liable to fall out and cause 
ultimate if not immediate damage. 

(e) They will examine motor and journal bearings as often as 
may be possible and if too warm the fact must be promptly reported; 
the armature, field coils, diverter coils and commutator should never 
get so hot that it is impossible to hold the hand on them. Motormen 
must never try to run a motor that is seriously out of order, but shall 
promptly cut out the motor at fault. 

76. When current is cut off between the power house and the 
motors the motorman shall throw the controller handle to the "Off" 
position and come- to a stop to ascertain the cause; if in the day time 
he will turn on the light circuit to determine if the power is on the 
line. If the rail be dead or dirty and power is on the line, connection 
must be established with the nearest live rail and the wheel by the con- 
ductor, contact being broken with the wheel first to avoid a shock. 
Both controllers should be tried; if one works the trouble is in ths 
other ; if neither works, with power on the line, a fuse has probably 
been blown. In that event the conductor will remove the trolley from 
the wire or the motorman will break the circuit through the car before 
anything else is done, and then if on examination a new fuse is found 
to be necessary the motorman will remove and retain to be turned in 
the stubs or ends of the former fuse and, after placing the new fuse 
in position, set up the binding screws, holding it tightly in place, being 
very careful to secure a good contact at each end. Should the new 
fuse be blown the motor at fault, as designated by the position of the 
controller handle at which the blowing occurred, should be cut out. If 
both motors prove disabled so as to prevent the self-movement of the 
car the circuit must be broken through the car and assistance called 
for; in the case of a multiple-unit train, if the other motors in the 
train can propel it, the train will be moved in accordance with Rule 70. 

(a) In case the power is cut off and the brake is found to be 
defective, the motorman before signaling the conductor to set the rear 
brake will set the reverse handle opposite from the direction in which 
the car is moving, throw the controller handle to the last position 
and allow it to so remain until the effect takes place, then, being care- 
ful to throw the handle to the "Off" position. Should this for any 
reason prove inoperative the motorman will promptly signal the con- 
ductor to apply the rear brake. 

American Street Raikvay Association. 137 

(b) The motorman must not reverse the power under usual run- 
ning conditions ; reversing is a severe strain upon the apparatus, 
especially when the car is under high speed. When necessary to re- 
verse, and the car has been brought to a full stop, the motorman will 
return the handle to the "Off" position and apply the brake fully. 

(c) When tracks are covered with water or slush motormen will 
run slowly and carefully, with power off where possible in order that 
the splash of the water may not cause a short-circuit in the motors or 
wiring of the car. They must never try to run through water so high 
as to touch the bottom of the motor-shell. 

77. Before completing the circuit through the car on starting to 
work the motorman will see that the controller handle or cylinder 
indicator points to the "Off" position ; main motor switch or over- 
head circuit breaker will then be closed and the brakes released before 
the power is applied to start the car. In starting at any time power 
should be applied gradually and fed with only proper speed in order 
that no damage may be done the equipment or injury caused to pas- 
sengers by the sudden jolt. The controller handle must never be 
thrown on the last point if the car does not 'Start on the preceding 

(a) Motormen must conform to time table requirements as closely 
as possible, regulating speed in accordance therewith and with the limits 
of the time point cards. If a motorman should be delayed he will not 
undertake to recover the time lost in the minimum distance, but, IF 
IT BE ENTIRELY SAFE TO DO SO, he will run slightly faster 
during the entire run, aiming to reach destination or end of trip as 
nearly on time as may be possible. 

(b) Motormen shall never run ahead of time unless directed to do 
so by an authorized officer of the company. 

(C) On descending grades the motorman shall allow the car to 
coast as much as possible with power thrown off, always being careful 
to keep' the car under control and never allowing it to run down hill 
faster than the motors will take it up the same hill. Coasting being 
good and economical practice, will be done wherever possible. 

(d.) In stopping brakes will be applied gradually to reduce the 
deleterious effect of a sudden retardation of motion in all service stops ; 
just before the car or train comes to rest the brakes will be released 
slightly or partially kicked off so as to obviate the recoil that would 
otherwise ensue. 

(e; Brakes must never be applied while the current is being used , 
nor current applied while the brakes are on; serious consequences are 
liable to follow disregard of this rule. 

(t'j When, on applying brakes, the wheels are felt to be slipping 
the motorman will release the brakes partially, start sand to running 
and again set up the brakes. 

138 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

78. Motormen will sound the gong with a double signal when 
approaching a station, standing car (see rule 68a) or at any other times 
when necessary to call attention to the movement of the car; where 
air whistle is used this signal will be given thereon. 

(a) Motormen will use particular care when approaching or 
passing schoolhouses or any other places where children are wont to 
congregate, having speed materially slackened and cars under control. 

Cb) Where streets are dug up or excavations are made under, 
alongside or near the tracks, motormen will observe particular care in 
running, taking no risks. In passing men at work in the streets or 
along the tracks particular care will be used. 

79. Motormen will observe the minimum spacing distances as 
bulletined allowed between any two cars moving in the same direction on 
the same track. 

(a) On limited curves (where two cars cannot pass) when two 
cars arrive at the same time the car on the outer track has the right 
of way. 

(b) On double track lines a car will be run slowly approaching 
and passing a car in slow motion in the opposite direction. 

(c) Motormen must throw off the power immediately before striking 
a curve, or before passing over or under any circuit breaker, special 
work, insulated joint, slip joint, frog or any similar mechanical con- 
trivance, j 

(d) When any vehicle is seen in the track ahead or so close 
thereto that a car may not pass it the motorman shall slacken speed 
and not approach nearer than feet until he has received the con- 
ductor's signal that the car will pass. 

(e) Motormen will not run over any sticks, stones or other small 
obstructions on the rail, but will see that the track is at all times 

80. Motormen must never run against a facing switch point when 
meeting a car without first coming to a full stop and then proceeding 
only with the car under perfect control. This rule refers particularly 
to all crossovers and curves having switch points facing opposite to that 
in which the car is going. 

(a) Motormen must not pass over any switch until they KNOW 
that the tongue is properly and fully turned, and then only at reduced 
speed. Particular care must be taken when switches are covered with 
snow or water. 

81. Every motorman, after having run any car, whether for a 
day or but a single trip, will, upon being relieved and before leaving 
the depot, report the condition of the car or cars he has handled on 
the shop sheets provided ; these sheets will show the run number and 
the motorman will enter thereon opposite his run number (or below 
the regular runs if he has been on an extra car) the number of the car 

American Street Railway Association. 139 

he had on that run or any part thereof on that day, any defect of the 
car or its equipment and sign his name thereto. No excuse will be 
accepted for failure to so report. 

(a) When any motorman has any personal knowledge of an 
accident occurring in which any property may be damaged or any 
person or animal is likely to or may have been injured he will make 
prompt report of all the facts in the case to his depot immediately upon 
arrival at that point and .soon as possible fill out in. full and exact 
detail a blank form provided for his use in such cases headed "Motor- 
man's Accident Report." If the motorman was a passenger on a car 
involved in the accident or a nearby witness of the occurrence or 
reaches the spot in time to do so, he will render every possible assist- 
ance to the crew of the car. If running a car that becomes involved 
in any disturbance or accident, he will see to securing as many names 
from witnesses to the occurrence from the sidewalk or adjacent stores 
as may be possible, giving such names to his conductor. 

Respectfully submitted, 


President Vreeland — Your President has had some confer- 
ence with the members of the Committee on Rules. It seems 
advisable that the work of this committee should be done in a 
very thorough way, before any set of rules is adopted. The 
matter of framing a standard set of rules, as you gentlemen 
know, took a great deal of attention for many years in con- 
nection with the work of other associations. The New York 
State Street Railway Association has a committee now work- 
ing on this subject, and that committee recently made a pre- 
liminary report at the meeting of that association held last 
month. It has been suggested that inasmuch as Mr. Bracken- 
ridge, of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, has given 
up the operating department, that there be a substitution in 
his place, and that another gentleman be added to the com- 
mittee so that the committee can go forward with the work 
during the next year. It is advisable, in the mind of the chair, 
that the same members of the committee, with additional ap- 
pointments, should go ahead with the work this following year 
so that they will not lose the value of the work which they 

140 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

have already done. It has been suggested that Mr. E. G. Con- 
nette, of Syracuse, be appointed in place of Mr. Brackenridge, 
which will make two members of the committee, Mr. Mitten, 
of Buffalo, and Mr. Connette, of Syracuse, working on this 
proposition, each being members of the Committee on Standard 
Rules appointed by the New York State Association, which 
will undoubtedly facilitate the work of forming a standard set 
of rules ; and the chair will appoint as the Committee on 
Standard Rules for the ensuing year Mr. T. E. Mitten, of 
Buffalo; Mr. E. C. Foster, of Lynn; Mr. W. E. Harrington, 
of Camden, and Mr. E. G. Connette, of Syracuse ; Mr. Con- 
nette to be the chairman of the committee. 

Mr. John I. Beggs, Milwaukee — I would make a sugges- 
tion in connection with the work of this committee. I do it 
without any disparagement to those on the committee, but 
in the hope of hastening, if possible, the presentation of a re- 
port upon which action may be taken by this Association. 
There are a number of roads throughout the United States, 
among which is the road with which I am associated, that have 
been waiting for two or three years, at least, for the publica- 
tion of rules to govern their employes, until this Association 
should have given the stamp of its approval to a set of rules 
that might give greater uniformity to the conditions under 
which our employes throughout the country work. I for one 
will feel compelled to take this report as a basis, or the report 
of the committee of the New York State Association, which I 
think is much better, and I say it without disparagement to 
this committee, because you will find in sections 52 to 55 of 
these rules as submitted a set of conditions — I do not know 
who is responsible for them — to conform to which would, in 
my judgment, make it impracticable to operate a street rail- 
way in any metropolitan city. These rules in question may 
be very well for an interurban line, but are absolutely imprac- 
tical of application, in any city of any considerable size. I 
furthermore think that there should be some representative 
of this committee from a large western city, like Chicago or 
St. Louis. We know that in different sections of the country 

American Street Raihvay Association, 141 

there are different conditions confronting the operators of 
street railways, and this committee as organized is largely 
confined to the East. I am perfectly satisfied with the com- 
mittee as it is now constituted, but I think there should be 
some one from Chicago or St. Louis, to give expression to their 
views in the formation of these rules. I have read the rules 
very carefully. The rules in Sections 52 to 55 inclusive, re- 
quire a car to come to a full stop every time it passes another 
car ; to come to a full stop before it crosses any other street 
railway intersection, etc. In a large city that would be absurd. 
It is absolutely impractical to carry out, and I cannot under- 
stand who would be responsible for rules such as these. I 
would like to suggest, without the necessity of making a mo- 
tion, that the committee be increased by at least one other 
member, who should come, from, say, the city of Chicago. 
This would more nearly represent the practice throughout the 

President Vreeland — The Chair will very gladly do what 
Mr. Beggs suggested. It has been the experience of your 
chairman in dealing with the subject for many years, and on 
other subjects handled by committees, that it has been wiser 
in appointing a committee, to appoint the members of the 
committee from some section of the country where the members 
can get together and hold a meeting. Questions connected with 
other cities, as a rule, can generally be covered in a satisfac- 
tory manner by correspondence; but inasmuch as the appoint- 
ment of an additional member will not make any difference to 
the committee, the Chair will follow the suggestion made by 
Mr. Beggs and appoint Mr. Robert McCulloch, of Chicago, 
as an additional member of the committee. 

On motion, the report of the Committee on Standard Rules 
as presented at this meeting was accepted. 

President Vreeland — In order to dispose of the reports of 
the committees, as some of the members of the committees find 
it necessary to leave the city rather early to-day, we will have 
the report of the Committee on Standards, of which Mr. N. 
H. Heft, of Meriden, Conn., is chairman. 

142 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Mr. Heft then presented the report of the committee and 
said :< 

I think I state correctly that it is the unanimous opinion of 
the committee that this Association can adopt at this meeting 
the standards recommended by your committee. They are in 
line and in most cases an exact duplicate of the M. C. B. 
standards for rails, axles, journals, brasses, wheels, journal 
boxes, brake heads and brake shoes. 


Detroit, Mich., October 10, 1902. 

The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : The Committee on Standards, appointed in pursu- 
ance of the action of the last annual meeting of the Association, have 
given individually, at their homes, and collectively as a committee at 
meetings, considerable thought to the matters involved, and have 
carried on much correspondence in an earnest effort to obtain data 
which would enable them to present at this meeting of the Association 
ideas that would be of advantage to the electric ways throughout the 

It is unnecessary, however, to suggest that because of the great 
changes and vast improvements being made in the type, design and 
construction of motors that it is difficult to make any definite recom- 
mendation upon this point, as we feel that the next year or two may 
radically change the ideas of the manufacturers as well as the opera- 
ting departments of the several roads with relation to the matter of 

With regard to the matter of rails and trucks we present more 
definite conclusions for your consideration. 

At the first meeting of the committee the subjects to be consid- 
ered by the committee were divided and assigned to the members as 
follows : 

N. H. Heft (Meriden. Conn.). — Wheels, axles, axle brasses, jour- 
nals, journal-boxes, brake-heads, brake-shoes, etc. 

John I. Beggs (Milwaukee, Wis.). — Rails. 

E. A. Newman (Portland, Me.). — Motors. 

E. G. Connette (Syracuse, N. Y.). — Trucks. 

R. T. Laffin (Worcester, Mass.). — Painting. 
- Will Christy (Akron, Ohio). — Car bodies for city and suburban 
service, including ventilation ; also the question of the oval roof. 

C. F. Holmes (Kansas City, Mo.). — Standard overhead construc- 
tion for high-speed city and suburban roads, including trolley wheels. 

American Street Railway Association. 143 


The committee having carefully considered this subject, and having 
consulted with experts, recommends that this Association adopt as a 
standard for either a "T" or girder rail, the form of rail shown in 
Figs. 1 and 2; the height of the rails to be governed by the character 
of the pavement required in the municipalities, and the weight of the 
rail to be not less than 70 lbs. for the "T"-rail and not less than 90 
lbs. for the girder rail per yard. 

It will be observed by examining these illustrations that the head 
of the rail is made to conform to the angle of the tread of the car 
wheels, for the following reasons. First, to increase the contact area, 
thus increasing the tractive force; and second, causing a more uniform 
wear across the head of the rail and tread of the wheel. 

The width of this head should be not less than 3 ins. With a 
rail-head of this form and dimensions, a car wheel having a 3-in. tread 
and flange of V/% ins. in depth (which should be used on all suburban 
cars), can be operated without interfering with pavements, with 
safety, at a high rate of speed on suburban and interurban roads, and 
with less cost for maintenance than the present form, due to the 
increased surface contact between the wheel and rail and decreased 
wear on flange. 

The committee is of the opinion that the "T"-rail is the most 
desirable and practicable rail for all purposes, and advises its use 
wherever the consent of the municipality can be obtained ; and an 
earnest and persistent effort should be made on the part of all electric 
railways to obtain such consent. 

In all places where a "T"-rail, as here described, cannot be used, 
your committee recommends a grooved girder rail of the form shown 
in Fig. 2. This form of rail, owing to the bearing being placed 
directly over the center line of web, gives a rail of greater stiffness, 
one with a head of 3 ins. in width, as well as a deeper and wider 
groove, and one which can be paved in the same manner as other 
girder rails. 

In view of the rapid construction of suburban and interurban 
lines, which enter the cities over the tracks of city lines, the com- 
mittee deems it advisable to recommend, in the renewal of special 
work where suburban or interurban cars are operated, and in all 
special work for new construction, that particular attention be given 
to the depth and width of the groove, as shown in Fig. 3, applicable 
to special work in connection with "T" or grooved girder rails. 

Street railway motors are subjected to such varying conditions 
and uses as to render it almost impossible to outline what might be 

144 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

considered a standard motor. Neither would it be practicable to 
standardize certain horse-power motors for certain weights of cars, 
as the conditions of operation are so varied that what might be per- 
fectly satisfactory in one case would be unsatisfactory in another. 
Generally speaking, for city service motors of between 35 hp and 
40 hp are most practicable. For ordinary suburban service motors of 
this capacity, with four motor equipments, would meet nearly all 
ordinary conditions and requirements. For high-speed service on long 
suburban and interurban roads motors of greater capacity are desirable 
and should be selected with special reference to the specific duty to be 

As there is a possibility of alternating-current motors being devel- 
oped the committee feels, in view of the experiments now being made 
both in this country and abroad, that it is advisable to await the 
outcome of these experiments before any recommendation on this 
subject is made. 


Your committee is of the opinion that the time is inopportune 
for recommending any particular design of trucks for motor-car 
service, especially for single-truck cars, except such parts of trucks 
as wheels, axles, bearings and journal-boxes. 

For interurban service the committee recommends that the stand- 
ard dimensions, as given in this report for wheels, axles, bearings and 
journal-boxes be followed, and also that the M. C. B. practice in the 
construction of trucks for double-truck cars be adhered to as closely 
as possible. 


In view of the great demand on the part of the traveling public 
for a more frequent and rapid service, not only in large centers of 
population, but in suburban and interurban service, and in view of 
the increased weights of the equipment required to safely perform this 
service, your committee recommends the standard axle adopted by 
the M. C. B. Association, which is the result of developments and 
improvements covering a period of fifty years. This standard axle 
can be applied to all electric railroads, which are now performing 
practically the same service as steam railroads. 

We recommend for adoption an axle of the size and form shown 
in Fig. 4 for all motor cars weighing 'under 15 tons, including in such 
weight trucks, motors and car bodies and full load ; also the M. C. B. 
standard journal-brasses, journal-boxes, dust-guards and key-seats 
shown in Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7. 

For all cars weighing from 20 tons to 28 tons, including in such 
weight trucks, motors and car bodies and full load, the M. C. B. 

American Street Raihvay Association. 145 

standard axle, also journal-brasses, journal-boxes, dust-guards and 
key seats- shown in Figs. 8, 9, 10 and 11. 

For all cars weighing up to 30 tons, including in such weight 
trucks, motors and car bodies and full load, the M. C. B. standard 
axle, also journal-brasses, journal-boxes, dust-guards and key-seats 
shown in Figs. 12, 13, 14 and 15. 

For all cars weighing up to 40 tons, including in such weight 
trucks, motors and car bodies and full load, the M. C. B. standard 
axle, also journal-brasses, journal-boxes, dust-guards and key-seats 
shown in Figs. 16, 17, 18 and 19. 

For all cars weighing up to 50 tons, including in such weight 
trucks, motors and car bodies and full load, the M. C. B. standard 
axle, also journal-brasses, journal-boxes, dust-guards and key-seats 
shown in Figs. 20, 21 and 22. 



Your committee has taken up with operating managers the sub- 
ject of car wheels for suburban and interurban service to centers of 
population over public streets, and finds that their views accord with 
those of your committee. 

We recommend for adoption as standard a steel-tired wheel and 
a cast-chilled wheel, as shown in Figs. 23 and 24. 

With a view to safety and economy we recommend for motor 
cars used in suburban and interurban service a steel-tired wheel of 
the dimensions shown : 

For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 4, wheel to weigh 640 lbs. 
For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 8, wheel to weigh 695 lbs. 
For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 12, wheel to weigh 790 lbs. 
For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 16, wheel to weigh 840 lbs. 

And a cast-chilled wheel of the same dimensions : 
For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 4, wheel to weigh 440 lbs. 
For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 8, wheel to weigh 490 lbs. 
For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 12, wheel to weigh 590 lbs. 
For use with an axle as shown in Fig. 16, wheel to weigh 640 lbs. 
Car wheels of the weights mentioned conform to the M. C. B. 


Your committee recommends for adoption as a standard the 
brake-head and brake-shoe shown in Figs. 25 and 26. 


As a standard method of painting ' cars your committee would 
recommend the following : All grease and rust should be removed 

146 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

from the ironwork and the car body should be rubbed down to a 
smooth surface; then thoroughly paint the ironwork with pure red 
lead and raw linseed oil. Then the outside of car body should be 
painted as follows : First, pure lead and oil priming thoroughly 
rubbed in ; second, one coat of flat lead, egg-shell gloss ; third, white 
lead putty ; fourth, three coats of flat lead ; fifth, two coats of rough 
stuff ; sixth, scour to smooth surface ; seventh, two coats of ground 
color; eighth, special color to cover; ninth, ornament on flat color; 
tenth, two coats of best finishing varnish. 

No coat is to be applied until the preceding coat is thoroughly 

The roof canvas should have three coats of lead and oil, and no 
glue size or patent filler should be allowed on the roof. 

For the inside or standing finish, we would recommend that one 
coat of lead and oil and one coat of Prince's metallic be put on back 
of same before finish is put in place. 

All standing or inside finish, if of open grain wood, such as ash, 
oak or mahogany, we would recommend to be thoroughly filled with 
Silex filler. If the wood is of open grain nature, such as cherry, 
maple or birch, we would recommend a good oil stain instead of the 
filler. Then thoroughly sandpaper, after which apply two thin coats 
of absolutely pure grain alcohol shellac, either bleached or orange, 
according to the wood. Then sandpaper and apply two coats of var- 
nish. All inside work should be rubbed to a dead finish, and all 
outside or exposed work should be left in the gloss. 

In car floors, the under or lining floor should have one good coat 
of oil before the upper or corrugated floor, which has received a coat 
of oil, is laid. When finished it should receive one coat of bleached 
shellac and one coat of good floor varnish. 


The committee believes that one of the most important factors 
in the construction and operation of an electric railway is to provide 
for a standard return circuit in such manner as to give the least 
resistance and largest and most reliable carrying capacity, thus avoid- 
ing loss of power and increased cost of maintenance. We, therefore, 
recommend a supplementary return, in addition to the usual practice 
at the present time, in all congested sections, crossing all special work 
and in the vicinity of the power plants. 



Owing to the inability of the committee to obtain any report from 
the members to whom were assigned the subjects, "Standard Overhead 

American Street Railway Association. 


Construction for High-Speed City and Suburban Service, Including 

Trolley Wheels," and "Car Bodies for City and Suburban Service, 

Including Ventilation ; also the question of the Oval Roof," we are 

unable to present any report embodying recommendations on these 



We earnestly recommend that the incoming officers of the Asso- 
ciation be authorized and directed to appoint successors to the under- 
signed committee to carry on the work for which they were appointed, 
as we feel that the recommendations here made are only preliminary 
to much work that can be done in this direction. 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. H. HEFT, 

All of the following were adopted as standard construction by the 
American Street Railway Association, October 10, 1902, except Figure 3: 

Fig. 1 — Section of Grooved Girder Fig. 2— Section of Grooved Girder 
Rail. Rail. 





















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Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

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Twenty-First Annual Meeting 



Fig. 11 — 4x7 Journal Box for Cars from 20 to 28 Tons. 

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Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

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American Street Railway Association. 


Fig. 17 — 5x9 Journal Bearing for Cars of 40 Tons. 

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Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Fig. 18 — Journal Bearing Key for Cars of 40 Tons. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Fig. 19 — 5x9 Journal Box for Cars of 40 Tons. 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


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Fig. 20—5^x9 Axle for Cars of 50 Tons. 

Fig. 21 — 5^x9 Journal Bearing for Cars of 50 Tons. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Fig. 22 — 5>£x9 Journal Box for Cars of 50 Tons. 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Fig. 23— Section of Steel Wheel. 

Fig. 24— Section of Chilled Wheel. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Fig. 25 — Break Head Face. 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Fig. 26— Brake Shoe. 

American Street Railway Association. 163 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, you have heard the re- 
port of the Committee on Standards. This committee was 
appointed for this important work with the full confidence of 
the Association in the value of their recommendations. There 
is no member who has to do with the larger questions con- 
nected with the present electric systems of operation, city, 
interurban and suburban, heavy city work as well as work out- 
side of the city limits, but appreciates the fact that the stand- 
ardizing proposition is an important one at the present time. 
In the light of the experience of the last half century of steam 
railroad operation, it is hardly worth the while of the members 
of this Association to go ahead spending money in as many 
different directions as there are managers represented, because 
the era of consolidation is at hand, not approaching, and we 
will find ourselves with many interurban roads, through con- 
solidations, which will have as many different standards as the 
ideas of the managers handling the property. 

You have heard the recommendation of the committee 
that this Association accept the recommendations contained 
in the report as standards, and inasmuch as the chairman stated 
that the standards selected by the committee are the estab- 
lished standards of the United States through the M. C. B. 
rules, it is hardly worth while to take up much time in the 
discussion of the report. However, the report is before you 
and the chairman will be glad to answer any questions. We 
would like to have any member who has anything to suggest 
to do so at once, as we have considerable work to 
get through with what we have to-day by an early hour this 
afternoon. If there is no gentleman who desires to discuss the 
report, a motion is in order that the report be received and the 
recommendations be accepted, and the full report on standards 
as recommended by the committee be printed in the proceed- 
ings of the Association. The Chair will be glad to have that 
motion made. 

Mr. George W. Dickinson, Seattle — I make such a motion, 
that the report be accepted and printed for the information 
of the members of the Association. 

164 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Mr. Heft — I think it is in order that the matter should 
be disposed of in some way. If the Association wishes to be 
in line with the M. C. B. standard, it will be necessary to 
adopt the recommendations of the committee. I would also 
state that the committee asks to be discharged, and a new 
committee be appointed to continue the work. 

President Vreeland — -That will come up in another mo- 
tion, and I would suggest, Mr. Dickinson, that you add that 
to your motion, that the committee be discharged with the 
thanks of the Association. 

Mr. Dickinson — I add that to my motion. 

Mr. Dickinson's motion was carried. 

Mr. W. Worth Bean, St. Joseph, Mich. — Why not con- 
tinue this committee in the work which it has. been doing? 

President Vreeland — It has been customary, and that is 
what was to be brought up next by the Chair, to leave to the 
incoming officers and Executive Committee of the Association 
the appointment of the committee, and the work has been so 
fully appreciated that each year the incoming officers have 
been glad to reappoint the same committee. To discharge the 
present committee rather leaves the hands of the incoming 
officers free for them to appoint all of the general committees 
of the Association. The conclusion of this report contains a 
recommendation that the incoming officers of the Association 
be authorized and directed to appoint successors to the present 
committee to carry on the work for which they were appoint- 
ed, and the Chair would like a motion made to that effect; 
that is what we did last year, and the appointment of the Com- 
mittee on Standards was one of the first duties which de- 
volved upon the President and the Executive Committee after 
the adjournment of the Association. 

Air. A. E. Lang, Toledo — I move that the incoming 
officers and Executive Committee be empowered to appoint a 
Committee on Standards. (Motion carried.) 

President Vreeland — I will appoint as a Committee on 
Resolutions Mr. W. Worth Bean, of St. Joseph, Michigan, 

American Street Railway Association. 165 

and Mr. G. W. Dickinson, of .Seattle, Washington, to report at 
the session this afternoon. 

We come now to the discussion' of technical subjects. 
There was considerable inquiry as to what time the paper on 
steam turbines would come up, it having been put over until 
to-dav on account of the absence of the writer. This paper, 
as well as all of the papers presented at this meeting, was put 
in the hands of the Secretary of the Association at an early 
date and they have been printed and distributed to all the 
members, so they have had an opportunity to look them over 
very thoroughly. For this reason, it is probably not necessary 
to have the paper read as a whole, but we would like Mr. 
Edward H. Snifhn, the author of the paper on steam turbines, 
to briefly state what points he would like to have brought out 
in the discussion. Mr. Snifhn is connected with the firm of 
Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. 

Mr. Snifhn — I do not know that there is much for me to 
add to my paper. I might say that while a good deal has been 
written on the subject of the steam. turbine in the past, it has 
been almost entirely conhned to its engineering aspect, deal- 
ing with its economical features and questions of design, con- 
struction, etc. ; and I thought that at this meeting it would be 
more interesting if a paper was prepared upon the commer- 
cial aspects of the steam turbine, dealing with such things as 
its reliability, its economy, and also dealing with such features 
as the comparative costs of foundations, buildings, space oc- 
cupied, also treating on the subject of its cost. I think those 
points have been practically covered by my paper, yet if there 
are any additional points to be brought up in discussion, I 
will answer any questions that I can. 


The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : The steam turbine is not as young as it looks. Although 
its application, in its present several forms, to commercial power genera- 
tion, is the achievement of recent years, its principle is neither new nor 
novel, and it may b^ wondered that a century of effort should have 
been applied to the reciprocating engine — which became, indeed, more 

1 66 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

complicated as it grew, before the primal theories of the heat motor 
assumed corporate, practical form. It is true that later knowledge of 
materials, and how to work them, has made the way clearer; and the 
wider use of the steam turbine has in a measure depended upon the 
development of electrical practice, with which latter it is now so 
intimately identified. 

Much interest has for some time been centered in this type of 
prime mover and the possibilities of its application. The history of 
its development is quite generally known, and up to this time atten- 
tion has been more particularly directed to its engineering and me- 
chanical characteristics. It now seems appropriate to inquire into 
the controlling features- of its commercial utility, and determine, if 
we may, whether the steam turbine, subjected to a somewhat careful 
analysis, is a machine still to be developed, though of ultimate prom- 
ise, or whether it has been well tried and its advantages proved. What 
has it accomplished? What justifies its use? What otherwise unat- 
tainable results will it produce? What are its limitations? It is this 
aspect of the case on which the light is needed. 

It is of little moment what the direct or contingent advantages of 
the turbine may be, if its reliability remain in doubt. Offered, as it 
is, in large units, and being apparently more related to the classes 
of service which, impose the most exacting requirements, the demand 
is imperative that in this one vital respect there be little left to 

Before recurring to actual experience, it may be instructive to 
consider for a moment the general character of the turbine as a type 
of motor, contrasted with the piston engine. Fig. I shows the longi- 
tudinal section of the Westinghouse turbine. The steam entering 
the governor valve arrives at the chamber "A," then turns to the right, 
passing first a set of stationary blades, then impinging on the moving 
blades, driving them around, and so on, until it arrives at exhaust 
chamber "B." And here is an interesting lesson in physics — a demon- 
stration of the conversion of heat into energy; for while the tempera- 
ture of the inlet end is that of the entering live steam, the exhaust 
end, but three or four feet distant, is not so hot (about 126 degrees F.) 
but that one may bear the hand. The cut will show that the only real 
moving part is the spindle, revolving in its bearings, the governor 
mechanism and oiling arrangement being comparatively insignificant. 
The blades do not wear, as the steam velocity — some five or six 
hundred feet per second — is not sufficient to affect them. The blades 
are made of a special material, and are calked in such manner that 
the force required to pull them out would exceed the elastic limit of 
the material in the blades. They are subjected in regular practice 
to a strain of about one-fortieth of this amount. The actual pressure 

American Street Railway Association. 


1— 1 

1 68 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

exerted on each blade is about one ounce. A complete description of 
the mechanism is not needed here.* It is sufficient to note its general 
character and to contrast its obvious simplicity and freedom from 
complication, with the recognized complexity of the piston engine. The 
inference is clear that in constructive opportunity, at least, the tur- 
bine should be the more reliable. 

The steam turbine, before it had obtained any considerable recog- 
nition here, was not entirely without success abroad. Parsons and 
others had done much to prove its reliability. For instance, in 1897 
the Newcastle & District Electric Lighting. Co., operating eleven 
turbines of 75 to 150 K. W. each, showed their cost of repairs and 
renewals on their entire plant, including turbines, generators, boilers, 
condensers, pumps, fittings, cables, etc., to be 26-100 of a cent per 
K. W. per annum. 

In this country the steam turbine is now operating in several 
plants. The first prominent installation was at the Westinghouse Air 
Brake Company's works, at Wilmerding, Pa., where the first unit was 
started in August, 1899, two more shortly after, and the fourth unit 
in April, 1901. Thus, the plant has been in service, for the most part, 
more than three years, and the fourth unit about eighteen months. 
The plant operates regularly eleven hours per day, the service being 
electric power and lighting. With the iron foundry running at night. 
one turbine is run 22 to 23 hours per day. In general, the units have 
run quite to their rated capacity — perhaps within twenty per cent of it, 
as a minimum. An interesting comparison has been made elsewhere of 
the efficiency of this turbine plant with the installation it supplanted, 
the latter comprising simple and compound engines; scattered about 
the works. After the three turbine units had been placed in operation, 
they were shut down and the steam engines previously in use (not 
yet disconnected from service) were again started up and a test 
made. A test was- then made of the turbine plant. These were based 
upon a week's run, careful measurements being taken of fuel and 
water. The saving of coal in favor of the turbine plant averaged 
35.7 per cent during the day, and 36.4 per cent during the night. The 
saving in feed water averaged 29.8 per cent during the day and 41.4 
per cent during the night. In round numbers, this meant a saving of 
about 40,000 lbs. of coal per 24 hours. This improvement, of course, 
was attributable not entirely to the turbine itself, but also to the 
more efficient method of electric power transmission in comparison 
with the previous scattered arrangement of steam engines, with long 
runs of steam piping, use of belts, etc. It is, however, instructive 

*See paper read by Mr. Francis Hodgkinson before Engineers' 
Society of Western Pennsylvania, November, 1900. 

American Street Railway Association. 169 

as indicating the results accomplished in a specific and prominent 
case, as between an old and still commonly used system of power 
transmission, and a modern method. 

This plant at Wilmerding was the first of its kind. It naturally 
was not without its minor difficulties. The turbines themselves from 
the time of starting have been practically free from trouble of any 
kind. Some armature difficulties were at first experienced — not of 
enough moment to interfere with operation — and were readily cor- 
rected. Summing up the experience had with this first installation, 
undertaken somewhat experimentally at the time, the net result is 
that the plant has operated about three years in heavy daily service; 
that the work has not suffered interruption, and that the plant is 
to-day running with sustained satisfaction and with no visible signs of 
wear in any of its parts. Fig. 2 shows this installation, comprising 
four 400 K. W. units located within a space 45 by 61 feet, the height 
of the engine-room being 20 feet 6 inches. 

The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., at Stamford, Conn., have 
a 400 K. W. steam turbine furnishing 240 volt, 2-phase current at 
7,200 alternations. This outfit was started in operation February 1st, 
1902. Since that time it has been in regular daily service, carrying 
about its rated load, operating 10 hours per day, furnishing current 
for electric motors and some lighting. Up to this time, therefore, it 
has been in service some eight months, and its mechanical operation 
has been most satisfactory. No quantitative tests have yet been made 
of steam performance, but there is general evidence of its economical 
operation. Fig. 3 shows the appearance of this outfit. 

The Hartford Electric Light Co., at Hartford, Conn., have a 
1,500 K. W., 2-phase, 2,400 volt, 60 cycle, turbo-generator outfit, which 
was started in April, 1901. This, at present, is the largest turbine yet 
installed in this country. Put in, as it was, to relay their water power, 
it has not been in constant service, but has usually been required but 
one or two days a week. At such times, however, it has carried the 
full station load of some eighteen or nineteen hundred kilowatts. 
Reference will hereafter be made to its striking economy. 

A great deal of interest has centered in this early installation of 
a good-sized outfit in a prominent location, and its excellent perform- 
ance is now generally well known. Some difficulties were at first 
experienced ; nor were they entirely unexpected, for there had been 
no facilities, as there now are, for testing the outfit before shipment, 
and it was .merely run at the shop without load. Before the machine 
was successfully in operation, one trouble that developed was with 
lubrication. The packing glands around the turbine shaft leaked 
somewhat, and the construction of the oil passages with reference to 
these glands enabled the oil to come into contact with the steam, im- 



172 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


pairing its lubricating quality. This was easily overcome by modi- 
fying the vents and employing glands of different construction. 

Some time was also required after erection to make necessary ad- 
justments to relieve the turbine of longitudinal end thrust. ■ Thfs 
would have been corrected at the shop had the opportunity then 
been present for making complete test. It was found, too, that the 
shaft, which had been designed to afford the utmost ease of dis- 
mantling, was subjected .to a considerable unevenness of temperature 
under superheated steam, and means were taken to make the tempera- 
ture at all points more uniform. Having in due time overcome these 
local defects, which partook in no sense of functional fault, the tur- 
bine was then in' serviceable condition, and its operation has since 
been most satisfactory. And the Hartford Company, notably alert 
to adopt the newer thing if there seemed advantage in it, have found 
when their water supply ran short that it paid to run the turbine and 
allow their Corliss engines to remain idle. This turbine is seen in 
Fig. 4. 

Is the steam turbine, efficient? And what, if it may be so termed, 
is the character of its efficiency? Is it, like the various types of 
piston engines, peculiarly fitted to certain conditions which permit of 
little change if economical performance be retained, or is there evi- 
dence that the turbine has a greater inherent efficiency that is less 
affected by attending circumstances? 

The interest of engineers in the turbine has, perhaps, been drawn 
chiefly to the evident possibilities of its steam economy, and to the 
data already acquired, with the discussion it has provoked, much more 
of value will be added. We may in a general way, however, without 
referring to its thermodynamics, obtain from the evidence of actual 
results some knowledge of its efficiency and determine 'if the stand- 
ards of present practice may not be improved. 

It is well that the makers of the turbo-generator have been 
compelled to adopt the practice of basing the steam consumption on 
the unit of output, so that their guarantees are given on the electrical 
horse power or kilowatts delivered on the switch board, and not on 
the indicated horse power developed. This at once eliminates the 
factors of engine friction and generator loss, and thus more definitely 
establishes a measure of performance. 

One is impressed with two distinguishing features of the tur- 
bine's steam efficiency, namely, that it seems to vary but little over 
wide ranges of load, and, further, that the size of the unit has com- 
paratively little bearing. It follows, then, that if good results are 
possible at all, they are neither restricted to the larger plants nor to 
the requirement of steady load. 

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American Street Railway Association. 175 

a 400 K. W. turbine, made at the builders' works before shipment; 
the machine having since been in daily operation some eight months. 
These tests were conducted under brake load, so that the figures are 
based on the brake horse power developed. The rated load would be 
about 600 B. H. P. The steam consumption curve is seen to be very 
flat, graduating from 14.47 lbs. at full load, to 16 lbs. at half rating, 
and to less than igr lbs. at one-quarter capacity. The relation of the 
consumption of steam in pounds per hour to the brake horse power 
developed is also shown, this line being almost straight. In the 
tabulation may be observed the interesting comparative effect of 
vacuum and superheat. 

If it is thus shown that with a unit as small as 400 K. W. we 
may obtain a result of 14.47 lbs. of steam per brake horse power 
per hour, corresponding to less than 1334 lbs. per I. H. P., it is 
evident that moderate-sized plants may with the turbine be sufficiently 
subdivided to give the maximum flexibility of service, with insurance 
of relay, and yet possess an efficiency heretofore identified only with 
very large units. Further than this, a fluctuating load is not incom- 
patible with high economical performance. 

As the units become larger the turbine is then brought into com- 
parison with the best steam engine practice, where it still preserves 
its uniform efficiency, and where its practical advantages are no less 
evident. In a recent instance, a result of 1 1.7 lbs. of steam per elec- 
trical horse power per hour was guaranteed on a turbine of 750 
K. W. capacity, corresponding to about 10.17 lbs. per I. H. P., which, 
though the size is moderate, is perhaps within the ability of but few 
engines, of anv size or type, that have ever been built. 

It may be pertinent to cite a few results obtained in regular serv- 
ice. The turbine at Hartford, under test conducted by Prof. Robb, 
at an average load of 1,800 K. W., with 155 lbs. steam pressure, 27 
inches vacuum and 45 degrees superheat, gave a result of 19.1 lbs. 
of steam per kilowatt hour; or an equivalent of about 11.46 lbs. per 
I. H. P. hour. An interesting comparison has been made at this plant 
of the relative efficiency, under regular operating conditions, of 
the turbine and their Corliss engines. They have one 18 and 34x48, 
and one 24 and 44x60 cross-compound horizontal Corliss engine. 
These engines drive direct by belt one 400 K. W. and one 600 K. W. 
generator. The turbine is, of course, direct-connected to its generator. 
They have made comparisons of operation based in each case on 
rather extended runs. It has been found that the turbine requires 
in delivering 1,900 K. W. on the board about the same amount of 
coal that is used with the Corliss engines to deliver 925 K. W., the 
steam pressure and vacuum being identical in both cases ; and this 
with the engines running at about their point of best efficiency, and 

176 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

known to be in excellent condition. Comparisons of this kind, while 
not scientifically exact, are perhaps of greater interest as a measure of 
commercial performance. 

The data at hand of test on one of the 400 K. W. turbines at 
Wilmerding shows a result of 16.4 lbs. per electrical horse power 
hour at full load, with 125 lbs. steam pressure and 26 to 27 inches 
vacuum. At half load it is 18.2 lbs. 

At the Elberfeld Municipal Electricity Supply Works in Germany, 
two 1,500 horse power Parsons turbines, which are run in parallel 
with two Sulzer horizontal engines, were tested by Prof. Schroter, 
Dr. Weber and Mr. Lindley. With steam pressure averaging 95 lbs., 
running condensing, and with 18.3 degrees of superheat, the result 
obtained, at maximum load, was 19 lbs. per K. W. hour; or about 
11.4 lbs. per I. H. P. hour. 

Many other results have been recorded, but those given will prob- 
ably be sufficient to show that under service conditions, the turbine 
has demonstrated its high efficiency. 

But is its efficiency maintained? A question often asked, and a 
very important one, too. Looking at the turbine casually, it seems 
as though there would be little opportunity for any change in its 
mechanical functions. There is no complicated valve gear to get 
out of adjustment; no pistons to leak; no rubbing surfaces to set up 
excessive friction ; little chance of misalignment ; and altogether there 
seems to be no good reason why its original condition should ever 
be very much disturbed. The blades appear to be the vulnerable 
point, for they do the work, and there are a good many of them. 
Their number, though, is in their favor, and being loaded as they 
are to only about 2.y 2 pet cent of the pressure they are built for, they 
possess an abnormally large factor of safety. The experience has 
been that the turbine is less liable to depart from its original stand- 
ard of performance than any other type of prime mover, and there 
seems little reason to suppose that it is capable of much deteriora- 

A recent interesting investigation along this line was made at 
the plant of the Cambridge Electric Supply Co., Limited, in England, 
where they have a 500 K. W. Parsons turbine. The outfit was erected 
in January, 1900, and during the past year has been doing very con- 
stant work. After it had operated about eight months, a second one 
was installed. The first outfit had been tested at the maker's works 
before shipment and showed a result of 24.1 lbs. of steam per K. W. 
hour at 526.4 K. W. And it was for the purpose of noting its perform- 
ance after a year's operation that Prof. Ewing conducted recently 
a second test.* In this latter test the turbine at 518 K. W., under 

*London Engineering, June 14, 1901. 

American Street Railway Association. 177 

nearly equal conditions of steam pressure and vacuum, gave a result 
of 25.0 lbs., and at 586 K. W., 24.4 lbs. In the second instance the 
turbine, besides trouble experienced with wet steam, was driving its 
own air and circulating pump (a surface condenser being used), and 
the steam required to drive these auxiliaries was charged to it. In 
the test at the builders' works, the turbine did not drive its pumps. 
The results, to use Prof. Ewing's words, give most satisfactory evi- 
dence that the turbine retains its character as a highly efficient gen- 

It remains to be said in this general connection that there will be 
found in steam turbine practice a more satisfactory treatment of the 
economy question than has heretofore prevailed. There will exist not 
only a truer basis of measurement than the indicated horse power, 
but there will be opportunity for more thorough demonstration. It 
is now generally recognized that efficiency guarantees on large en- 
gines have little significance. The builder is physically unable to 
completely assemble and test such engines before shipment, and the 
user is seldom able or disposed to incur the distraction and expense 
which a field test involves. It is in the exceptional case, therefore, 
that actual tests are made, and there is still much to be known con- 
cerning the economy performance of large engines. It might be said 
too. that while builders and engineers generally recognize the ele- 
ments of design that conduce to efficiency, there is no unanimity of 
opinion as to what those elements will actually produce. 

It is, therefore, gratifying to know that one builder, the West- 
inghouse Company, is now erecting a new testing room in which a 
complete plant of boilers, condensing and superheating apparatus- will 
afford facilities for testing turbines up to 3,000 horse power, at all 
loads up to full capacity, and larger units up to this point, with prac- 
tically any steam pressure and wide ranges of vacuum and super- 
heat. Thus, the conditions to be met in practice may be approxi- 
mated in the shop, and the information acquired will be of the highest 

Turning now to one notable feature of the turbine — its compact- 
ness — Fig. 6 is a graphic illustration of the floor space it occupies 
compared with the vertical and horizontal cross-compound Corliss 
engines, the basis of comparison being a 1,000 K. W. unit, including 
the direct-connected generator, the engine cylinders being 28 inches 
and 55 inches by 48 inches stroke, which, at 95 revolutions, with 25 
lbs., mean effective pressure referred to low pressure cylinder, gives 
about 1,400 indicated horse power. It will be seen that the floor area 
of the turbine is about two-thirds that of the vertical engine and 
about two-fiftfis of the horizontal. Such comparison, of course, is 



American Street Railway Association. 





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i8o Tiventy-First Annual Meeting 

limited in its application. With each set of conditions requiring 
special treatment, no standardization of space requirements can be' 
established. Still, with the limitation of isolated . experiences, it is 
possible without attempting to establish any universal laws, to make 
some reasonably close comparisons of the space required for the 
turbine as against the conventional types of engines. It has been 
thought desirable, then, to take a number of different-sized plants, 
each composed of several appropriate-sized units, the selections being 
as follows : 

1,000 horse powei in 2 — ■ 400 kilowatt units. 

3,000 horse power in 3 — 750 kilowatt units. 

5,000 horse power in 4 — 1,000 kilowatt units. 

*io,ooo horse power in 3 — 2,500 kilowatt units. 

15,000 horse power in 4 — 2,500 kilowatt units. 

30,000 horse power in 4 — 5,000 kilowatt units. 

50,000 horse power in 7 — 5,000 kilowatt units. 

75,000 horse power in 10 — 5,000 kilowatt units. 
These combinations were laid out for the turbines, and for the verti- 
cal and horizontal cross-compound Corliss engines, all with their direct- 
connected generators. A clearance space of 7 feet in all directions was al- 
lowed,, and is probably a fair average. The computations were con- 
fined to the units themselves, with the clearance stated ; the disposi- 
tion of the balance of the plant being assumed to be unaffected by 
the type of motive power. 

Fig. 7 shows the comparison of floor space. The curves show the 
turbine to require about 80 per cent of the space needed for the ver- 
tical, and not over 40 per cent of that wanted for the horizontal. In 
this diagram the vertical engine compares less unfavorably with the tur- 
bine than might generally be supposed, while the horizontal engine 
curve is about where one would expect to find it. The latter is not 
carried beyond 10,000 horse power, this type of engine being practically 
limited in size to that required for the 1,500 kilowatt generator. 

Fig. 8, showing the cubic yards of foundation material required, is 
at the same time a more exact and striking comparison. The tur- 
bine would appear more advantageously still if the actual foundations 
needed for stability had been computed. Instead, the foundations in all 
three cases were figured at 15 feet depth to give space underneath 
engine-room floor for condensers, etc., though for large engines this 
depth is usually inadequate. The only foundation needed for the 
turbine is that necessary to hold its weight, as though it were a tank, 
or some other stationary affair. It does not even require foundation 
bolts, there being no vertical or horizontal thrusts to be resisted. Com- 

*In this size the horizontal engine is figured on 5 — 1,500 kilowatt units. 

American Street Railway Association. 181 

paring again the 1,000 K. W. units, it is found that in actual founda- 
tion volume required, the ratio of the turbine to the vertical and hori- 
zontal engine is that of i to 9 and 15, respectively. 

In Fig. 9 will be observed the comparison of engine-room building 
space, in which the turbine appears to hardly less advantage, though 
in this diagram the horizontal engine, gaining in head-room what it 
lost in floor space, compares more favorably with the vertical. In 
plotting these curves sufficient head-room was allowed to accommodate 
a crane, leaving adequate clearance for handling any part. 

Having noted, then, the marked advantage which the turbine ap- 
pears to offer by virtue of its compactness, it would seem that the 
comparison might be carried a little further, and with assumed valua- 
tions of masonry work and building construction, as well as of land, 
the money-saving to be effected in these important features of initial 
cost be defined. 

Still adhering to the same plant size and combinations of units, 
in Fig. 10 is found the comparative cost of foundations ; the basis 
assumed being $7.00 per cubic yard for concrete, laid. It will be seen 
that while the turbine seems to average a foundation cost of about 50 
cents per horse power, the vertical engine in the more frequent sizes 
is approximately $1.50, while the horizontal is not far from $2.50, 
not forgetting that all three foundations are figured of equal depth — 
15 feet — to provide space below, as above stated. In the instances 
where special foundation work is required, such as piling or otherwise 
preparing suitable bottom, or shoring up building walls to enable suffi- 
cient depth of excavation, the expense avoided by the use of turbines 
is obvious. 

In Fig. 11, showing comparative engine-room building cost, the 
basis assumed is 15 cents per cubic foot of space inside of walls. Build- 
ing construction necessarily varies widely with the size, design and 
materials employed, but the figure taken is perhaps not far from a fair 
average for building built of brick, with steel trusses and fire-proof 
covering. The curves show that the building cost for the turbine is 
about one-half of what is required for the horizontal or vertical engine, 
the latter two, apparently, not being far apart. In this comparison 
of building cost, experience would differ widely. Architectural con- 
siderations and local conditions would produce varying results. Ex- 
igencies would, however, favor the turbine because of its smaller size 
and rectangular proportion, and it not infrequently happens that in- 
creased power may be supplied by locating the turbine in existing 
space, whereas an engine would necessitate building extension and 
perhaps the purchase of additional land. An instance of this kind 
arose at Akron, Ohio, where in the existing space no arrangement 
could be devised to accommodate additional engine power. It was 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 




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1 86 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

found possible, however, by rearranging auxiliary apparatus, to pro- 
vide space for one 750 and one 400 K. W. turbo-generator outfit which 
will shortly be in operation. 

Fig. 12 gives the comparative cost of land to accommodate the 
engine-room space, the land valuation being placed at $5.00 per square 
foot. Whatever may be the value of land, the relative comparison 
would remain unaffected. Land value, however, is never of minor 
importance, for desirable power-house sites, with transportation and 
water facilities, usually cost a good deal. And allotting about half a 
square foot of floor space to the horse power of generating unit, it 
takes but little figuring, where plants are located on expensive ground,, 
to show that the turbine in this respect alone may save a considerable 
part of its first cost. 

The last diagram of the sequence, Fig. 13, summarizes the preceding 
curves, and shows, with foundations, building and land at the valua- 
tions given, how these factors of cost compare. The data will have 
served its purpose if it show that in a properly designed plant, em 
ploying the steam turbine, far more money may be saved in these par- 
ticulars than is ever represented by the difference in cost between 
machinery of high grade and that of inferior quality. 

A case or two may be to the point. A plant was recently laid out 
to contain three 1,000 K. W. units, with vertical cross-compound Cor- 
liss engines. Subsequently, three more 1,000 K. W. units were con- 
tracted for, steam turbines being ordered. It was found that tb<? tur- 
bine saved 900 square feet of engine-room floor space, and about 38,000 
cubic feet. Had the whole plant been originally designed for turbines, 
the saving of space would have been double these amounts, and the cost 
of land, building and foundations been reduced about $50,000.00. 

An electric railroad plant in Ohio was some time ago installed, in 
which there are two 500 K. W. generators direct-connected to cross- 
compound Corliss engines. Space was provided for two more units 
of the same size. For the increased power two 1,000 K. W. turbine 
outfits were purchased, which will go in the space left, and leave room 
for another turbine of 2,000 K. W. Thus, the engine-room space 
planned for 2,000 K. W. is found sufficient for 5,000 K. W. It is 
estimated that the boiler plant extension will be reduced about one- 
third because of improved efficiency. It figured, too, that a saving of 
$2,900.00 was effected on each 1,000 K. W. foundation. 

One other case, of perhaps greater interest, recently came to 
notice, that of a plant of 8,100 K. W. capacity, laid out on modern 
lines, employing vertical cross-compound condensing engines. There is 
no space for additional engine power, and any increase would require 
building extension and encroachment upon valuable land. It was shown 
that without going beyond the present building walls, and without dis- 

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American Street Railzvay Association. 189 

turbing the existing machinery, the plant might be doubled in capacity 
by installing turbines in the space available below the present engine- 
room level, and adding another deck of boilers. And it has been 
figured that this arrangement would effect a reduction of over three 
dollars per kilowatt per annum in the present interest charge. 

With some measure thus obtained of the comparative indirect 
expenses of installation, we may turn to consider the cost of the turbo- 
generator outfit itself. Is it high in price, or is its cost, if not an 
attractive feature, still within our common idea of value? The answer 
is that its price is reasonable ; that, indeed, where the comparison is 
fair, the turbine will require the lesser first investment. It is, unhap- 
pily, quite as difficult to compare the costs of the turbine and piston 
engine as to compare the costs of engines themselves. A thing is, 
of course, high or low in price by comparison, but where the steam 
engine is concerned, to measure values were a hopeless task so long 
as there are held divergent views of design and construction and of 
engineering adaptation, with the builders themselves wide apart in their 

There are engines of good workmanship and of poor, of heavy 
proportions and light, and generous and scant proportioning of cylinder 
size and ratio, and of piston speed, to the work to be done. Perhaps, 
too, the voice of experience may protest that the buyer's insistence on 
his bargain is not always in keeping with the quality he would have, 
or should have, and it is not surprising that commercial necessity 
should sometimes affect engineering ideals. While the reliable builder 
will adhere to his high standards, there still will be found those whose 
more flexible practice will suffer impairment of quality to fit the 

Proceeding with the comparison, however, it may be assumed that 
the larger field for the turbine begins about where the high-speed 
engine leaves off. Its steam economy at once identifies it with the 
most efficient engine practice, and it therefore applies more appro- 
priately to the classes of service where medium and large size units 
are used. The comparison, then, lies generally between the turbine 
and the slow-speed engine. It remains merely to take an engine and 
generator of good construction, bring the engine efficiency as nearly 
as possible into parity with that of the turbine, also having it possess 
the same overload capacity, to find that the turbine is reasonable in 
price. And when we add the possible saving in foundations, buildings, 
etc., the first cost of installation is usually much in its favor. 

There remain still one or two important features of electric power 
plant operation wherein the use of the reciprocating engine is attended 
with difficulty, and with respect to which the steam turbine offers 
unquestioned improvement. 

igo Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

One of these — the running -of direct-connected alternating current 
generators in parallel — has come to be a frequent requirement ; but 
frequent as it is, and essential as it is, its accomplishment has been 
anything but an exact science. There has in fact been so little syn- 
chronism of method as to justify some wonder at the results that 
have really been obtained. There is no need here to particularize the 
complications of the problem. It obviously is not the work of the 
tyro to introduce into two or more units the identical conditions that 
will convert reciprocating motion into synchronous rotating motion, 
corelating as he must, the features of governing functions, inertia 
of reciprocating parts, fly-wheel weight and radius, and the like. And 
it becomes evident that where successful parallel running is achieved, 
it is the triumph of skill not only in design, but in the handling of the 
machinery itself. 

These difficulties cease with the turbine. In it there is no fluctu- 
ation of angular velocity. There is but one direction of motion, with 
no element to detract from even turning movement, and due to its speed 
there is stored up more fly-wheel effect than is present in the piston 

It is, therefore, found that not only do steam turbines easily run 
together in parallel, as hydraulic turbines have always done, but it , 
may be expected that they will operate with piston engines and the 
performance of the latter in this respect be much improved. In elec- 
tric railroad work especially is this feature of the steam turbine of 
much interest, for it is well known how irregular loads accentuate 
the difficulties of regulation. Furthermore, the question of operating 
high frequency apparatus in combination electric railroad and light- 
ing service may be more satisfactorily approached. 

The feature next in importance, perhaps, is that of superheated 
steam. It is now quite generally recognized that superheating is of 
advantage, though there is still much about it to be learned. Future 
investigation, however, in which the turbine will take important part, 
will reveal more precisely its economical status, and it may be hoped 
that before long the net advantages derivable from different high 
steam temperatures will be known. Meanw&ile, superheaters are being 
installed, and collaterally the problem of handling superheated steam 
has assumed importance. Engine builders themselves are feeling their 
way, for while some appear to unrestrictedly offer the Corliss valve 
for superheat work, others seem prone to confine it to the more con- 
servative temperatures, and others still reject it altogether and hold 
to the poppet valve where superheat is employed. 

The turbine may be used unreservedly with superheat of any 
feasible temperature. It has no internal rubbing surfaces, and there 
are no glands to become injured. Also, as no cylinder oil is required, 
there is no opportunity for lubricating trouble. Furthermore, there 

American Street Railway Association. 191 

seems to be with the turbine rather more proportionate benefit from 
superheat than with the piston engine, because of diminished skin 

Having said that the turbine requires no cylinder lubrication, the 
inference follows that the steam is therefore uncontaminated with 
oil, and that the exhaust, when condensed, is pure distilled water. 
This is true, and while it is of little consequence where water supply- 
is abundant and good and cheap, it becomes, where conditions are 
otherwise, of exceeding importance. In many sections of the country, 
where the water contains either mud or scale making impurities, the 
cost of repairs to boilers, with the expense in labor and interruption of 
service entailed by constant cleaning, is a besetting evil, and to alle- 
viate this trouble large surplus boiler plants are often installed. As 
a usual thing, too, difficulty is experienced in attempting to extract oil 
from exhaust steam. 

To recur once more to this feature of lubrication in the turbine, 
it may be remarked that it is an item of very little expense. The 
hearings are the only points requiring oil, the lubricant being circulated 
around under pressure. The reservoir being once charged, very little 
is needed to maintain the supply. 

Finally, in this commecial consideration of the turbine, one other 
question should perhaps not be omitted, one in fact which sometimes 
seems to outweigh almost every other — namely : How long does it take 
to get it? While the demand has in truth for some time exceeded the 
capacity for production (there being now under construction at East 
Pittsburg some 44,000 K. W. nn order), so that the turbine has 
required about as much time to build as everything else, the extended 
facilities now nearing completion will better this considerably. Cer- 
tainly, under normal conditions, these outfits, made of comparatively 
small parts, with no enormous pieces to be handled, ought to be 
quickly built, and what is quite evident, they can, when delivered in 
assembled condition, be so readily installed that the months sometimes 
required to erect large engines will be reduced to weeks. 

If it is, then, seen that the steam turbine in all the essential aspects 
of its commercial utility appears to stand on solid ground, there cannot 
be yet attributed to it the virtue of universal application. It has its 
field chiefly in electric lighting and power work, though in small sizes 
it has been extensively used for driving blowers, pumps and other 
devices. Its speed, of course, prohibits belt drive. 

But the direct-connected electrical generating unit has been the 
sine qua non of modern power development, and the reciprocating 
steam engine, under the stimulus of opportunity, has been brought 
nearly to its mechanical and thermal limit. With all the ingenuity 
and skill and patient effort that have marked its growth ; with its 

192 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

notable achievement, symbolizing, as it does, the march of industrial 
progress, it still remains, even in its most advanced form, a wasteful 
and complicated means for converting heat into energy. If we are to 
exact .further tribute from the agency of steam ; if we would hope to 
reduce complexity, and by a more simple, reliable and durable method 
of operation reduce the interest and maintenance charge ; if, in a 
word, we would improve the standard of existing practice and sur- 
mount many of its limitations, we must then change the character 
of our medium, employ different principles, and give to the generation 
of power a new and greater significance. The steam turbine seems 
destined to mark the way. 

Respectfully submitted, 


President Vreeland — Will Mr. Beggs open the discussion 
on this paper? 

Mr. John I. Beggs, Milwaukee — I have read the paper on 
steam turbines with a great deal of care, for the reason that 
two years ago I postponed all progress in the construction of 
a power house in which we expected to expend a large amount 
of money on units similar to those installed by the Manhattan 
Elevated Railway Company, in New York, and those now be- 
ing built in our city for the Subway Company in New York, 
because the matter of steam turbines was then being seriously 
agitated; and I did not wish to proceed with the work at that 
time and have some one say a few years hence that it was a 
mistake to spend so much on a power house with reciprocat- 
ing engines when it was about to be demonstrated that the 
steam turbine was destined to displace the reciprocating engine. 
Consequently, I have read this paper with a great deal of in- 
terest, and have gained from it some useful information. 

There is one point which has not been touched upon as 
fully as many others and that is the relative cost of the gen- 
erator to be connected to the steam turbine ; in other words, 
you have left out apparently the differentiating cost as to the 
turbine and the generator to be connected to it. I would like 
to know whether your estimates of cost, when you say that 
the turbine costs less, means that the reduced cost is due to 
the reduced cost of the generator ra ther than to the turbines as 
compared with engines ? 

American Street Railway Association. 193 

Mr. Sniffin — That question is not so material when you 
consider that these companies are either offering- or expect to 
offer these turbine units as complete outfits. It makes no dif- 
ference what the steam or electrical end costs individually, so 
long as we have the comparison of the cost of the complete 
unit. In a general way, it may be said that the electrical end of 
the unit is lower in cost of manufacture than the large re- 
volving generator that goes with a reciprocating engine, while 
the steam end itself is perhaps comparatively expensive. The 
price of the complete unit, however, compared with the cost 
of the reciprocating unit, including its generator, is the com- 
parison I made in my paper. It is not the purpose of the 
Westing-house Company to furnish the steam turbine alone, 
but to furnish the generator with it as a complete unit. 

Mr. Beggs — This is really a manufacturers' paper, and Mr. 
Sniffin has proceeded with the conclusions urged in that pa- 
per as a maximum cost upon lines which it will hardly be pos- 
sible to follow by those who are going to pay for these units. 
There are two or three concerns in the United States at the 
present time which are developing the steam turbine in con- 
nection with generators, but I do not think that those of us 
who are spending millions of money in the construction of 
power plants, are going to be satisfied to depend upon two 
electrical manufacturing concerns for the construction of the 
steam turbine, which is a mechanical device and entirely in- 
dependent of the electrical generator. For instance, some 
of the largest manufacturers of steam engines in the world 
are located in the city of Milwaukee, and I do not suppose that 
they propose to have their business taken from under them 
by the Westinghouse Company or General Electric Company. 
Therefore, it is important that we know what the differential 
cost is, and know how the varying estimates are reached in 
considering the expense of constructing a power plant, in- 
cluding that of the generator. One of the important points, 
which is entirely ignored in the paper before us, is the effect 
of the greatly reduced cost of the generator to be attached to 
the steam turbine, because of the high speed at which it must 

194 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

necessarily run. I believe the lowest speed at which it is con- 
sidered you can make a large turbine operate successfully is 
about seven hundred and fifty revolutions per minute. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Sniffin— Yes. 

Mr. Beggs — Those gentlemen who know the difficulty we 
have had in getting the electrical manufacturers to build a 
generator of sufficiently low speed to operate satisfactorily 
with the larger types of Corliss engines that are now being 
built, know how much they have had to pay because of the 
slow speed. It becomes a very important question whether you 
buy the turbine and generator in two parts from two concerns, 
or buy from one concern which may absorb the saving in the 
generator, and turn it in as an excessive profit on the turbine ; 
we must look at the commercial side of the subject, as well as 
the mechanical and electrical side of it. 

Mr. N. H. Heft, Meriden— I ask Mr. Sniffin what history 
the steam turbine manufacturers have behind them, also what 
he proposes to give to the purchaser in the way of a guar- 
antee as to the cost of maintenance ? 

Mr. Sniffin — In my paper I believe that I said something 
about the cost of maintenance that was found in a station 
in England, where something like a dozen turbines have been 
used. It is true the steam turbine has not behind it as many 
years of history as'the reciprocating engine. It has, however, 
sufficient history behind it to show that there is no reason why 
a steam turbine, properly built, should not be less in mainte- 
nance cost than a reciprocating engine, which must be so by 
virtue of its very nature. I do not know what could be said 
about a guarantee of repairs ; you could hardly get a guaran- 
tee of repairs on a reciprocating engine or any other piece of 
moving machinery. That feature is gauged not only by its ex- 
cellence of design and construction, but by the way in which 
it is handled. I think I can best answer that question by say- 
ing that the Westinghouse Company is willing to make for the 
turbine the same guarantee which they will make for any 
other piece of machinery which they produce. They will as- 

American Street Railway Association. 195 

sume to be responsible for its sufficiency of design and con- 
struction, and they will agree to make good any defects in it 
within any reasonable time after its installation. What more 
can you ask? 

Air. Heft — It depends entirely on how the contract was 

~S1t. Sniffin — Nevertheless, that in substance is about all 
you can ask of any manufacturer in regard to his machinery. 
I might say further that there is no hesitation on the part 
of the manufacturer of the turbine in making guarantees of 
economy that are a great deal more valuable as guarantees 
than warranties of economy made on reciprocating engines. 
We all know that it is common to ask and obtain guarantees 
on reciprocating engines, but they are almost a dead letter. 
The value of the guarantee is practically never demonstrated 
as far as the engines are concerned ; the engines are con- 
structed, partly assembled in the shop, wheels never put on, 
and it is a physical impossibility to test large engines at the 
works. The engine is shipped and put into service, and it is 
only- once in a blue moon that we find efforts made to test 
these engines, and when we do there are always many ques- 
tions introduced affecting the actual results we get in such 
tests. Xow. in the case of the steam turbine a guarantee is 
not only made, but it is demonstrated. If you purchase a 1,000 
kilowatt turbine, you may obtain guarantees of efficiency, based 
upon different conditions involved — so many degrees of super- 
heating, so many inches of vacuum, and so much steam pres- 
sure, and it is a fact that the turbine will be tested for effi- 
ciency under those conditions. At the particular works I know 
most about, there are facilities for making such tests — a large 
boiler plant, and superheating and condensing apparatus, and 
it will be found quite possible, and will be the regular prac- 
tice, to put these turbines under service condition tests. I 
think, therefore, that the assurance had in that way is much 
greater than we have ever had on reciprocating engines, and 
I think it is a great step forward in the engine building prac- 

196 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Referring to the question of subdividing- the cost of the 
steam turbine, I can only say that the turbo-generator unit 
itself is to be developed as a complete machine. You cannot 
have a good turbine and a good generator, and put them to- 
gether and conclude .they are going to make a good unit, un- 
less they have been developed with relation to each other. As 
our friend has said, there are not many concerns in the tur- 
bine business at the present time. There will doubtless be 
more. There are a good many generator builders and doubt- 
less many of them are expecting to find occasion to build 
generators for steam turbine use. Let them go ahead — -the 
more the merrier ; if any combination engine builder and gen- 
erator builder can build a good steam end and a good elec- 
trical end, and put them together and make the outfit run, that 
is all we want. 

Mr. Heft — I think Mr. Sniffin should be commended for 
his frankness, but I think it would have been a great satisfac- 
tion to the members if he had brought some data here based on 
history. The purchaser looks upon this question from the com- 
mercial side and not from the engineering side. I have been 
trying to get some data as to steam turbines for a year. I 
have gone to Hartford to see the plant that was erected there. 
I have been there three times and every time I have been 
there the plant was not running. It was shut down because 
they were changing something. They told me that there had 
been some little changes which were necessary. I asked the 
General Electric people to direct me where I could see a 
plant in operation. They replied that they had one at Schenec- 
tady that they were experimenting with, and that they were 
taking many orders for steam turbines. That, won't go with 
me. I have got to know what you are going to do before I 
will buy one. I will be very glad to be furnished with any 
history or data bearing upon the question of steam turbines, 
with a view to purchasing large units. I do not care whether 
Milwaukee builds the engines and you build the generators, 
I will take it as a whole on condition that I have some guar- 
antee as to the life and efficiency of this new engine. 

American Street Railway Association. 197 


Mr. Beggs — Mr. Sniffin's paper carries with it a contradic- 
tion to a part of his statement. One of the claims made for 
the steam turbine is the greater reliability in its regulation, its 
ability to accommodate itself to varying loads. I believe that 
general statement appears in your paper, Mr. Sniffin ? 

Mr. Sniffin— Yes. 

Mr. Beggs — If it does not, it is at any rate the claim made 
for the steam turbine, and I take it this discussion is for the 
purpose of directing the steam turbine to the attention of those 
who may be interested in either increasing their steam plants 
or in starting new ones on certain lines of thought and in- 
formation which they are able to receive. I have had exhaust- 
ive investigation made respecting steam turbines for two 
years past. We have held up the construction of a power plant 
in which there is to be- expended three or four million dollars. 
I have had our chief engineer travel all through the East, visit 
the works of the Westinghouse Company for two or three 
days, and likewise the works of the General Electric Com- 
pany, at Schenectady. There is a steam turbine running in 
Michigan, and it is said that the installation of a number of 
them in various places is contemplated. However, as to what 
the steam turbine will do in large units is as much a matter 
of conjecture on the part of the manufacturers as of those who 
are considering buying steam turbines. We know what a 
reciprocating engine will do, because they have been built and 
are in practical operation, and have been developed to their 
present perfection by the gradual process of many years' prac- 
tice and experience. Therefore, if the steam turbine is going 
to simplify the matter of regulation, and make it possible to 
run generators 'in parallel with a greater degree of success 
and a reduction of the contingencies likely to arise which 
cause trouble, it seems a much simpler matter to build a gen- 
erator to operate with that piece of apparatus, than it is to 
build a generator to operate with a reciprocating engine, the 
governing of which is such a delicate matter. Therefore, I 
take it that instead of there being one or two concerns in this 

198 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

country which will build steam turbines there will be many 
of them. 

I think the Association is indebted to Mr. Sniffin for 
what he has given us in his paper, notwithstanding the fact 
that the information is somewhat limited. 

Mr. Heft — I want to say to the members that I am not 
opposed in any way to steam turbines, but, on the other hand, I 
am a believer in them ; but I also believe that the manufactur- 
ers, when attempting to sell these turbines and have the pur- 
chaser exploit their machine, should do something themselves, 
and give us some data as to what the cost of maintenance and 
the life of these engines would be as compared to the recipro- 
cating engine. If a man comes along to sell you a steam 
engine, he is offering you something with a record and a his- 
tory ; but you have no history behind the steam turbine. There 
are very few steam turbine plants in operation, and with those 
that are in operation, as far as I can learn, it has been neces- 
sary to make changes and the turbine has not come up to the 
expectation of the designers and builders. Yet I believe for 
the operating of generators they will eventually become a great 
commercial success. I believe a manufacturer coming before 
this body, should come here with some data, some history, re- 
garding the turbine, so that we might know under what condi- 
tions we were buying the machines. 

Mr. W. Worth Bean, St. Joseph, Mich. — I only want to 
speak about a minute, and I do not know that I will say any- 
thing about the turbine, because in the first place I do not 
know anything about it ; and if I had the money to put in a 
steam turbine, I am not sure that I would buy it. 

I am reminded by the discussion of some of the members 
of the American Street Railway Association, in Philadelphia, 
in 1887, when Mr. W. H. Wharton, Jr., was experimenting 
with an electric car before electricity was generally adopted. 
My friend, Mr. Hathaway, and a few old-timers, objected to 
buying motors and generators because we had no data, and 
they would not put their money in motors and generators be- 
cause no one seemed to have had any experience with them, 

American Street Railway Association. 199 

and the gentleman by his remark is in the same position. 
Where did they have, and where did we have, any experience 
before we put our money in motors? How did we know they 
were going to work ? 

The turbine engine, like the electric motor and generator, 
is a new thing, and we should not be afraid to put our money 
in and develop it as we were obliged to develop the motors. 
Where would our Association be to-day if we had not devel- 
oped the motors and generators? That is the way we de- 
veloped the other industry, let us do that now with the turbine. 

Mr. Heft — That is all very well if vou have the money, but 
I have had quite large experience developing the large rail- 
way motor up to its present standard, and if I had not been in 
a position, in the way of a good contract with the electric 
companies binding them to exploit these machines at their 
own expense, I would have bankrupted the New Haven road. 
When I buy a machine to-day I want to know something about 
it. I want it as good as it can be made, and I want the fellow 
that made it to pay for the experiments. 

Mr. C. D. Wyman, Boston — I cannot speak from a techni- 
cal point of view as cleverly as Mr. Beggs, or my friend, Col. 
Heft, who have spoken upon this subject, but we have made 
on behalf of our various companies some investigation into 
this matter of steam turbines, both for large and small units. 
I desire to say that in our investigations, we have been treat- 
ed with the utmost courtesy by the Westinghouse and the 
General Electric people. I think they have been good enough 
to give us the best information that they themselves possess. 
It has been acknowledged, I believe, by most of those experi- 
menting in this. field that the steam turbine is yet somewhat 
in the nature of an experiment. I think, therefore, perhaps 
it is rather premature for us to demand exact facts and exact 
data as to results of such machines. We should rather ap- 
plaud the experimental work which they have taken up in this 
direction and feel grateful to them for having done as much as 
they have. While we may none of us be willing yet to make 
any very extensive investments in this new power, or rather 

200 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

method of developing it, we ought to aid in every possible way 
the progress of these investigations. I am aware that the De 
La Vergne Company have already built some large steam tur- 
bines which have been recently shipped to the Delaware & 
Lackawanna road, ancl I am watching with interest the tests, 
or rather the experience, which the engineers of that com- 
pany will have with them. I feel very certain that we are up- 
on the eve of some important developments in the line of steam 
turbines. I simply want to say that for myself I feel very 
thankful for this paper, and I am willing to wait until these 
gentlemen are ready to give us a more complete exposition of 
the subject. 

President Vreeland — It is the purpose of the Chair to give 
Mr. Snifhn an opportunity to reply briefly to anything that is 
suggested. It would be better if any of the members have 
anything to advance to say it now and let Mr. Sniffin's reply 
close the discussion. I will be very glad to hear from any 
one on this important subject, who has any new points to bring 

Mr. G. W. Palmer, Jr., Fall River — I ask the gentleman 
whether or not the cost of the condensing plant for use of the 
turbines is greater or not than it is with engines? 

Mr. B. J. Arnold, Chicago — I am not going to say anything 
on the subject, but I am a member of the Association, and I 
have a friend here who is not a member, and he desires to ask 
a question. I ask permission therefore that he may be allowed 
to ask the question. I refer to Mr. Katte of the New York Cen- 
tral road. 

President Vreeland — -We shall be glad to hear from him. 

Mr. Katte — I simply wanted to ask Mr. Sniffin if a central 
condenser plant could be used in connection with a turbo-gen- 
erator installation instead of an independent condenser for 
each unit. For instance, in small plants with units up to 750 
kilowatt capacity, would it be desirable or necessary to pro- 
vide an independent condenser for each unit installed? 

Mr. C. O. Mailloux, New York — I think I can answer the 
question of the gentleman who just spoke from my own in- 

American Street Railway Association. 201 

formation. I am now about to install, in a central station 
for lighting and power, at Roslyn, Long Island, N. Y., two 
steam turbine units, which are intended to operate in connec- 
tion with the same condensing outfit. It is expected that one 
or two additional turbine units will be added later to this 
plant should the two units already ordered prove satisfactory. 
I see no reason why it would not be possible to operate any 
number of units, with the same condensing plant, though it 
might be advantageous and, possibly, simpler, in the case of 
very large units, to have a single condenser outfit for each 
turbine unit. 

The cost of the condensing apparatus, so far as my inves- 
tigations have shown, appears to be somewhat larger than the 
cost of condensing apparatus for an ordinary steam engine of 
the same capacity. This is due to several reasons, mostly re- 
lated to the desirability or necessity of giving the exhaust steam 
a flow which is as free and unimpeded as possible. This neces- 
sitates exhaust piping of larger diameter, and much greater 
care in its installation. The condensing apparatus itself also 
requires to be of slightly larger capacity. This disadvantage, 
however, is offset by many other advantages, most of which 
have doubtless been enumerated in Mr. Sniffin's paper. One 
of the advantages is the ability to use superheated steam of 
almost any temperature without detriment to the mechanical 
integrity of the engine. In fact, I had occasion, in designing 
large power plants, to consider seriously the question of using 
superheated steam, and I have found, much to my sorrow, that 
with most of the steam engines, as at present constructed, there 
is a limit to the temperature allowable in the steam entering 
the high pressure cylinder. This is owing to a two-fold diffi- 
culty, namely, the necessity for special valve designs and con- 
struction, and for special lubricants. When we reach a tem- 
perature of 500 degrees Fahrenheit, the steam is very near 
the point at which lubrication becomes practically impossible. 
In most engines, the valve design and construction would place 
the limit at a still lower temperature. ' With the steam turbine, 
on the contrary, there are no hot moving parts which require 

202 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

lubrication, there are no valves and there is no limit to the tem- 
perature of superheating that is allowable. The only limit is, 
in fact, the melting point of the material of which the machine 
is made. I see no reason, so far as superheating is concerned, 
why, if there is any advantage in it, a steam turbine could 
not be run at a temperature where the steam spaces' would be 
at a cherry heat, so that the machine would glow in the dark, 
and we know from the well recognized principles of thermo- 
dynamics that the higher the initial temperature, the higher 
will be the fuel economy resulting from superheating. I be- 
lieve that the steam turbine, in that respect, is bound to be a 
factor of great importance in the evolution of improved meth- 
ods of using steam for producing power by means of steam 
prime movers. 

I do not hesitate to say that I am a strong believer in the 
steam turbine, having observed and studied it carefully for 
the last five or six years. I first saw it abroad, and was sur- 
prised to see the extent to which it was used, even though its 
use was principally confined to small units. I think that until 
two years ago no attempt had been made to design or operate 
turbine units of greater capacity than 200 kilowatts. Great 
progress has been made in the direction of larger sizes. Even 
already, the two units which I have ordered for the plant al- 
ready mentioned of 400 kilowatt capacity each, are looked 
upon as of small size. As stated in Mr. Snifhn's paper, units 
of several times that capacity have already been made and put 
in operation. My own study of the subject leads me to believe 
that so far from there being a problem in the larger units, I 
believe that the increase in size tends to facilitate and simplify 
the design and construction ; in other words, I believe that the 
larger turbine will be a much simpler machine, a more prac- 
tical machine, as well as a cheaper and more economical ma- 
chine. I have been presented, by the makers of steam turbines, 
with the brilliant prospect of looking forward to economies of 
something like 10.5 or 11 pounds of steam per indicated horse 
power hour. Phenomenal as this seems, yet it is even more 
astounding when we take into consideration the very small fric- 

American Street Railway Association. 203 

tion loss of the turbine, so that the steam consumption per 
kilowatt measured at the switchboard is relatively still lower, 
when compared with that of units driven by piston engines of 
the highest class. 

Now, gentlemen, I think you will all concede that such bril- 
liant promises are worthy of investigation, and that even should 
we find that we have to make a discount on them, we will still 
be doing very much better than can possibly be done with the 
very best reciprocating engines. The reciprocating engine 
itself has been brought to a high state of perfection, and it is 
not a machine to be despised by any means, but, at the same 
time, I believe that the turbine is the coming machine. I will 
not go so far as to say that I believe it has "arrived," but I 
will state that it is my belief that in a very few years, perhaps 
in a year or two, it will be possible for us to say conscientious- 
ly that it has arrived, and that it is going to stay. I have 
reached that conviction partly by discussing the matter with 
makers of reciprocating engines, some of whom have con- 
fessed to me that they are looking up the steam turbine with 
the greatest interest and closest attention. Many of them 
have admitted to me that they believe it to be the coming 
machine, and they have even told me with some satisfaction 
that they hoped to be able to go into the business. They assert 
their belief that there will be an opening for them to enter the 
field, owing to the fact that the fundamental patents have al- 
ready expired or are about to expire. Hence, the engineers 
and the users of steam engines, and the companies who have 
to install power plants, need not fear that there will be lack 
of a competition sufficiently keen to keep prices down. Even 
to-day the total cost, notwithstanding the increased cost of the 
condenser, is, so far as my investigations are concerned, con- 
siderably lower than the cost of an equal equipment using re- 
ciprocating engines. This ought to be so, when we consider 
the relative simplicity of construction of the steam turbine, al- 
so the fact that it requires little or no foundations, and that it 
occupies much less space than the reciprocating engine. 

As to the difficulties complained of in connection with steam 

204 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

turbines, I may express the opinion that they are as much 
mechanical as they are electrical in character. The fact is that 
the steam turbine cannot yet be used for operating large direct 
connected generators of the direct current type. This is due to 
the impossibility of making a commutator that will withstand 
a high peripheral speed. Whenever the steam turbine has 
been used for driving generators of the direct current type, it 
has been found necessary to place the generator armatures on 
a countershaft geared to the turbine shaft so as to run them at 
a very much lower speed. This countershaft is objectionable, 
and, for this reason, the turbine is admitted by its best friends 
to-day to require and to involve the use of alternating current 
generators. These alternating^current generators are far from 
having reached their ultimate perfection. It must be admitted 
that they still make considerable noise. This appears to be a 
defect more electrical than mechanical. It is probably largely, 
if not wholly, related to design of the dynamo, the shape of 
the pole pieces, the arrangement of armature conductors, the 
number and form of armature slots, etc. The problem is 
doubtless receiving attention, and I have confidence that in a 
year or two it will be fully eradicated. We all remember that 
the first direct current machines which were made, were very 
imperfect, and they had, in addition to several imperfections, 
the fault of also making a great deal of noise. That fault has 
been so far remedied that to-day we no longer complain on that 
score. I believe that the same process of evolution will give 
us the same satisfactory results in the case of the turbine- 
driven electric generators. 

In point of speed regulation, the machine will compare at 
least favorably with any of the existing reciprocating steam 
engines. In point of economy, it has recommendations which, 
as already stated, give it peculiar attractiveness. In this con- 
nection it has two important qualities, in consequence of which 
it is destined, in my opinion, to outclass the piston engine. The 
first is its ability to withstand overloads, the second is its high 
efficiency with variable loads. In the latter respect, the steam 
turbine is really a wonderful machine, its efficiency being prac- 

American Street Railway Association. 205 

tically constant from half load to twenty-five per cent over- 
load, and being if anything, slightly better when running with 
overload than when running with normal load or under-load. 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, I will ask Mr. Sniffin 
briefly to close this discussion on the points on which he desires 
to be heard further. 

Mr. Sniffin — The last question seems to have been answered 
in regard to the character of the condensing apparatus. I 
would only add that we like to have the exhaust pipe large, 
and leading off in such a way as to get the steam away from 
the turbine readily, and so long as the pipe is tight and the 
vacuum maintained, I do not see that it makes any difference 
which method is employed. I think that the questions that 
have been asked and the answers made to them will leave in 
the minds of the members generally a feeling that the turbine 
is still something of an experiment. I think I can disprove 
that. Col. Heft remarked about his visit to Hartford on two 
or three occasions when he found the turbine shut down, due 
to some changes they were making. I treat of that in my paper 
and I very frankly gave the troubles we had at Hartford. 
That turbine now has been running since the early days of its 
installation for some time whenever they needed it. It satis- 
fies the builders and I think it meets the expectations of own- 
ers. I think if Col. Heft were to interview the people who 
bought that turbine, and who paid for it and have operated it, 
he could probably get an assuring answer. I may say that that 
turbine was sold as a 1,500 kilowatt machine, and that it car- 
ries from 1,800 to 2,000 kilowatts right along, and it has, as a 
matter of fact, carried, without any apparent trouble, 2,800 
kilowatts. I think you have all seen the results of tests made 
by Prof. Robb in this turbine carrying about 1,900 kilowatts, 
running with 150 pounds steam pressure, about twenty-seven 
inches of vacuum and some fifty degrees of superheat, and con- 
suming 19. 1 pounds of steam per kilowatt hour. That, I be- 
lieve, would be admitted to be well within the line of the very 
best engine efficiency. There is a turbine at Stamford, Conn., 
of 400 kilowatts which has run since the first of February, 

20 6 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

and which has run ten hours a day carrying its full load, gen- 
erating current for factory power and lighting. The West- 
inghouse Air Brake Company has four 400 kilowatt machines 
that have been running for about three years. That plant is 
running to-day and it is doing all the work of the factory. Its 
economy is very high and its repairs are practically nothing. 
You can see practically no evidence of wear in these turbines. 
Now, there is some history. History grows quickly, and 
my friend who has stated that we did not know whether a 5,000 
kilowatt turbine will operate, should remember that up to 
three months ago we did not know that same thing about the 
piston engine. So far as I am aware, there was not a 5,000 
kilowatt generator driven by piston engine in this country un- 
til those in New York in the Manhattan Elevated Railway 
Power 'House were started up. With the 1,500 kilowatt ma- 
chine at Hartford; with the one at Stamford, with the four 
at the Westinghouse Company, with the work that has been 
done abroad, with the work that is now being done, I think that 
the turbines can hardly be called an experiment. One concern 
alone is to-day building 44,000 kilowatts of turbines on con- 
tracts. Among these are three that are for the Rapid Transit 
Subway in New York. They are 1,250 units, three of them, and 
they are to be used for lighting the subway. There are four 
5,000 kilowatt turbines to be built for the Metropolitan District 
Road in London. They are to operate the entire system ; three 
others of 3,500 kilowatts each are for the Metropolitan Railroad 
of London. The De Beers' Company, of Kimberly, South 
Africa, will shortly install two 1,000 kilowatt turbines, and 
they will both be shipped within the next thirty or sixty days. 
Prof. Thurston, acting as engineer for the DeBeers' Com- 
pany, will conduct a series of tests of these machines before 
they go forward, and I believe the data obtained will be very 
valuable. We are rapidly adding to our information, and it 
will not be long before we shall know more about the steam 
turbine than we do about the piston engine. A large number 
of these turbines are being built; they are building for people 

American Street Railway Association. 207 

who have investigated them, witnessed their operation, visited 
the works, seen how they were put together, and in the most 
careful wa}* formed their own conclusions on which to act. 
I think that answers the two questions. 

Mr. Heft — I would like to suggest that at the meeting next 
year the other half of this large electric trust be invited to read 
a paper on turbine engines. I believe there is some difference 
in the construction of the two, there being, however, no dif- 
ference in the price. It would certainly be interesting for the 
members here to see the ingenuity displayed in showing up to 
us the best turbine engine. 

Mr. Beggs — I think Mr. Heft's suggestion is a matter 
that the incoming officers should consider. I would like to 
add to it that the manufacturers of reciprocating engines in 
this country likewise be given an opportunity to have their 
side of the case presented here, in order that we may have the 
views of the engineers of standing and reputation in this coun- 
try, who do not think that the steam turbine is going to success- 
fully compete with the reciprocating engine and supersede it. 

President Vreeland — The suggestions of Col. Heft and 
Mr. Beggs are suggestions that necessarily must be made to 
the Executive Committee of the Association in considering 
topics for next year. The discussion so far as the turbine is 
concerned, is closed by Mr. Sniffin's remarks, and the Asso- 
ciation is very much obliged for his kindness in preparing this 

Mr. Heft — I move you that a vote of thanks be tendered to 
Mr. Sniffin for the very able paper which he has presented to 
this Association. 

Mr. Beggs — I second the motion. (Motion put and car- 

President Vreeland — It is so ordered. Mr. Sniffin, you 
have heard the vote of thanks tendered to you for your cour- 

Gentlemen, the next paper is upon the adjustment of dam- 
age claims, and the writer is not here. It is a paper rather in 

208 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

the narrative form. You will have ample opportunity to look 
over it. Mr. Beggs finds it necessary to leave early to-day. I 
requested him some time ago to make a few brief remarks 
as an opening to this paper. It will not be necessary to have 
the paper read, as Air. Beggs will discuss some of the points 
in his remarks on it. The paper has been prepared by Mr. 
Mason B. Starring, of the Chicago City Railway Company, 
Chicago, 111. 


The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : Not many years ago the caption of this paper was a 
subject which managers regarded in much the same light as that in 
which the modern horse first looked upon the automobile ; it seemed 
sure enough an invention of the Evil One and dead certain to 
hurt something or somebody, but with the growth of the street 
railway and the community it supplies with means of transporta- 
tion, that cancerous growth, yclept, damage claims, which had 
already fastened itself' upon the steam roads, began to develop in 
the street railway body corporate, and as it grew so grew the study 
and care bestowed upon its treatment, and all careful managements 
have long since commenced to place experts in charge thereof. The 
successful adjustment of damage claims depends largely upon the 
personal equation ; the personality and mental characteristics of claim- 
ant and adjuster are the prime factors in all settlements. No matter 
how fair a corporation may be, may its adjuster be never so able, 
yet if the claimant is so constituted as not to know fairness when he 
meets it, or so determined to bilk the company that no reasonable 
amount will appeal to his sense of right, then an adjustment must fail, 
and resort be had to law ; then, too, the question of locality must be 
taken into consideration. Some cities are pest ridden with the itch for 
personal injury litigation; in Chicago, for instance, there seems to be 
from five to fifty "drummers" for personal injury suits to every per- 
sonal injury, or person willing to claim one, to be drummed; and its 
taxpayers are even now being asked to add a large number of judges 
to the already large bench of the county in order to secure the trial 
of cases within a reasonable period of time after their commencement — 
what that city needs is not more judges, but an enforcement of the 
laws against champerty, barratry and maintenance ; if I am rightly 
informed my own fair city is not by any means the only one suffering 
from such necessity. 

American Street Railway Association. 209 

To further the proper adjustment of claims of this class, a proper 
foundation must be laid at their very inception; preparation for a 
lawsuit must go hand in hand with preparation for adjustment; the 
knowledge the claimant has that the adjuster is fully cognizant of 
all the details, not only of the accident which gave rise to the claim 
in question, but also of the surgical side of the case, and the etiology 
of those special ailments which the claimant alleges to have resulted 
therefrom, goes a long way toward making an unreasonable claimant 
reasonable. In preparing for the adjustment of a claim of this nature, 
it is always wise to ascertain so much as is possible of the antecedent 
history of the claimant, for, since the growth of the personal injury 
claimant business into an industry, it is no unusual thing to find one 
person with a record of several antecedent injury claims, some of them 
settled amicably and others adjusted at the end of litigation. I have 
in mind at this writing' the case of one woman who, starting in Phil- 
adelphia, had, as westward she took her way, accumulated injuries and 
suits until the one which she prosecuted against the company I have 
the honor to represent numbered seven upon her list, and it was her 
lucky number, too. It is very frequently found, especially in the claims 
of women, that prior to the occurrence of an accident there had existed 
certain obscure troubles which sooner or later must, by the progress of 
nature, force themselves upon the notice of their unfortunate possessor 
and his or her physician or physicians, but which had not aroused in 
the sufferer, up to the time of the happening of a street railway acci- 
dent, sufficient attention to cause medical attendance to be secured ; 
but when an accident happens which presages the recovery of dam- 
ages, every ache and pain is then watched with interest, one might also 
say with desire, and each and every grunt, whether caused by an actual 
twinge or by auto-suggestion, is attributed to the "awful" accident, 
and to the wicked conductor who started the car at the supreme moment 
when an old lady had one foot firmly planted upon the car step and 
the other deftly poised in the air. Some physicians find it to their 
interest to humor their patients and having a natural distaste for antag- 
onizing their patients by telling them that the complaints 
made by the patient and the conditions found by the physician have 
no reference whatever to the probable consequences of such an accident 
as that under consideration, leave them firm in the belief that all their 
troubles are due solely to the violence applied at the time of the alleged 
accident. This is especially true of pelvic and nervous disturbances 
of the fair sex ; many a woman directs her doctor's attention for the 
first time to pelvic troubles subsequent to an accident, when her comfort 
and possibly her health for a life-time might have been subserved by 
consulting him promptly relative thereto when the first manifestations 

210 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

of disturbance made their appearance. Occasionally instances are met 
with where the courage to undergo voluntary torture for the sake of 
the few dollars that can be secured out of a claim, attains so abnormal a 
development as to amount practically to insanity. Of these strange 
phenomena an extreme example which came under my personal obser- 
vation is so abnormal as to almost pass beyond belief by any person not 
confronted with proof. Shortly stated it was as follows : A woman 
physician, related to a fine family and of independent means, brought 
suit for damages. The only injury that she was able to show she 
sustained at the time the accident occurred was a slight sprain of 
one ankle. She was exceedingly heavy and in the course of the trial 
it developed she had had both breasts, weighing some twenty-eight 
pounds, excised and upon being asked the relation this operation 
had to the accident to her ankle or why she had it performed, she 
replied that it was done in order to lessen the burden of weight which 
her "poor sore ankle" was compelled to sustain. It afterward appeared 
that at some time antedating the accident she had undergone an oper- 
ation known as oophorectomy for the purpose of bringing on an arti- 
ficial menopause, in order that the conditions which nature had imposed 
upon her sex should not interfere with her attendance upon her duties 
as a physician. Subsequently to the trial and disposal of this case, it 
was said, that having learned of an operation performed in France for 
the removal of flesh from the thighs she hied herself to Paris to try 
this operation. 

Science has come mightily to the aid of the adjuster in throwing 
the tell-tale searchlight of the X-ray machine upon the human anatomy. 
This marvelous discovery is effecting great and good results in all per- 
sonal injury departments of those corporations which have had the 
good fortune to come in contact with, and secure the service of, an 
expert in its use ; many and many are the cases of fraud and imposi- 
tion which it has exposed, and a great, great many (how many I never 
have gone into the details to carefully ascertain) of the claims that 
bones have been broken or fractured in steam or street railway acci- 
dents have thereby been shown to be mere frauds, and that no fracture 
or fractures existed. Previous to the invention of the X-ray instru- 
ment it was much more difficult for the adjuster to ascertain the truth 
in regard to this point. A limb placed in a plaster cast is thereby put 
beyond the close inspection of a physician, and it is manifestly impos- 
sible to compel the removal of the cast for the direct inspection of the 
wound ; this afforded an easy and successful mask for deceit. Now, 
however, the X-ray reveals, almost at a glance, the real condition of 
the hidden bone. Could an instrument be invented which would as 
indisputably and as accurately determine the extent of injuries to 

American Street Railway Association. 211 

nerves and muscles as this machine does to bones, the task of adjusting 
personal injuries would be greatly lightened and the uncertainty which 
prevents an always accurate decision would be very largely removed. 

Not all the experiences met in the adjustment of personal injury 
claims are of the depressing order ; some either in or out of court are 
relieved with touches of humor which serve to lighten the dreary rou- 
tine of fighting frauds and imposters. For example : A homeopathic 
physician, of the female persuasion, brought suit against a surface 
road, claiming that a fall received from one of its cars had caused her 
to suffer so severe a brain and nerve injury that her ability to discharge 
her professional duties had been seriously impaired. In the course of 
cross-examination she was asked if she had not fallen down a full 
flight of stairs in a certain department store. Without hesitation she 
replied : 

"I did, sir, but this fall partially restored me to health. I have 
had no headaches since." With great suaviter in modo she said to her 
tormentor : "If you were familiar with the great principle upon which 
my school of medicine rests, you would easily understand why this 
was a natural result." 

Knowing the familiar motto of the homeopathic school, "similia 
similibus curantur," the company's attorney remarked : 

"I believe your motto is " 

And before he could finish his sentence she interrupted him, 
"Simile similibus, similiter." Bench and bar had hardly smothered 
their laughter when in reply to a question concerning the whereabouts 
of a certain patient of hers, she said: "He has passed beyond my juris- 
prudence." Certainly the originator of Mrs. Malaprop need not have 
searched beyond this good lady for a prototype. It may interest you 
to know that the verdict indicated that the jury thought that the prac- 
tice of this physician had not been seriously damaged by the great and 
severe injuries she claimed to have sustained. 

In making investigations leading up to physical disabilities, ante- 
dating accidents, with a view to ascertaining whether or no ailments 
complained of are a result of traumatism and are properly attributable 
to that cause or are due to other and pre-existing causes, much deli- 
cacy should be displayed so as not to unnecessarily annoy either the 
claimant or his or her friends or family — and in the trial of damage suits, 
however solid an array of testimony it may be possible to present reflect- 
ing upon the character of a man or a woman, a party to a contention 
of this kind, it must always be borne in mind that the natural chivalry 
of our race is prone to resent what may seem to the auditors of such 
testimony an unnecessary, or to some, mayhap, a malicious attack upon 
some person for or because of the presentation by that person of a 

212 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

damage claim. The arousing of such prejudices should be avoided, 
as, in most cases should the introduction of evidence as to intoxication, 
because, while it is true most of American mankind take a drink occa- 
sionally, few like to be charged with taking so much as to cause the 
enemy in the stomach to take away the wisdom in the head. 

I think we will all arrive at the deduction that there is no depart- 
ment in the entire management of street or steam railway properties 
into which the personal equation more strongly enters, and that person- 
ality of the right stamp in the head of that department charged with 
the adjustment of claims, whatever his title may be — even when dubbed 
"Claim Agent," that title now so thoroughly despised more by reason 
of its adoption by that vast body of ghouls sometime called "ambulance 
chasers" which preys alike upon the injured and the railways, than 
for any other cause — is the most essential requisite to the proper 
handling of this unfortunate part of our street railway machinery. 
My first precept, therefore, is "seek the man." Get a combination of 
absolute honesty and industry, with a moderate supply of brains, and 
you have a good man ; let any one of this trinity be absent and the set- 
tlements he makes will be mostly unsatisfactory, if he succeeds in 
making any at all. If the claimant possesses these same sterling at- 
tributes, the result will be an adjustment satisfactory to both parties, 
for in that event there must of necessity be merit to both sides of 
the case or no claim would be made, and no adjustment sought. If 
all claims were just, and all claimants fair, the matter of adjustment 
would be simple, but as a rule comparatively few claims are just, and 
fewer yet of the. claimants are fair, so that the faculties and percep- 
tions of whoever represents the company's interests must be ever alert 
not to be duped by dissimulation, exaggeration and guile, and to dis- 
cover actual and intentional fraud whenever and wherever its exists. 
Some claimants possess honesty, but not enough to leaven the lump, 
many possess industry to some degree, and all possess a certain species 
of brain; most of them possess what might be justly termed a low 
order of cunning; the doctrine of our homeopathic friend, that like 
cures like, must not be applied to an adjustment. 

Precept number two is "get facts." Facts are what win ! He who 
can uncontrovertibly and openly place facts before a malingerer puts 
him at a disadvantage from which he can never recover. Facts, too, 
are the enemies of some physicians. Look out for the doctor who 
puts the plaster cast upon the unbroken limb. He is a stumbling-block 
in the path, but employ to meet him not one who has a beam to pluck 
from his own eye. Rarely should the attending physician, if honor- 
able and a fair practitioner, be ousted from the care of his patient. 
Be the recovery of the patient never so good, if the company furnishes 
the surgeon who attends the injured person, by some perversion of 

American Street Railway Association. 213 

mental vision it is claimed alike by patient, relatives and friends that 
he is and has been sent to the bedside of the patient to injure him 
in some occult way, and by so doing, affect detriment to his interests 
and protection to those of the street railway company, sight being lost 
of the fact that the complete and early convalescence and recovery 
of health of the patient is best for all. 

A little book, lying on my desk as I write, says very appropriately 
of this theme : "Pettifoggers in law and empirics in medicine, whether 
their patients lose or save their property or their lives, take care to be, 
in either case, equally remunerated ; they seize both horns of the 
dilemma and press defeat, no less than success, into their service. 
They hold from time immemorial the fee simple of a vast estate, sub- 
ject to no alienation, diminution, revolution or tax; the folly and ig- 
norance of mankind. Over this extensive domain they have long had, 
by undisputed usage, the sole management and control, inasmuch as 
the real owners must strenuously and sturdily disclaim all right, title 
and proprietorship therein." 

Meet fairness with fairness ; fraud with firmness. "Fighting fire 
with fire," avoid as you would His Satanic Majesty himself. Fire 
cannot be handled without burns, and burns are at least painful. Avoid 
a reputation for settling everything ; it hurts stockholders' pockets ; 
equally avoid a reputation for fighting, but when you do fight, win ; 
settle all the grave cases that presage loss; litigate all those that pos- 
sess little or no merit. It is a juster as well as a wiser policy — for once, 
at least, Justice and Expediency run hand in hand. 

Very often I am asked to furnish copies of the form of release 
which is used in concluding an adjustment, and willingly comply; but 
one form of release is about as much like another as peas in the same 
pod, and in the event that a settlement is contested in court by an 
ignorant person, and especially by one having no knowledge of the 
English language, the more technical in its terms and the more in- 
volved in its legal phraseology a release is, the more apt a jury is to 
say that the person who signed it was totally ignorant of its contents 
and that the execution of the document was obtained by fraud. 

Some time ago the writer had occasion to cause a release to be 
obtained from a German girl who had stepped from a moving car as 
it was coming to a stop for her to alight, while the car still had suffi- 
cient motion to disturb her equilibrium. The girl lost her leg, and an 
adjustment was made very shortly after the accident, while she was 
still in the hospital, and was not made because of any liability, but 
merely to avoid litigation. After she got out and around, she was 
very easily persuaded by somebody — we can all suspect whom — that 
she had been imposed upon, and the foolish woman went upon the 
witness-stand and testified, under her solemn oath, not only to a state 

214 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

of facts which created a liability on the part of the defendant com- 
pany, but also that she did not know the contents of the paper she had 
signed ; that she could not read English and that even if the paper 
had been translated to her in German (which, by the way, it was, 
although she denied the fact), she would have been unable to com- 
prehend it and understand what it meant ; but unfortunately for her, 
and her attorneys, who had a large fee contingent upon the result of her 
story, she had written in the German language in her own handwriting, 
over her own signature, on a portion of the hospital record which hung 
by her bedside, "I got one hundred dollars from the railroad company, 
and I know I can get no more for my leg." Certainly not a very 
artificially drawn legal document, but without it there is no doubt but 
what the very perfect release which was properly and understand- 
ingly executed by her would have been set aside. It is, therefore, fair 
to draw the conclusion that in settling with ignorant people, it is 
wise to have them express in their own way their understanding of 
the purport and effect of documents which they sign ; and I have 
always cautioned adjusters to be particularly careful in this respect — 
never to make any misrepresentations, never to allow a person who 
has been drinking to sign a release, and wherever it seems wise to the 
adjuster, owing to the circumstances surrounding the settlement, to 
obtain from the claimant in claimant's own handwriting such a state- 
ment as that referred to above; and, in the event that claimant signs by 
mark, to obtain disinterested and reliable witnesses to the mark. Per- 
haps this little suggestion may seem to many discursive and entirely 
unnecessary, but to others it may exemplify, as it did to me, the need 
of the utmost care and precaution in concluding matters of this kind, 
for, generally speaking, the public maintains a double standard of 
morals — one for dealings with corporations, another for transactions 
with individuals. The man who holds himself bound to govern his 
relations with a corporation by the same rule of morals and ethics 
which regulates his relation with the natural instead of the artificial 
citizen, is fast becoming as extinct as the Dodo. Almost the universal 
attitude is that a corporation is not entitled to receive that strict appli- 
cation of the law of good morals and common honesty which is shown 
to individuals acting in private capacities. Put into common parlance, 
the public code in dealing with a corporation seems to be that "A 
man is entitled to all he can get out of a corporation." 

The atmosphere of such a feeling is typical of a very large share 
of the cases which come for adjustment before the metropolitan law 
or claim department. There is no escaping from the conclusion, en- 
forced by careful observation, that men who could not be induced to 
deal dishonorably with private individuals, acting as such, do not 
scruple to make false representations as to the nature and value of any 

American Street Railway Association. 215 

old claim against a corporation. This practice is so common that it 
may be classed as almost universal. And the men, or a decided ma- 
jority of them, who justify and indulge in this kind of "sharp practice" 
in dealing with a railroad corporation, might safely be trusted with 
a private loan, unsecured, and amounting to more than the sum in- 
volved in their suits for damages. 

Previous to a very few years ago, the steam and street railroad 
companies of every kind and the "common carriers" of various de- 
scriptions have been the main sufferers from this deplorable attitude 
of the public conscience which decrees one moral standard for deal- 
ings with the private individual and another and a much lower one 
for transactions with a corporation. Now the application of this double 
standard is being made to many other kinds of corporations. The 
municipality is the worst sufferer of all ; but the manufacturer, even 
the smaller and the private industrial concern, is being brought under 
the application of this sentiment and practice. 

Possibly, of all the varied classes of claims, with which the ad- 
juster of damage claims meets, the most dreaded and difficult for him 
to handle are those which bring to bear the subtle influence of "pull. ' 
Not infrequently a conscientious adjuster finds that this influence has 
reached "above his head," and that the discharge of his duty brings him 
into opposition with others more easily influenced and of higher rank 
on the company's roster. Quite generally claims pressed with this 
kind of backing are either fraudulent or extortionate. Of course, there 
are exceptions to this rule ; but the very fact that the claimant feels 
called upon to exert a personal, or social, or political pressure, or add 
to his claim the weight of some powerful financial interest in the insti- 
tution in question, is a strong presumption that the claim for which 
this influence is solicited is too weak to stand upon its own merits. 
In this connection it might be stated that corporate officers, and par- 
ticularly those engaged in passenger transportation, are not unmindful 
of the public attitude of sensitiveness and quasi-hostility towards them, 
and are, therefore, willing to make a just and liberal settlement with- 
out any undue influence exerted upon them, and for that reason adjust 
rather than contest even doubtfully meritorious claims. But, to go 
back a little ways, let us always consider an adjuster's trials and trib- 
ulations and not make his pathway too hard, for if he learns that 
claims which he declines are subsequently increased by reason of the 
so-called "pull" he soon gets to thinking that if somebody is to be 
a "good fellow," why should not he be that somebody? And if his 
superior officers are so willing to give away the company's money 
to please their friends, or to make friends for other departments of 
the company's service, why is it not perfectly proper for him to do 
those self-same things? Thus the company soon finds itself with a 

2i6 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

vastly increasing damage account. It is a good o"ule for any company 
to adopt to reverse rarely, if ever, a decision of its adjuster. If upon 
consultation with an adjuster it would seem that on the merits of the 
case in question, some action different from that already taken by him 
should be had, let the adjuster attend to that in his own way; do not 
have him feel disgruntled and overridden. There is no excuse for 
inflicting personal humiliation upon a man who possesses your con- 
fidence, who has your money in his pocket and your best interests at 
heart. Many and many a good man has been spoiled, I fear, by the 
unfortunate proclivity on the part of his managers to yield to the 
so-called "pull." If a company has any friends to make, or debts to 
pay, let them be paid through some other department and in some 
other manner. Debts paid in this manner are never considered liqui- 
dated, and a person who has obtained something for nothing for some 
one, by reason of his influence, nevertheless, thereafter boasts of the 
amount he has saved the company and the obligation under which it 
has been placed to him by his getting this or that case settled for them. 
This brings to my mind the subject of "go-betweens." There is in every 
community a class of people which seeks its livelihood by preying 
upon both sides of personal injury claims. It seeks the individual and 
impresses upon him how much can be obtained through the go-between, 
and how little without such influence, embellishing the yarn with won- 
derful stories concerning that influence, often to the detriment of honest 
officers, trying to make the claimant believe he has some hold upon 
them and that they are corrupt, and trying to persuade the claimant 
to see that the sun of success rises and sets in the great and only 
negotiator, and his Svengali-like "inflooence." And should this crea- 
ture be treated with any consideration he swells himself larger and 
larger, and as he himself swells, so swells he the head of the claim- 
ant, and at last, if he succeeds 'in'bringing the opposing parties together, 
his grandiloquent attitude dwindles to the proposition tritely expressed 
in the words, "How much is there in it for me?" while he assumes 
all the time the attitude that without his invaluable services, claimant 
and claimee, if I may coin the word, never could have come together 
or have reasonably disposed of their differences. There is one claim 
department of which I know, into which such an individual is not 
allowed to enter. Some things, in the human race, are more despicable 
than this creature, but he is sufficiently low in the scale to make it 
unwise, unsafe and, to every fair-minded person, disgusting, to have 
any dealings with him. Perhaps it is not fair to our sex to use the 
pronoun he so often in this connection — many and many such a crea- 
ture masquerades in petticoats. Much success depends upon the care 
and discrimination shown in selecting cases for trial, and while this 
paper should mayhap deal only with the "Adjustment of Damage 

American Street Railway Association. 217 

Claims," a word or two upon the corollary thereof, the litigation of 
damage claims, may not fall amiss. To illustrate, given a company, 
which employs and enjoys the reputation of employing only the ablest 
counsel obtainable and prosecuting its every defense vigorously and 
uprightly, and which wins a great majority of the cases which it 
tries, ninety per cent of the bar will seek settlements in terms not 
unfavorable to that company rather than meet it in court. Right here 
let me say another word about trials and their results. Never compro- 
mise the verdicts when results are unfavorable. If they ripen into 
judgments, make the best you can of them after they have been 
affirmed by a court of last resort , not before. The fact soon becomes 
known as to who will and who will not compromise for fifty, or some 
other, per cent of the amount of a verdict, after one is rendered, and 
that company or person having such contingencies to contemplate, 
and compromising upon verdicts in the manner heretofore suggested, 
will soon be confronted with the necessity of trying each and every 
case brought against it. The results are so much more satisfactory 
to the practitioner who gets fifty per cent of the amount recovered 
by suit and only thirty-three and one-third per cent or less, in the 
event of settlement. Then, too, think of the disappointment this same 
gentlemen feels when he cannot add mention of such compromises to 
his scrapbook of newspaper clippings reciting his recovery of a ten 
thousand dollar verdict against this company and a twenty-five thousand- 
dollar verdict against that one, which volume he so proudly displays when 
luring to employ him some unsophisticated, but possibly injured, per- 
son whose clientage he seeks, but who never saw or heard of him 
before his call. The sadness is appalling; weep with me, my hearers! 
Never, as the expression goes, settle "behind the back" of a reputable 
lawyer. If in rare instances circumstances compel such action, see 
that he receives a reasonable fee. On the other hand, never settle with 
the "ambulance chaser" ; it is far better to pay the client of such an 
one a hundred dollars than to pay him ten. Try it and see. 

In writing concerning the adjustment of damage claims, I 'have 
confined myself to those arising from injuries to persons and omitted 
referring to those relating to damage to personal property, realty, etc. 
I have also intentionally refrained from going into the details of the 
different means of procedure advisable to be followed from the mo- 
ment an accident happens down to the time at which any claim, or 
claims, arising therefrom are finally laid at rest. Every company, I 
take it, whose claims are sufficiently numerous and whose damages are 
sufficiently large to invite any special attention thereto has adopted 
careful, and one may say almost scientific, methods of caring for the 
injured person or persons, preventing fraud and starting immediately 
upon the happening of any occurrence which might give rise to a 

2i8 Tzventy-First Annual Meeting 

claim — the rolling of that ball of investigation which as it moves along 
grows and grows until it assumes and becomes a perfect and sym- 
metrical globe of defense. 

The temptation to overstep the bounds of time and space allotted 
for this disquisition is so strong that it now becomes me to say, with 
the old dominie, lest like him I might fail to hold the interest of my 
auditors, "I can make this paper longer, but I won't." To which 
comes surging back on the tide of courteously restrained impatience, a 
reply requiring no straining of the ear to hear, "We don't want it any 
longer; its present length suits us very well." 
Respectfully submitted, 


Mr. John I. Beggs, Milwaukee — Mr. Chairman, I feel 
constrained to say something upon this paper as a mark of re- 
spect to yourself, as presiding officer, and in compliance with 
your letter, asking me to open the discussion upon Mr. Star- 
ring's paper. But you have assigned to me something that I 
find it difficult to enter into with any degree of enthusiasm, or 
rather with interest, for the reason there is nothing in the paper 
to combat. If I could take issue with some of the points em- 
bodied in this admirable paper, I could talk upon it very much 
better, as I could with Mr. Sniffin or some of the other gentle- 
men who presented papers here ; but there is not a single line 
in Mr. Starring's paper with which I can take issue. It is an 
admirably prepared paper. It outlines in a very general way 
the practice we pursue in our own company. Mr. Starring 
has brought out the fact that the personal element enters into 
the adjustment of injuries and damage claims to so great an 
extent that it is almost impossible to realize the difficulties that 
there can be in the case of adjusting claims for damages be- 
tween various companies where that personality is wanting. 

There are one or two points in Mr. Starring's paper that I 
particularly desire to lay stress upon and that is the mainte- 
nance of an absolutely rigid policy as to dealing with all classes 
of claims, regardless of who may be affected or what influence 
may be brought to bear to compel or induce the company to 
make more liberal settlements. It is not an unusual thing to 
have influential directors of the company, influential politicians, 
and sometimes directors influenced by politicians, attempting 

American Street Railway Association. 219 

to prevail upon the management to allow something in a case 
of some injury for which there is no legal liability. I may say 
as far as that is concerned, if the entire board of directors, if 
all of the officers and all the politicians of the city in which I 
am located were to enter into a petition to make some adjust- 
ment more favorable than the conditions would warrant, I 
would not permit it to be done. When that policy is known 
throughout the city, and consistently adhered to, it has much 
to do with deterring pettifogging lawyers from instituting suits 
against the company. I might say that in the history of the 
company I represent, my orders are that in every case where 
there is a fair belief that the company is liable, to make a set- 
tlement if it can be done on any fair basis and to make it as 
quickly as possible. As an indication of that, I may state that 
during the year 1890 we had eleven cases tried in court, in 
which we obtained a verdict in nine of them. One of the two 
that went against us was afterwards reversed by the court of 
highest jurisdiction in the State. Last year we won nine out 
of ten cases, which was all we had to go to the courts. One of 
the great difficulties to contend with in dealing with accident 
cases, is to know exactly what the facts are. This is sometimes 
rendered more difficult because of the inclination of employes 
who may be responsible to shield themselves even under a 
sworn statement. I might say that the practice of our com- 
pany is to require a sworn statement from both the motorman 
and conductor in every case. We prepare every case, as 
though it were to go to court, and obtain as many sworn state- 
ments as possible, from as many witnesses as possible. My 
policy, in the treatment of unfair accident claims, is that if we 
could settle a claim for ten dollars which would require one 
hundred dollars to defend it, would far rather spend one hun- 
dred dollars and defeat the claim. Last year our accident cost 
was reduced to a fraction over two per cent of our gross re- 
ceipts. We carry four per cent of our gross receipts every 
month to injury and damages reserve. Year before last it was 
about two and nine-tenths, I think. Last year we reduced it 
to two and one-eighth per cent. This year it is less than that, 

220 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

and the reduction is largely due to this persistent policy of the 
application of fair common sense to the settlement of every 
case, and permitting no case to be settled simply to get rid of 
it, if you do not feel that you are justly liable. Therefore, I 
say, gentlemen, do not permit the influence of directors nor of 
politicians to affect the settlement of any injury or damage 
case. Cross-examine your own investigators and employes 
to find out the real facts in connection with it. We are very 
often confronted with evidence for the plaintiff and are dum- 
founded to find that we did not know what was going on in our 
own cars. 

As I said before, we have only lost on an average one case 
out of ten in the last two years. That we consider phenomenal, 
considering the juries before whom these cases are tried, who 
have the prejudice that attaches to every corporation, particu- 
larly a public utility. I am sorry, Mr. President, that I am not 
able to say more upon this paper for the interest of the Asso- 

President Vreeland — Gentlemen, before asking for dis- 
cussion on this paper, I would say that the Chair is very desir- 
ous of closing up the business of the day with a little exten- 
sion of the morning session. Contrary to the usual custom, 
in the various cities in which the Association has met, the Com- 
mittee on Entertainment insists on the President of the Asso- 
ciation acting as the toastmaster at the annual banquet. As 
I have that privilege to discharge to-night, I think by a little 
extension of the morning session, we will be able to close up 
the business, and it will be an advantage to all of us. The 
Committee on Nominations has retired and will be ready to 
report before we adjourn. I ask the indulgence of the mem- 
bers to this extent, that we give the necessary time to closing, 
even if it takes us a little beyond the usual lunch hour. 

The paper on the adjustment of damage claims, which was 
suggested by a number of members of the Association to the 
Executive Committee, is an important topic. It is before you 
for discussion. Mr. Beggs very kindly consented at a late hour 
to open this discussion and to get it before the Association. 

American Street Railway Association. 221 

We will be very glad to hear from any members briefly on 
points connected with it. The subject is before you, gentle- 

Mr. H. M. Sloan, Chicago — I ask Mr. Beggs whether 
or not he makes all his investigators notaries, so as to obtain 
the sworn statements from the witnesses. We find it very diffi- 
cult in many cases to get the statement even signed. Wit- 
nesses object to it. 

Mr. Beggs — All of our investigators, in fact everybody con- 
nected with our claim department, is a notary. 

Mr. W. Worth Bean, St. Joseph, Mich.— I ask Mr. Beggs 
whether, in a majority of cases, the juries are from the city 
or from the country ? 

Mr. Beggs — A majority are city jurors. 

Mr. H. A. Robinson, New York — Mr. President, I think 
Mr. Beggs is to be highly congratulated on the very success- 
ful result which he has attained in the City of Milwaukee. I 
have no doubt it is due to the fearless and courageous stand 
that he has taken in treating accident claims. I hope bis good 
work will continue. During the past year the corporation I 
have control of in New York tried 1,145 cases. Out of that 
number we were successful in about 650 of them. With this 
great amount of litigation, of course it is very difficult to 
handle it in the manner that Mr. Beggs has suggested. I 
insist, generally, on the taking of affidavits of the motorman 
and conductor, but as far as obtaining statements in writing 
and having them signed or made under oath, it is very diffi- 
cult to obtain statements from a large number of witnesses, 
particularly those who are, as a rule, of the lower class. It 
is very difficult in handling a large number of cases to get 
statements in all cases. Some days we have a large number 
of reports come in and it is very difficult for the claim agent 
to say from reading the report whether the injury is severe or 
whether there may not be some elements which make it a case 
of liability on the part of the company. The number of cases 
of injury some days runs as high as no or 115, so you will 
see it is impracticable at times to adopt all the methods sug- 

222 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

gested by Mr. Beggs. A point in which I think Mr. Beggs is 
mistaken is that relating to the examinations by physicians. It 
seems to me that in all cases where the injured party is not 
known to the company and nothing known about his residence 
or associations that an examination" by a medical man is a 
necessity. One of the great difficulties we have to contend 
with in New York is the unscrupulous character of the doctors 
who attend the plaintiffs. Old injuries of years' standing are 
endeavored to be palmed off on the company. Injuries which 
develop four or five months after the accident are made to re- 
late back to the accident itself, while in the absence of the 
examination the greatest exaggeration is indulged in by the 
plaintiff's doctor. We have in the company's employ six physi- 
cians. Even with the hard work they do, with all these cases, 
it is very frequent that we have to try cases without a medi- 
cal examination. I think the best method of handling acci- 
dent claims which come in in large quantities is to have a medi- 
cal examination made of every injured person. 

There is one point in the paper which has been presented, 
which I think is of interest, and I think in view of the prog- 
ress made by this Association that they should consider it and 
take a step in advance, that is to say, the execution of the 
general release by the injured party. I think it must be con- 
ceded that it is quite a ridiculous act to put before the ordinary 
class of man the general release which is the standard in 
the United States, containing as it does legal verbiage, like 
such manner of action and actions, suits, debts, dues, sums of 
money, accounts, reckonings, bonds, bills, specialties, vari- 
ances, extents and executions. A great many lawyers learned 
in the profession of the law would have some difficulty in 
explaining the various terms. It seems to me we should 
formulate some form of release which would take care of 
the objections without the great amount of verbiage which is 
in the document now used. We have had in New York cases 
which went to our Court of Appeals, some very early cases, 
which gave force to simple language. In one case, Coon 
vs. Knapp, the receipt read as follows : "Received forty dol- 

American Street Raihvay Association. 223 

lars in full for damages done to us, for all demands, on the 
thirteenth June, instant." The appellate court held this to be 
a full release and one which could not be attacked by the 
injured party. The only claim that could be made was to 
recover the amount of compensation set forth in the receipt. 
In another case, I find the following language was used : 
'"Received fifty dollars as a compromise for the full amount 
of my claim." The Court said in that case the use of the 
word "compromise" was sufficient to make this appear as 
a settlement, and there could not be any demand made except 
to recover the fifty dollars consideration. It seems to me that 
this Association might do well to draft some form of general 
release which might be used by all its members. I have 
no doubt there would be litigation over any new form, but 
in most of the States a simple form of release would be 
upheld and would greatly facilitate claim agents in taking 
care of these matters in a more intelligent way. 

President Vreeland — Is there any further discussion on 
this paper, gentlemen? If not, the Chair will order the dis- 
cussion closed and take up the next paper, which is apparently 
one of the most important papers. When it came before the 
Executive Committee last year it produced more discussion 
before that Committee in arranging these subjects than almost 
any other. From the considerable correspondence that the 
Secretary has received, I believe it to be one of the most 
important questions in connection with high speed, interurban 
service. There was a very important discussion of the subject 
in the New York State Railway Association meeting this 
year and last year ; and also in this association last year. The 
title of the paper is "Signals for Urban and Interurban Rail- 
ways." The paper was prepared by Mr. G. W. Palmer, Jr., 
Old Colony Street Railway Co., of Fall River, Mass. I under- 
stand Mr. Palmer is here, and we would like him briefly to 
bring out some of the points in his paper. 

224 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


Mr. Beggs — Mr. President, I regret to say that it is 
necessary for me to be excused from the meeting. I wish to 
express my gratification at the interest that has been mani- 
fested throughout every business session of this Annual Con- 
vention of the Association, and at the able manner in which 
the business sessions have been conducted and the animation 
with which the subjects before the meeting have been dis- 
cussed. It is an evidence of the growing interest of those 
who attend these conventions in the matters that are brought 
before it, and should be encouraged. We are under great 
obligation to the gentlemen who give the thought and time 
that is necessary in the preparation of the papers which 
form the basis of the discussions we have at our conventions. 
I have attended meetings of the Association within the last 
few years when there was but a very poor representation 
of the members of the Association, and I have at times ques- 
tioned whether it paid to come to these conventions. As the 
President stated on the first day of the convention, there 
are some who come to these conventions whom it is expected 
will not receive so very great benefit as the younger men 
receive from these meetings, who have had less experience, who 
have just joined the ranks of the army of workers in the 
street railway field. These are the men who should really 
gain the greatest benefit from attending these sessions of the 
Association. There are those who give valuable time in 
attending these conventions more through a feeling of duty 
to the business and loyalty to the Association to which we are 
allied than through any hope of individual benefit. Speaking 
for the older members of this Association, I can say that 
they have a deep appreciation of the value of our meetings 
to the craft generally. I desire, therefore, to give expression 
to a greater feeling of enthusiasm in the work of this Asso- 
ciation than I have had at any session which it has been my 
privilege to attend for several years past, and I sincerely 
trust that whoever the officers for the ensuing year may be, 
that they may -have the same loyal and enthusiastic support 

American Street Railway Association. 225 

that our present excellent officers have received during the 
past twelve months. I regret that important matters make 
it necessary for me to be in Milwaukee to-morrow, so that I 
cannot remain through the balance of this session. 

President Vreeland — We are sorry you have to go, Mr. 
Beggs, and the Chair thanks you for the interest you have 
taken in the proceedings of this session. 

We will now take up the paper on Signals for Urban 
and Interurban Railways. We will ask Mr. Palmer to intro- 
duce the subject and make any brief statement that he desires. 

Mr. Palmer — Mr. President and Gentlemen, there have 
been so many papers presented on this subject, and the dis- 
cussion of the same has been so wide and so ample, that it 
is somewhat difficult to present much that is new. My paper, 
therefore, partakes more of the nature of a general discussion 
than a presentation of any results of original research. As 
it is somewhat brief, I will ask the indulgence of the Asso- 
ciation and will read the paper. 


The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : The many recent disastrous collisions on street 
railways must have convinced operators and managers that the use 
of an efficient and reliable signal system would add to the safety 
and facility of the handling of their traffic. As faster schedules and 
heavier cars come into use, there is imperative need of a system of 
operation which will guarantee freedom from accidents caused by 
cars meeting head on, or by one car overtaking another. 

There is only one way to prevent these accidents : namely, to 
adopt such rules and methods of operation as will insure that but 
a single car will occupy any block or section of track at any one 
time ; any signal system which will aid in accomplishing this result 
is worthy of consideration. 

We believe that the steam roads in their early days were con- 
fronted with precisely the same problem in relation to signals as the 
electric roads are now contending with. The steam road signals are 
now probably as nearly perfect as human skill and ingenuity can make 
them. They did not, however, spring into existence in their present 
perfected condition, which has been reached only after years of use 
and effort to eliminate the defects shown up in practical work. 

226 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Electric roads should not, therefore, say "show us a perfect sys- 
tem and we will adopt it." It is decidedly our interest to encourage 
the efforts of those who are endeavoring to work out something 
which will be accurate and reliable and to contribute whatever we 
can to this end. 

It is obvious, however, that even a perfect signal system cannot, 
after its adoption and installation, operate a road. Careful manage- 
ment, and good discipline on the part of the men are still vitally 
necessary. We believe that no man should be given a second oppor-. 
tunity to disregard a signal set against him or to break any rule which 
it has been found necessary to make 'to insure safe operation. The 
employment of such a man involves a risk which should not be dis- 

When electricity was adopted as a motive power on street rail- 
ways, and especially when lines were built between cities, in some 
cases paralleling steam roads, and invading a field hitherto occupied 
solely by the latter, many saw that methods which prevailed during 
horse car operation would not do under condition of higher speed, 
heavier cars and greater volume of traffic. 

The need of something which would show that a car was ap- 
proaching from the opposite direction, or was a short distance ahead 
going in the same direction, was quickly perceived and the problem 
attacked by a number, on various lines, but all having a common 
end in view. Several systems of block signals were put upon the 
market, and have since their early adoption and use undergone a 
process of development to get rid of the faults which became apparent 
by their continued use. 

We believe that all single track suburban and interurban roads 
should adopt the best obtainable block system together with a tele- 
phone system which will enable a dispatcher to reach any car crew at 
regularly established stations. 

A signal to be reliable and efficient, should be quick and positive 
in action ; it should be impossible to set the cautionary or permissive 
signal at near end of the block before setting the danger indication 
at the far end; incandescent lamps should not form a part of the main 
signal circuit, nor should the lighting and extinguishing of lamps be 
the only visual indication of the signal. This should be supplemented 
by the movement of an arm or semaphore blade which will move each 
time the signal is operated whether the lamps burn or not. The device 
will then be operative if the lamps burn out, as sometimes will 
happen. Manual control affords unauthorized persons a chance to in- 
terfere with the signal, and should not be used ; the setting and 
clearing circuits should be closed automatically, and when the signal 
has been set at danger it should lock so that it cannot be cleared until 

American Street Railway Association. 227 

all cars have passed out of the block. It should be possible to set 
the signal only one way by two cars entering a block from both ends 
at the same time. 

Special attention should be given to freedom from damage by 
lightning. As the pressure is liable to fall considerably at the ends 
of long lines, and also on parts of the system when heavy local loads 
are carried, the signal should be able to operate through a wide range 
of voltage, and should not be liable to damage through crossing of 
the signal circuit with the lines. 

There are several differing systems now in use on various roads ; 
one using simply a circuit of lamps operated by a two way hand 
switch at either end of the block, part of the lamps being lit as a 
permissive signal at the near end, while the balance indicates danger 
to an approaching car at the far end : this system is peculiarly sus- 
ceptible to trouble from lightning, and also fails when any lamp burns 
out. As commonly used the switch and lamps are in the same box. 
and generally the car is run into a position where the conductor can 
easily reach the switch. In most cases the motorman then cannot see 
the lamps and depends on the bell signal from the conductor. 

The proper method would be for the car to be stopped at a point 
far enough to the rear of the box for the motorman and passengers 
to observe the character of the signal, the conductor going ahead and 
throwing the switch ; where the blocks are many, this will cause an 
annoying delay, which could be avoided by having the switch separate 
from the signal box, at a point about a hundred feet to the rear of it, 
and at such a height that the switch cannot be reached from the 
ground. When permission to proceed has been obtained, the motor- 
man should not enter the block until the conductor has struck two 
bells, thus making the men jointly responsible. 

An improved method of operating the signal is by means of a 
circuit closer hung overhead and at a point sufficiently in the rear of 
the box, the circuit being closed by the passage of the trolley wheel ; 
there are devices of this kind now obtainable which are reliable and 
effective in action. 

A better system is one which uses a setting and clearing circuit 
separate from the lamp or semaphore circuit ; most of these, however, 
can be cleared by the passage of any one car out of the block, and in 
case of running several cars together, all trolleys but the one on the 
rear car must be pulled down when passing the switch, or if the 
leading car clears the block, the car proceeding in the other direction 
must be notified of the number of cars following; this is an element 
of danger, as it should be absolutely impossible to clear a block while 
any car remains on it. 

Some device should be used which will record the number of cars 

228 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

entering the block from either end, and hold the setting circuit closed 
until all cars have passed off the block. It should also be possible 
to clear the danger signal from both ends of the block, as it is often 
necessary for a car to leave a block from the same end at which it 

There are certain single track blocks on the Old Colony system 
which are operated by means of what is locally known as the "red 
stick." This is a small club or billet of wood painted red which con- 
trols the block to which it belongs, and no car is allowed to enter the 
block without it carries the "red stick," it being replaced by a red 
lantern at night. This is a safe but not very flexible system, the 
absence of the stick showing one that there is a car on the block, but 
not the direction in which it is going. Nor 'does it show when the 
block is cleared from the other end. In case of delay or blockade of 
cars going in the opposite direction the stick could not be carried back 
and all cars going in the same direction as the one which first entered 
the block would be held up. It does prevent effectually the "bunch- 
ing" of cars at one end of the line. 

Double track roads are also feeling the need of some system which 
will prevent rear end collisions. Where cars are operated on quick 
headway and a direct view of the track ahead cannot be had, there is 
always danger of a car overtaking the preceding one. This is partic- 
ularly the case at night, and all cars operated on suburban lines 
should carry a rear end red lantern. This simple precaution is so 
obvious that it would seem as though it must have been adopted by 
every one. Such, however, is not the case. 

There has been some work done along the line of cutting off the 
trolley current from a car which has not the right of way, thereby 
making it impossible for the car to proceed. This scheme seems to 
us to be a very attractive one and it is possible that it may be effect- 
ively developed. 

Too much stress cannot be laid on the necessity of giving careful 
attention to the proper erection and maintenance of the signal lines 
and devices. In regard to the lines, their maintenance is more dif- 
ficult with us than with the steam roads. We are forced to carry 
many of our wires in streets lined with thick and heavy trees, through 
which it seems almost impossible to obtain good and reliable con- 
struction. In all such cases special attention should be paid to keeping 
the wires clear from the limbs and a tough and impervious insulation 
should be used. 

Regular and careful inspections of all parts of the system should 
be made, and everything done which may be necessary to keep it at all 
times in the best of condition. No devices should be left without care 
until they fail to work, which they may do at a time when there is the 

American Street Railway Association. 229 

greatest need of their reliable action. Efficient maintenance may be 
expensive, but one accident which might . have been prevented may 
result in a loss far greater than the combined cost and maintenance of 
a good signal system. Respectfully submitted, 


President Yreeland — Two gentlemen promsied to take part 
in this discussion, one of whom was to open it, but they were 
both called away last night and there is no one at present 
in the hall who has agreed to say anything on this subject. 
The matter is therefore open for the members of the Asso- 
ciation to take up and discuss. This is certainly a very im- 
portant question, and we will be glad to have a full discussion 
of it. 

Mr. W. B. Potter, Providence — I ask Mr. Palmer what 
provision is made in his signal system for the second or 
third car? 

Mr. Palmer — I have no signal system. I am not here as 
the advocate of any signal system. I am simply here as an 
operating man. 

Mr. Potter — I had reference to something I supposed you 
were using on the Old Colony system. 

Mr. Palmer — We have several systems in use on the Old 
Colony road, one of which is the United States system, which 
is operated by an overhead contact and does not provide 
for the counting of the cars into and out of the block. The 
first car passes over the contact, sets the signal, and the first 
car out, unless the trolley is removed from the wire, clears it. 
That feature I regard as a dangerous one. I think for any 
system to be reliable and safe, that it should be absolutely 
impossible to clear the block while there is another car on 
the block from one end to the other. We have also in use 
the Ramsay system which, as you all know, is simply a cir- 
cuit of incandescent lamps, part at one end, and part at the 
other end of the block, and which with us is more efficient as 
a lightning arrester than as a signal. 

President Vreeland — Mr. Wason, whom I asked to say 
something on this subject, was unexpectedly called home last 

230 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

night. I asked him if he would not before he left briefly give 
some of his views on this subject and they largely agree with 
those of the writer of the paper. Mr. Wason prepared a 
paper which I will read. 

(Remarks filed by Mr. Charles W. Wason.) 

Mr. C. W. Wason, Cleveland — Mr. President and Gentle- 
men : Any system of signals that will prevent accidents is 
most desirable in street railway work. This is one of the 
most serious problems the railway manager has to contend 
with. In trying any new scheme the question at once arises — 
If the signals fail to work, will the results be more dangerous 
than at present? I think that is the general feeling among 
railroad men. . They are anxious to find an efficient signal, 
but do not feel warranted in trying new inventions. 

I do not believe any employe should be discharged on 
the first offense. He may be an old man in the service, and 
before you are able to educate a new man the latter costs the 
company much money. I think men running urban and inter- 
urban cars should be well paid for their services. You can- 
not get something for nothing. Men with capacity to fill 
positions on fast running cars cannot be hired at the old horse 
car rates. A signal system, to be satisfactory, must work at 
all times and in all weathers, and with anv number of cars 
running in either direction. As lightning frequently burns 
out lamps on the trolley any system depending upon the main 
line current must be unreliable. 

On double track roads the end-on collision is eliminated, 
but rear-end collisions occur, even under the best manage- 
ment. The red lantern ought always to be carried on the 
rear of the car. ' I think it is required by law in some cities. 
When an extra car follows the regular car, the green lantern 
should be carried on the regular car. Where an electric head- 
light is used the throwing of a portion of the rays in a per- 
pendicular direction often shows the motormen the location of 
other cars. In this connection, it seems to me that too much 
attention cannot be given to the braking equipment of the 
car. This, of course, includes the sand-box and contents. 

American Street Railzvay Association. 231 

Money spent in eliminating the curves of a road is well in- 
vested in more ways than one. 

President Vreeland — Mr. Ira A. McCormack, now with 
the New York Central Railroad Co., promised to make some 
remarks on this question, he being familiar with signal sys- 
tems. Mr. McCormack has been in attendance at the conven- 
tion, but he also found it necessary to leave last night. He 
promised he would prepare a paper in connection with the 
subject. He has done so and left the paper with us; his 
paper is largely of a statistical nature, and he makes quota- 
tions from several authorities on this subject. The paper 
will be of considerable value in connection with the proceed- 
ings of the Association, and we will order the paper printed 
in the proceedings. (See page 233.) 

I want to call attention to one point of many in connection 
with this paper, and that is the recommendation with refer- 
ence to the proper signal on the rear of cars. On three 
railroads, of which I was asked to investigate the physical 
and operating conditions of the property during the past two 
years, they were operating cars under steam railroad condi- 
tions that prevailed fifteen years ago, as to speed and every- 
thing that went with it. With reference to each of these rail- 
roads I recommended that they put on proper signal systems — 
I am now speaking of electrical railroads — to compare with 
the steam railroads with reference to lights for extra cars, 
and particularly the rear lights. My recommendations were 
not regarded in any of the three instances, they being con- 
sidered as the views of a steam railroad man rather than 
of a street railroad man, and each of the electric railroads in 
question have had accidents from rear-end collisions, of which 
the least cost was $10,000, and now they are carrying the 
rear lights and also the other signals that go with them. 
There are many methods of signals that are open for inspec- 
tion in various parts of the country ; and I say, gentlemen, 
based upon twenty-five years of operating experience in steam 
and street railroads that there is no more important question 
to you (more important than track construction and car con- 

232 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

struction), than that of proper methods of car dispatching 
and protection of cars on these high speed interurban roads. 
As I said at the last convention, there is no collision in the 
transportation world that can compare with a collision between 
two electric cars in its dire results. I have had any number 
of collisions and wrecks to clear up with steam trains, but 
in all my steam railroad experience I have never seen as bad 
a collision as occurred between two electric cars. There 
are two enormous bodies of steel — -baggage or express cars — 
interposed between the points of contact and your passengers 
on steam trains. In our electric railroad work generally the 
front ends of the cars are of the flimsiest construction, and 
that is the point where the motorman rides, and on many 
roads the passengers are allowed to ride on the seat back 
of the motorman. In two or three collisions which occurred 
in New York State last year, and in other parts of the country, 
there were more people killed and injured than in any steam 
railroad wreck in the properties I have had to do with, simply 
for the reason that every one in the front seats was killed in 
the collision, there being nothing between them and the con- 
tact of the two high-speed cars. I would rather, if I were 
operating a railroad, have two steam trains come into collision 
at fifty miles an hour than two electric cars at twenty miles 
an hour. I am satisfied the results would not be so disastrous 
in the case of the steam cars. 

It is very important in the interests of interurban operation, 
before you are compelled by state and municipal regulations 
to do these things, to take them up and consider them and do 
them yourselves. The history of steam railroad signalling 
is Open to you. It is not the theory of any one. It is a scien- 
tific development. It has developed from the staff system 
up and onward. I operated as a conductor twenty-five years 
ago under the staff system, the system of signalling spoken 
of in the paper. The little points in connection with these 
things come back into a man's mind. When the staff system 
was spoken of it reminded me of something that occurred 
on the New Haven road where they used the staff system 

American Street Railway Association. 233 

across one of the bridges, single track, and there were posi- 
tive orders that no train should proceed over the bridge unless 
the engineer had the staff in his possession. It was a brass 
staff. A train came across the bridge and the fireman handed 
the staff to an engineer on a train which was about to pro- 
ceed over the bridge and the staff fell through the trestle and 
went into the river. The road was tied up until some method 
was discovered of getting across the bridge without the par- 
ticular brass staff that had been used. Col. Heft will undoubt- 
edly defend the New Haven road. 

Mr. Heft — What you say is true, and it only goes to show 
what a perfect system we have en the New Haven road. 

Mr. Bean — Had some one experimented with that staff be- 
fore they adopted it? 

Mr. George W. Dickinson, Seattle — They came from Eu- 
rope originally. I might say I have had considerable steam 
practice, and there seems to be a mistaken idea given out 
here that the steam roads have a perfect system of signals. 
They have not; neither have the street railroads. They all 
depend on the human agency, and that will fail sometimes. 
In the steam practice the desire and the effort have been to 
reduce the number of chances of misunderstanding by reduc- 
ing the number of people who control the movement of trains. 
With us in Seattle we are doing the same thing. We origin- 
ally installed our interurban service with a telephone system 
for signalling, and we are about to take the telephone out 
and put in the telegraph, because we find it impracticable to 
protect our train orders by telephone. Persons who have no 
right to answer the telephone will do so, and the dispatcher 
will send orders, and they get mixed up. We are going to 
run under the standard rules governing train orders, both as 
to' lights and signals ; fuses, rear lights — all in accordance 
with the standard system of train dispatching. 

(Remarks filed by Mr. Ira A. McCormack.) 

Mr. McCormack — Mr. President and Gentlemen : At the 
last meeting of the American Street 'Railway Association, 
held at New York, a paper was read by Mr. William Pestell, 

234 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

and, after having been discussed at some length, Col. Heft 
recommended that the Executive Committee ask the Com- 
mittee on Standards to make a report at the next Convention 
of the best signal system. No doubt this Committee has 
looked into the matter very carefully and has some report to 

I wish to quote from the address of President G. Tracy 
Rogers, of the New York State Association, as follows : 

"The unfortunate recurrence of some half dozen severe and 
fatal accidents within the present summer brings to the mem- 
bers of this Association, in the most forcible manner, the 
ever present obligation of ceaseless care and vigilance in 
the management and operation of their respective roads. It 
is such a simple matter to lay down a formula for the 
prevention of such accidents, but so long as human nature 
is fallible railway accidents can never be wholly prevented. 
You all know what elements of care, of prudence, enter into 
this consideration — substantial construction, complete equip- 
ment, good discipline, and last of all, but of the highest im- 
portance, constant inspection and accountability. We owe 
it to the public, as well as to ourselves, and to the reputation 
of industrial and mechanical intelligence, that every safeguard 
which experience, caution and liberal expenditure of money 
affords shall be applied to the carrying on of our several 

Thus the President of one of the foremost Street Railway 
Associations of the United States has brought to the attention 
of the members of his Association not only the number of 
accidents that have occurred during the last year, but very 
properly calls their attention to what they owe to the public, 
as the prosperity of a company depends very largely upon 
the safety of its patrons. 

The accidents that he referred to occurred largely on 
suburban roads. Mr. C. R. Barnes, the electrical expert of 
the Railroad Commission of the State of New York, read 
a paper at the Convention of the New York Street Railway 
Association, which was held at Caldwell, N. Y., on September 

American Street Railway Association. 235 

9, 1902, and as all the accidents are reported to the Railroad 
Commission, Mr. Barnes was in a position to talk and speak 
authoritatively on the matter in question. 

In his paper he states that the percentage of passengers 
injured in proportion to miles of road operated in 1898 was 
.462; in 1899, .480; in 1900, .450, and in 1901, .559. This 
shows a steady increase in the percentage of passengers in- 
jured in reference to mileage of road, except in the year 1900, 
when the percentage was less than in the year previous. 
There has been an increase between the years 1898 and 1901 
of .097, or an increase of about 21 per cent. 

These figures include all the accidents on all the electric 
railroads in the State of New York, including city and other 
roads, and are compiled from the annual reports the companies 
made to the Railroad Commission. It was the intention of 
the Commission to classify these accidents, and also to have 
made a percentage comparison based on car mileage, but the 
investigation of the number of serious accidents which have 
occurred recently has occupied so much time that the Com- 
mission was unable to make a detailed statement of accidents. 

The accidents referred to include the killed and injured 
resulting from all classes of accidents. The greatest loss of 
life and injury to passengers on electric railroads in the last 
five years has been caused by rear-end collisions. The next 
largest loss of life and injury to passengers has been caused 
by head-on collisions, and in this comparative line of the 
causes of death and injury to passengers are the collisions at 
grade crossings of steam and electric railroads. 

After an investigation of the methods of operation of 
railroads in reference to accidents, he states that it can safely 
be said that in a large majority of these accidents the primary 
cause of the accident can be traced to inefficient management 
of the road, and a large number of the rear-end and head-on 
collisions, resulting in serious injury to passengers, were 
caused by motormen running past switches where they were 
due to meet a car. Several were caused by misunderstanding 
of train orders transmitted over a telephone system, several 

236 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

by conflicting" orders being given by different officers of the 
company, some by crews attempting to "steal" a switch, sev- 
eral by crews taking it for granted that a car due at a junction 
of two lines had passed that point, others by a failure of the 
block signal system. ' 

There were two cases where motormen have seen a car 
approaching them on the same track and they continued at 
full speed with .the intention of making the other car back 
up to the switch, the speed continuing on both cars for the 
same purpose until it was impossible to stop either. 

Two were caused by running special or work cars over the 
road without notice being given to regular cars. 

One head-on collision was caused by a passenger car 
being used as a work car and not being placarded as such ; 
a regular car met it on a switch where another car was due, 
and supposing it was the regular car crew ran out onto main 
line and the two regular cars met in a head-on collision. 

Among the causes of rear-end collisions may be mentioned 
the five hundred feet distance rule in use on a large num- 
ber of suburban and interurban railroads ; cars coming to a 
stop at points on the road where the view of an approaching 
car is limited ; cars "running away" on grades and on wet 
and slippery tracks ; regular cars running into work cars 
standing on the main track without protection ; broken trolley 
wheels leaving the car standing upon the main track without 
lights ; trains being run in sections without the rear end of 
the first section being properly protected and a number of 
other causes. 

The Street Railway Journal, of August 16, 1902, in an 
editorial headed "Block Signal System for Electric Railways," 
states that several bad accidents which have occurred on 
electric railways during the past three or four weeks have 
called attention to the demand for reliable block signals on 
electric railways, and states justly that the electric railway 
is at a disadvantage in some respects with a steam railroad 
when it comes to the introduction of a block signal system, 
because on the latter the rails can easilv be insulated from 

American Street Railway Association. 237 

each other, so far as the voltage of a low primary battery is 
concerned. This fact can be utilized in a block signal system, 
so that the passing of a train over the track can be used to 
short circuit the rails through the car axles and thus operate 
the block signal apparatus. On the other hand, the electric 
railway has an advantage over the steam railroad through 
the fact that a five hundred volt circuit is always available 
and this current can be employed for signalling purposes in 
a way not possible on the steam railroads. 

The editor did not claim by this that any, or all, of the 
present methods of block signalling in use on electric rail- 
ways are perfect, but he did believe that the greatest factor 
in any system of this kind is the carefulness of the employes, 
and the maintenance of an intelligent set of rules for the 
manipulation and use of the safety appliances. 

In another editorial in the same journal it is stated that 
another example of the importance of having some reliable 
system of block signalling on high speed interurban electric 
railways was shown last month, by a very bad head-on col- 
lision on the new third rail electric railway extending from 
Milan, Italy, to Porto Ceresio. This line, which was formerly 
operated by steam, extends from Milan north to Lake Lugano, 
and is equipped with the third rail electric system. The 
precautions against accidents have seeminglv been fairly good, 
in that the trains are dispatched from regular turnouts by 
employes of the company, and no train is allowed to proceed 
beyond a turnout without special orders. The accident in 
question, however, indicates that any system of this kind 
which depends upon human judgment is fallible. The sta- 
tion master at Porto Ceresio station, finding that the train 
which was due at that point at a certain time was late, as- 
sumed that he could stop it at the preceding turnout, and 
telegraphed to the station master at that point to hold the 
train there. Then without waiting for an answer he ordered 
the train at his station to proceed. The north train, how- 
ever, had left the other station before the receipt of the tele- 
gram, and the result was a bad collision between the turnouts, 

238 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

in which two passengers were killed and thirteen badly 
wounded. Unfortunately, it did not occur to either of the 
dispatchers after the trains had left their stations, and they 
knew that an accident was almost inevitable, to switch off 
the current from the third rail. This of course, would have 
brought both trains to a stop, and the engineers of both 
would have been notified of the condition of affairs. This 
possibility of the control over a train after it has left the 
station is one great safeguard in electric operation, although 
in this particular case no advantage was taken of it. 

Mr. H. D. Emerson, in an article in the Street Railway 
Journal of August 16, 1902, on "Block Signal Systems for 
Electric Railways," states that it would appear that the 
English "train staff" system, which is operated by nearly all 
of the single track steam railroads in Great Britain, and which, 
with various modifications, is used all over the world, is the 
best system for operating on single track roads ; but, he only 
recommends this until a company is a prosperous one and is 
earning dividends so that the directors would be willing to 
have expenditures made for permanent improvements, per- 
mitting permanent block signals which can be operated either 
automatically or by hand. He also states that if operated by 
hand they should be so arranged that the lever is out of reach 
of people standing on the ground, so that when it is thrown 
for the block it cannot be changed until the car has passed 
the next block. Any block signal system should be so ar- 
ranged that if any accident happens to it or the line becomes 
deranged, or the mechanism gets out of order, it will show the 
danger indication. 

He further states that if it is desired to use the block 
theory and operate by means of permanent signals controlled 
either by electricity or air at the ends of the block, certain 
principles thoroughly established by many years of disastrous 
experience should not be overlooked. The first is that the 
signal should be simple and should have but two indications, 
it should say definitely clear, or definitely blocked ; that is, 
it should say "go" or "stop." This can be best accomplished 

American Street Railway Association. 239 

by the semaphore arm. When it is horizontal or extending 
over the track everyone understands that it means "stop," 
whereas if it is dropped at an angle it indicates "clear," and 
the car can proceed. In the same way the lights for night 
signalling should be position signals ; two red lights hori- 
zontally placed indicating "stop" and two green lights ver- 
tically indicating "clear." This is the result of signal practice 
the world over, and is understood and is understandable by 
all concerned in railway operation, and by most of the patrons 
of railroads. The cost of providing signals as described 
would not be any greater than the cost of providing the present 
signals now installed on many lines. 

In quoting from the articles as I have, I not only wish to 
impress upon your minds the importance to you as individuals 
in managing electric suburban railways, but also the duty 
that you owe to the public of installing some efficient and 
safe block signal system on high speed electric roads. 

The American Street Railway Association at last year's 
Convention, held in New York, had a paper on this same 
subject, and in assigning the subject for the Convention this 
year has realized the importance of block signalling, and from 
the fact that they have taken this action, in my opinion, no 
manager, who is a member of this Association, can afford 
to neglect considering and installing some system of signals 
which will add to the safety of the patrons of his road. 

There are at present two kinds of electric automatic block 
signals patented. One for overhead trolley lines, whereby 
the trolley striking a mechanical appliance sets the block 
signal behind the train, and also sets one ahead of it. 

The other is the third rail system whereby a section of 
the third rail behind and a section of third rail ahead of the 
train are used and the power is taken from the third rail 
setting signals behind and ahead of the train so that it is 
almost impossible for trains to have head-on or rear-end 

There is, of course, mechanism attached to both of these 
systems that is liable to get out of order and a collision result 

240 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

therefrom, but the principle, to my mind, to work on is to 
adopt something that has some merit of protection. You 
cannot afford any longer to operate a single or double track 
high-speed railroad without some kind of protection. 

For the information of the members I wish to state that 
the automatic blocking of trains in steam railroad practice 
within the last year has received more attention from steam 
railroad managers than it ever has in the past. This is due 
primarily to the fact that the large trunk lines have acquired 
larger terminal facilities for the handling of a business which 
is larger than the capacity of the main tracks under the pres- 
ent manual blocking system. In the past all the manual 
blocks were placed at considerable distances apart, which was 
done owing to the large cost of maintenance and help. The 
traffic handled over lines with such a system was greater 
than the capacity of the terminals, but as stated, the terminal 
facilities have been increased and there must be an increase 
in the traffic over the main line, and in considering this the 
managers have taken up the question of placing automatic 
signals at short distances apart. 

Last year at the New York Convention I was asked by the 
then President, Mr. Walton Holmes, to open the discussion 
on the paper read by Mr. Pestell on this subject, and I stated 
at that time, that the suburban roads must go to steam rail- 
road practice in formulating rules and operating signals on the 
same principles as the steam roads operate them. 

In connection with this there is at present in operation on 
steam railroads block stations operated manually under the 
Sykes Lock & Block system; the pneumatic system, whereby 
the semaphores are thrown by air after being manipulated in 
the towers by rnen ; the Union Switch & Signal Company's 
automatic system, which is a rail circuit system, and when a 
train goes out of a block the circuit is broken and the mechan- 
ism sets the signal at danger behind the train, and when it 
passes the next signal it breaks the circuit and sets the signal 
at danger, and then after going a certain distance it closes 
the circuit on the second signal in the rear, which puts it 
at safety- or clear. 

American Street Raikvay Association. 241 

The Hall Signal Company has two systems for automatic 
blocking. In one they use a track instrument which breaks 
the circuit, setting the signals after it at danger or safety 
as the case may be; and the other is a rail circuit system 
wherein, in breaking or closing the circuit, the semaphore 
is put to danger or safety by the use of gas, which is placed 
at the signal in a large holder, and which has the capacity 
for a great many operations. 

I was connected with the Hall Signal Company when 
they installed the disk signals on the Galena, Wisconsin & 
Milwaukee Division of the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
road, and on the Chicago Division of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, for the handling of the World's Fair business. The 
system put in on the Chicago & Northwestern was the track 
instrument, and that on the Illinois Central was the rail cir- 
cuit system. Both systems worked perfectly and they han- 
dled the large business due to the World's Fair without a 
single accident or failure. 

The track instrument used by the Hall Signal Company 
is a lever which works on a balance and is held down by 
compressor springs, so that when the tread of a wheel runs 
over the instrument it either breaks or closes the circuit, 
whichever the instrument is designed for. This system could 
be used on interurban roads, and is at present installed on 
the Metropolitan Underground Railroad, of Paris, and the 
Fairmount Park Railway, of Philadelphia, both of which 
are operated by electricity. 

The third rail system that I have mentioned is the Farn- 
ham system where the circuit is taken from a section of the 
third rail ahead of and in the rear of the train. While I 
made an inspection of this system I cannot speak assuredly 
of it as its use has not been long enough to give the system 
a thorough trial, but it has a great many things to recom- 
mend it. 

The Miller system, which we are installing in the tunnel 
in New York City on the New York Central & Hudson River 
Railroad, is a visible signal in the engine cab, which shows 

242 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

the block signal ahead to be either clear or at danger, and 
it has a great many things to recommend it ; for instance, 
the signal is in the cab of the engine in view of the engineer 
or operator. 

As a suggestion I would recommend to the Committee on 
Standards that they procure the details of operation of the 
several signal systems used by steam railroads, and their 
recommendations. As the price of the different kinds of 
signals varies, a road could then adopt whichever its circum- 
stances would permit. 

In conclusion I wish to thank you, Mr. President, for the 
kind invitation which you extended to me to discuss the 
question of block signals at this meeting. Having left the 
electric service to again enter the steam railroad service, I 
appreciate the invitation to come here, particularly as old 
associations are very strong with me. 

President Vreeland — If there is nothing further on this 
subject, we will close the discussion. We have been fortunate 
in having sufficient time at our disposal to give each paper 
and topic presented ample attention. There is only one paper 
left. It is the paper on the "Discipline of Employes by the 
Merit System," by Mr. W. A. Satterlee, General Superin- 
tendent of the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Kansas City, 
Mo. There is little in the paper except what is statistical 
and as it has been distributed to the members there will be 
no need for reading it. 


The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : The merit system of discipline, as applied by managers 
of steam railways throughout .the country, has recently been brought to 
the attention of street railway managers, through able articles in the 
Street Railway Journal and Street Railway Review, in such a way that 
the system is now receiving much attention. It has been adopted by a 
number of roads, and their experience with it has been such that it is 
surely worthy of deep thought and attention on the part of all street 
railway officials. It seems to fill a long-felt want in street railway 
discipline, and, in importance, is second to none of the recent im- 

American Street Raikvay Association. 243 

provements and betterments constantly being adopted and in successful 

I know of no single change made in the old methods of opera- 
tion, unless it be the adoption of the Standard System pf Street Rail- 
way Accounting, that should receive a more hearty support from all. 
Certainly no system has been adopted that is fairer to the trainmen, or 
is more likely to produce in them a desire to keep their record clean, 
and as many demerit marks from appearing against them as possible. 

There are many trivial acts, small in themselves, committed by 
trainmen in handling passengers, that as a whole tend to produce a 
feeling on the part of the traveling public either favorable or unfavor- 
able to the company, which once formed is hard to offset. Small acts 
of courtesy toward passengers by trainmen are felt by the manage- 
ment in ways unknown to the men who perform these acts, and are 
as far-reaching for the good of the company as small acts of dis- 
courtesy are damaging. 

To teach employes to be guarded in their talk, their acts, and 
their deportment on duty toward those with whom they come in con- 
tact, is a problem nearer solved in the merit system than in any other 

The value of courteous, accommodating and careful trainmen to 
any street railway system is of such importance, and so eagerly sought 
for, that any method of discipline which will accomplish that end will 
be of so great worth as to make management of street railway property 
a pleasure instead of care and worry that breaks down the health of 
any but robust men. 

As a rule, men who seek employment in the train service of street 
railway lines are inexperienced in the art of handling the public in 
the way an exacting public expect, and acquire the tact only by con- 
tinuous contact and experience, after training under some system of 
discipline worked out by those who, for years, have watched the needs 
and exactions of a people who expect the same attention from an 
inexperienced street car conductor, who may have been in the service 
only a few. weeks, that they get from a steam railway conductor who 
has been under a system of training with his company for from 
eight to ten years before he has acquired the position where he comes 
in contact with the traveler. 

To give the street railway public the service which they expect, 
and which they exact, is the aim and desire of all managers, but is a 
well-nigh impossible thing to do. To come as near the goal as human 
ingenuity can, may be done through the different experiences and 
methods used by well-managed roads, and by discussions and friendly 
criticisms brought about through the several papers written by different 
parties for this convention, and it would appear to me that the sub- 

244 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

ject assigned to my company is one that should call forth from all 
representatives present a most interesting and instructive debate. 

In brief, the system consists of a debit and credit account with 
each trainman, kept in a book ruled for that purpose, or in alphabetical 
files, his violation of rules being charged against him by a certain 
number of demerit marks, the number for any one offense depending 
upon the seriousness of same. As an offset against these demerit 
marks, he is entitled to receive a certain number of merit marks for 
acts performed which would be considered by the company worthy 
and deserving of recognition. 

If at any time within one year the demerit marks exceed the merit 
marks by a certain number fixed upon by the company, then the party 
receiving them is liable to discharge. 

The detail of the working of the system as practiced by the com- 
pany with which I am connected, but which can be varied to suit the 
ideas of different operators, is as follows : 

A list of violation of rules with the number of demerits imposed 
for each is posted in frames at each reporting place, that trainmen 
may know in advance the penalty, and also a list of acts considered 
worthy of merit with number of merits given for each. 

A blank notice, made in carbon copy which is filed in the office, 
reading as follows, is sent to each trainman, with his name filled in 
blank space, whenever he gets demerits or merits : 


Kansas City, Mo 190. 


You have to-day been given DEMERIT MARKS on charge 

No contained in the merit system of discipline. 




Assistant Superintendent. 

American Street Railway Association. 245 


Kansas City, Mo 190 


You have this day been given merit marks on No. 

contained in merit system of discipline. 




Assistant Superintendent. 
Another notice, without trainman's name, is posted on board at 
reporting place, as notice to all other men that a conductor or motor- 
man has been disciplined, with the charge, and number of demerit 
or merit marks he has received. 



Kansas City, Mo 190 ... . 

A on line has this day been 

given marks on charge No in merit system of 


Assistant Superintendent. 

Whenever a man's demerits exceed his merits by 100 he is liable 
to discharge. 

The old system of lay-offs and fines has been done away with and 
the service much improved in the short time the new system has been 
in vogue, since June 1st, 1902. 

Merit No. 10 for conductors (No. 9 for motormen) is broad enough 
to cover many things coming under the observation of inspectors, that 
show good judgment and interest in handling the public, and in such 
cases a liberal giving of merit marks will be appreciated by trainmen, 
and will redound to the profit of the company. A little praise given 
any employe by an employer is worth more and is more productive of 
good work tenfold than any reprimand. We all, no matter what posi- 
tion we hold, are pleased with notice taken of our work by those who 
are our immediate superiors, and a word of praise coming from a 
superintendent or manager to any employe working under the merit 
system will certainly not be lost. 

The trainman who takes off his coat and gets to work first in a 
lay-out caused by a broken-down car or a wire down, etc., marks him- 

246 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

self right then and there as a man the company needs, and he should 
get merit marks. If he takes an interest in clearing up such trouble, 
it is safe to say he will take the same interest in other matters. Too 
many men wait for some other man to take the lead and in that way 
much valuable time is lost in blockades, when there is no incentive or 
reward to spur them on. Those with demerit marks wait for an oppor- 
tunity to reduce the number by getting enough merits to offset their 
demerits, and come to the front in case of trouble, showing by their 
desire to render assistance an interest in company matters not shown 
before. Whenever men can be taught to take the same interest in 
their employer's business they would in their own business, then that 
employer will get the most perfect service possible, and when the 
employer succeeds in getting a system of discipline that will bring 
about that result, then he has what has long been sought for, and 
until some system has been discovered better than the merit system, 
the latter should receive the hearty support and assistance of all man- 
agers of street railway property. Good train service is the vital cord 
in operation and trainmen make it good or bad according to their 


Immediate Discharge. 

1. Disloyalty to company. 

2. False statements. 

3. Intoxication. 

4. Dishonesty. 

5. Gross ungentlemanly conduct. 


6. Failing to report accidents 10 to 100 

7. Missing — 

First time 10 

Second time in one month 20 

Third time in one month 30 

8. Smoking on duty 30 

9. Failure to make safety stop at crossings where required. 30 

10. Incomplete and poor accident reports I to 5 

1 1. Untidy condition of dress 2 

12. Recommending unworthy men for employment 5 

13. Neglecting to pick up passengers 10 

14. Running over circuit breakers and overhead crossings 

without throwing off current 5 

15. Allowing unauthorized persons in front vestibule. 5 

16. Fast running 5 

American Street Railway Association. 247 

17. Front headlight not burning 8 

18. Entering saloons in uniform without good excuse 10 

19. Frequenting saloons at any time SO 

20. Gambling 50 

21. Drinking on duty or before going on duty 20 

22. Disobedience of orders (if flagrant — discharge) 10 

23. Profanity on duty 5 

24. Accidents when avoidable in opinion of superintendent.. 10 to 100 

25. Unnecessary conversation with passengers 10 

26. Talking to conductors on duty 5 

27. Failing to report trouble with car 5 

28. Not answering signals promptly 1 

29. Feeding current too fast 3 

30. Running away from passengers at transfer points 10 

31. Not ringing bell in passing car 2 

32. Running ahead of schedule time 3 

33. Not slowing up in passing car 5 

34. Skinning the cable 25 

35. Starting car without proper signal, except to avoid col- 

lision 20 

36. Following car in front too close 10 

37. Starting electric car before closing gates 10 

38. Opening electric gates before car stops 10 

39. Running too close to wagons upon track before getting 

car completely under control 10 

40. Bad judgment on special occasions 1 to 10 

41. Leaving car without taking reverse lever 10 

42. Flattening wheels 10 to 20 

43. Injury to car equipment that could be avoided by proper 

care and judgment 10 to 20 

44. Not stopping for passengers to get on (if at proper 

place) 10 

45. Not obeying conductor's signal 5 

46. Running crossings without proper flagman's signal where 

required 20 

47. Cutting rope 25 to 50 

48. Trouble with passengers when gripman or motorman is 

to blame 10 

49. Garnishee — 

First time 10 

Second time 10 to 50 

Third time 50 to 100 

50. Assignment of wages or security deposit 25 

51. Talking to others than proper officers of company about 

accidents 20 

2^8 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


52. Careless and indifferent operating of car 3 to 10 

53. Criticizing management of road in presence of passengers 3 

54. Failing to report delays , 2 

55. Not having proper tools 3 

56. Plugging car except to avoid accidents 5 

57. Running without sand in sand box 3 

58. Acts detrimental to good service in opinion of superin- 

tendent 3 to 20 

59. Incompetency 25 to 100 

60. Holding train with cable 10 



1. Warning persons in act of jumping on or off moving car 

to wait for car to come to stop 2 

2. Securing names and addresses of witnesses who saw ac- 

cident, other than those on accident report 2 to 5 

3. Politeness and attention to passengers noticed by in- 

spectors 3 

4. Assistance rendered in case of accident, such as to bring 

commendation from passengers 3 

5. Informing company of matters in the interest of good 

service, etc 3 to 10 

6. Complete and perfect accident reports 2 

7. Good stop in avoiding accident 5 

8. Good judgment and work in handling lay-out or block- 

ade 2 to 5 

9. Special meritorious act calling for recognition from com- 

pany 10 to 50 

10. Careful handling of car 5 

Immediate Discharge. 

1. Disloyalty to company. 

2. False statements. 

3. Intoxication. 

4. Dishonesty. 

5. Gross ungentlemanly conduct. 


6. Failing to report accidents 10 to 100 

7. Giving bells too quick 5 

8. Smoking on duty 30 

9. Error on trip sheet 1 to 5 

10. Shortage 

11. Overage (except when pay check is turned in) 

Over six in one month, each 2 to 5 

American Street Railway Association. 249 

12. Missing fares 3 to 10 

13. Failing to ring fares 5 to 20 

14. Failing to properly flag crossings when required 10 

15. Incomplete and poor accident reports 1 to 5 

16. Inattention to passengers 2 

17. Trouble with passengers when conductor is to blame 10 

18. Missing — 

First time 10 

Second time in one month 20 

Third time in one month 30 

19. Dirty car 5 

20. Untidy condition of dress 2 

21. Recommending unworthy men for employment 5 

22. Back headlight burning except in case of fog 1 

23. Reading on duty 10 

24. Sitting down in car on duty (when running) 5 

25.' Talking to motorman or gripman on duty 5 

26. Letting boys change trolley 5 

27. Entering saloon in uniform without good excuse 10 

28. Frequenting saloons at any time 50 

29. Unnecessary conversation with passengers 10 

30. Accident when avoidable in opinion of superintendent... 10 to 100 

31. Failure to announce streets 1 to 5 

32. Profanity on duty 5 

33. Disobedience to orders (if flagrant — discharge) 10 

34. Error in punching transfers 2 

35. Deliberate punching of transfers to permit passengers to 

lay over 20 

36. Gambling 50 

37. Drinking on duty or before going on duty 20 

38. Running away from passengers at transfer points 10 

39. Bad judgment on special occasions 1 to 10 

40. Bad judgment or carelessness in regulating heat on cars. . 2 

41. Criticising management of road in presence of passengers 3 

42. Neglecting to get transfers enough at barn to avoid bor- 

rowing 2 

43. Talking about accidents to others than proper officers of 

company 20 

44. Register not turned at end of line 10 

45. Not in proper place on car 3 

46. Careless and indifferent operating of car 3 to 10 

47. Giving bells when not in proper place 5 

48. Impolite remarks to passengers 5 to 25 

250 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

49. Garnishee, 1st time 10 

2d time 10 to 50 

3d time 50 to 100 

50. Assignment of wages or security deposit 25 

51. Failing to report register when out of order 3 

52. Not going ahead and trying to locate cut rope or broken 

trolley when same is cut or down 5 

53. Failing to report delays 2 

54. Acts detrimental to good service in opinion of superinten- 

dent 3 to 20 

55. Incompetency 25 to 100 

56. Bunching fares .- 5 

57. Carrying people free 5 to 10 



1. Warning persons in act of jumping on or off moving car 

to wait for car to stop 2 

2. Securing names and addresses of witnesses who saw 

accident, other than those on accident report 2 to 5 

3. Politeness and attention to passengers noticed by inspect- 

ors 3 

4. Assistance rendered in case of accident such as to bring 

commendation from passengers 3 

5. Adjustment of shades and windows to please passengers. 1 

6. Informing Company of matters in the interest of good 

service, etc 3 to 10 

7. Reports as to defects in equipment while operating car. . 1 

8. Complete and perfect accident reports 2 

9. Good judgment and work in handling lay-out or blockade. 2 to 5 

10. Special meritorious act calling for recognition from Com- 

pany 10 to 50 

11. Turning in passes or badges ordered up by Company. ... 5 

Respectfully submitted, 


President Vreeland — I ask Mr. Harrington to open the 
discussion on this paper. 

Mr. W. E. Harrington, Camden, N. J. — The paper just 
presented by Mr. Satterlee is a valuable contribution and 
is a clear and concise statement indicating the tendency of 
recent practice in disciplinary methods. The interest taken 
in the subject of discipline, the method, the rule of procedure 
and the relation the employer should bear to the employe has 

American Street Railway Association. 251 

never been greater than at the present time. The individuality 
of the employer has as much, if not more, to do with the 
results of any system of discipline than the system itself. A 
system is not a panacea. It is conceded by all that the old 
method of suspension for violation of rule is not fruitful of 
good results. The reasons for this conclusion are too well 
known to be discussed here. 

Certain facts have become patent as being essential to . 
any system of discipline, to-wit: 

(A) The keeping of a thorough history of each em- 
ploye from the date of his employment, showing clearly all 
irregularities, violations of rules, relation to complaints, acci- 
dents, and secret service. 

(B) The employe to receive a hearing, to be treated 
with consideration, to be given an opportunity to explain 
under proper conditions and surroundings his position, before 
discipline be accorded. 

Any system in which the employe is disciplined, conform- 
ing to the above features, will conduce to better feeling and 
be followed by generally better results. 

Experience has dictated that in exercising discipline great 
care must be observed in not passing judgment until all facts 
have been thoroughly investigated. 

Experience has furthermore demonstrated that the various 
misdeeds, violations of orders, breaches of discipline of the 
employe, in some way or another, are brought to the attention 
of the employer; whereas, the commendable acts, the little 
refinements of courtesy, tact, observance of duty and rules, 
that may be the practice of the employe, are seldom known 
of and are really and legitimately expected. 

Threats are not conducive to good discipline, to good 
results. What good can possibly come from balancing bad 
against good? When bad is from the very nature of things 
bound to crop out and be known, while good is less apparent, 
less known and never as strenuously obtruded upon us? 
Wherein does the good, conscientious, able, trustworthy em- 
ploye profit from a system of merits and demerits? It does 

252 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

not seem that the merit and demerit system reaches the core. 
I have in mind men who would not care in the slightest 
whether they had ten or one hundred demerits, or merits, 
they will run the chances of detection in just the same fashion 
certain conductors will run the chances of detection in the mat- 
ter of irregularities in fare registration. However, let those 
same men actually lose something, though it be but a little, in 
their standing in the grade, class or seniority — it need not, 
and in fact better not, be an action that would eventually 
hold out the threat of discharge — what is the result? The 
punishment is immediate, the penalty is made at once, the 
evil doer suffers and, what is more advantageous, the worthy, 
painstaking employe receives immediately what he is entitled 
to — recognition and advancement. 

I have tried the suspension system, the merit and demerit 
system, and abandoned them both after careful and persistent 
trial and effort. 

The demotion system was first put into effect upon our 
railway just about two and a half years ago, and has been 
gradually developed into a thoroughly operative, practical sys- 
tem and conducive to the best results. 

Under this system an employe for any irregularity is 
notified that he will be demoted one or more points on the 
seniority list if proper explanation be not made on or before 
a specified date. This notice with an account of the irregu- 
larity is posted on the bulletin boards at the meeting places 
of the men. This usually results in the men whose names 
are posted arranging to meet the general manager, affording 
an excellent opportunity to exercise judgment in enforcing 
discipline. The most wholesome effects are most noticeable, 
and efficient and reliable employes under this system forge 
gradually and surely ahead, obtaining the best and most profit- 
able runs at the disposal of the company, and in such men the 
general stability of the working force is maintained against 
any possible disaffection upon the part of the men suffering 
from demotion. It can be seen that this system, while not 
directly taking cognizance of the efficient employe, in fact does 
take the most pronounced action in his behalf. 

American Street Railway Association. 253 

President Vreeland — This subject is before you for any 
brief discussion desired. Apparently, no one else cares to be 
heard on this subject, and as we have finished the regular 
papers, we will close the proceedings of the Convention. I 
will read the following announcement: 


The pronounced success which has characterized the busi- 
ness meetings of this convention has been due to the fact 
that papers have been presented upon subjects which are of 
vital importance to every street railway, no matter what its 
environment may be, and these papers have been actively 
discussed by a large number of our members. For this reason 
we hope that all of our members will give thought to the 
matter of subjects on which papers shall be presented next 
year. The Secretary will issue a request to members, asking 
for suggestions as to topics for papers, and we hope the 
members will give the subject careful consideration, and that 
when they suggest subjects they will also indicate a proper 
person to write on the subject. 

Secretary Penington — I desire to thank personally the 
writers of all the papers for their promptness in forwarding 
copies of their papers so that they might be printed in ample 
time before this meeting. This helps the work of the Secre- 
tary very greatly. I received all of the papers about five 
weeks before the date of this meeting and had them in the 
hands of the members fully two weeks before the Convention. 

President Vreeland — We will have the report of the Com 1 
mittee on Resolutions. 


The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : Your Committee on Resolutions submits the follow- 
ing report for adoption : 

Resolved : That the thanks of the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation be tendered to Mr. Jere C. Hutchins, and his able assistants, 
for their efforts in our behalf during the convention; 

To the Exhibit Committee, especially its Chairman, Mr. John H. 
Fry, for the very complete arrangements made for the exhibit and 
the satisfactory manner in which they have been carried out; 

254 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

To the Supplymen for the magnificent manner in which they have 
conducted their exhibit at this meeting; 

To the Local Press for the very complete and intelligent reports 
of the transactions of the Convention; 

To the several Passenger Associations which have granted the 
reduced rate of a fare and one-third to the persons attending this 
meeting ; 

To the President and the other officers of the Association for the 
able manner in which the affairs of the Association have been con- 
ducted during the past year, and to all who have in any way contrib- 
uted to the success of this most interesting Convention. 

Respectfully submitted, 


On motion, the report of the Committee on Resolutions 
was unanimously adopted. . 

President Vreeland — We will now receive the report of the 
Committee on Nominations. 


Detroit, Mich., October 10, 1902. 
The American Street Railway Association — 

Gentlemen : Your Committee on Nominations respectfully report 
recommending the following list of officers for the ensuing year: 

For President, 


President Detroit United Railway, Detroit, Mich. 

For First Vice-President, 


President International Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

For Second Vice-President, 


President Cincinnati Traction Co., Cincinnati, O. 

For Third" Vice-President, 


President Georgia Railway and Electric Co., Atlanta, Ga. 

For Secretary and Treasurer, 


Treasurer Chicago City Railway Co., Chicago, 111. 

For Executive Committee, 

American Street Raikvay Association. 255 

HERBERT H. VREELAND, President Interurban Street Railway 
Company, New York, N. Y. 

RICHARD T. LAFFIN, General Manager Worcester Consolidated 
Street Railway Company, Worcester, Mass. 

ANDREW RADEL, Vice-President Middlesex and Somerset Traction 
Company, Bridgeport, Conn. 

WALTER P. READ, Vice-President Consolidated Railway and Power 
Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

WILLARD J. HIELD, General Manager Twin City Rapid Transit 

Company, Minneapolis, Minn. 

The committee have received but one invitation for a place for 
holding its next annual meeting. Mr. J. W. McFarland, Superin- 
tendent of the Chattanooga Electric Railway Company, Chattanooga, 
Tenn., appeared before the committee and extended an invitation on 
behalf of his company and the city. Owing to the limited information 
in possession of your committee, we do not feel warranted in recom- 
mending Chattanooga as the next meeting place, but do recommend 
that the matter be referred, with full power, to the incoming Executive 
Committee. Respectfully submitted, 

ROBERT S. GOFF, Chairman. 

N. H. HEFT, 

D. B. DYER, 



Committee on Nominations. 

Mr. Root, New York — I move that the Secretary be au- 
thorized to cast the ballot of the Association for the officers 
named by the Committee on Nominations. (Carried.) 

The Secretary duly cast the ballot and the gentlemen were 
declared elected. 

President Vreeland — We will adjourn, on the motion of 
some member, to meet at the banquet to-night, and in accord- 
ance with the usual custom the installation of the new officers 
will take place at the banquet. The President will reserve his 
remarks with reference to the business proceedings of this 
Convention until that time. 

Mr. Heft — I move that the meeting adjourn until eight 
o'clock this evening at the Hotel Cadillac. 

256 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


Messrs. Foster and Nicholl were appointed a Committee 
on Memorials by President Vreeland, at the meeting of the 
Executive Committee, and they filed the following report: 


Walter V. Crouch, Secretary and Treasurer of the New Orleans 
and Carrollton Railroad Co., New Orleans, La., died May 16, 
1902, at the age of seventy-six years. He was born in Richmond, Va. 
He started in business at the age of seventeen years, and was continu- 
ously engaged in active business, except for four years during the 
Civil War. 

Mr. Crouch lived in New Orleans for fifty-four years, and for 
twenty-five years had been Secretary and Treasurer of the New Orleans 
and Carrollton Railroad Company. His attention to the affairs of 
the company was constant, and he saw many changes in the personnel 
of the officers during his many years- of service. 


Dell H. Goodrich, Secretary of the Omaha Street Railway Co., 
died at his home on May 11, 1902. Mr. Goodrich was born at Brandon, 
Vt., May 13, 1848. His early business experience was gained in the 
employ of Bradstreet's Mercantile Agency. He afterwards went to 
St. Louis as a representative of the R. G. Dun Co., and in 1876 went 
to Omaha as the manager of that Commercial Agency. Later he was 
Superintendent of the City Water Company. In 1887 Mr. Goodrich 
was one of the organizers of the Omaha Cable Tramway Co., and 
when that company was consolidated with the Omaha Street Railway 
Co., he became secretary of the consolidated company. Mr. Goodrich 
is survived by a widow and three children, to whom he was a devoted 
husband and father. 


J. Bannister Hall died in the City of Baltimore, Md., February 4, 
1902, in his sixthy-sixth year. He was Secretary and Treasurer of 
the Charleston Railway, Gas & Electric Co. He was born in Baltimore 
in 1837, of Irish descent. Mr. Hall for many years was a member of 
the Corn and Flour Exchange, of Baltimore, and later was the Mary- 
land Manager of the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

American Street Railway Association. 257 

He subsequently became one of the original members of the Board of 
Directors of the Charleston Railway, Gas & Electric Co., and was 
elected to the office of secretary and treasurer, which position he held 
at the time of his death. Mr. Hall was highly esteemed for his 
estimable qualities of character, and is survived by four children. 


C. C. Howell, General Manager of the Knoxville Traction Co., 
died May 7, 1902, at Phoenix, Arizona. He had gone to that place 
in the hope of improving his health, which had been in poor condition 
for some time. Mr. Howell moved to the West at an early age, and laid 
the foundation of his useful career and comfortable fortune. He 
went to Knoxville in 1895, and was the main mover in the consolidation 
of the competing electrical interests, having consolidated the street 
railway and electric lighting properties. He was a member of the 
Knoxville Chamber of Commerce, Vice-President of the City Hospital, 
and an ex-member of the State Legislature, as well as a director of 
many financial enterprises. He leaves a wife and two daughters. 


Winfield Scott Stratton, President of the Colorado Springs Rapid 
Transit Co., died September 14, 1902. Mr. Stratton was a man of 
very large wealth, which he had accumulated in mining operations. He 
was born in Indiana in the year 1848, and was educated in the schools 
at Jeffersonville, in that state. He had varying experiences in life 
until 1891. In that year he located a "claim" which netted him suf- 
ficient means to develop the mining properties under his control, and 
his vast wealth, estimated at $20,000,000, thereafter accumulated very 


The exhibit at Detroit showed no lack of interest in this 
feature which has become so important a part of the annual 
conventions, either on the part of the supplymen, in their de- 
sire to place their goods on show, or on the part of tha railway 
men to inspect them. At no previous exhibition in connection 
with the conventions has so much taste been displayed in the 

258 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

arrangement of the exhibits, and the drapings of the booths, 
to give them an attractive appearance. As the space at the 
disposal of the exhibitors this year was somewhat limited, 
every effort was made on the part of each exhibitor to present 
his wares in the most effective manner. The use of electric 
signs bearing the names of manufacturers and their goods 
was very noticeable and the compactness of the display had a 
pleasing effect. 

The Board of Public Works of the City of Detroit permit- 
ted a large portion of the street, adjoining the hall, to be en- 
closed with a temporary shed, and this made it possible for the 
heavy exhibits, such as motors, trucks and cars, to be displayed 
under this shed, without the necessity of carrying them into 
the building ; an arrangement much appreciated. 

The exhibitors were unanimous in their praise of Mr. John 
H. Fry, the Chairman of the Exhibit Committee, and his as- 
sistants, for the complete arrangements he made to care for 
them, and for the courteous and painstaking manner in which 
every need was attended to. 


Following is a list of the exhibitors at the Detroit Con- 
vention : 

Adams & Westlake Company, Chicago, 111. 

Allen & Morrison Brake Shoe & Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111. 

American Arithmometer Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

American Brake Shoe Company, Mahwah, N. J. 

American Car Seat Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

American Electric Switch Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

American Machinery Company, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

American Railway Supply Company, New York, N. Y. 

American Steel & Wire Company, Chicago, 111. 

American Trackbarrow Company, Lowell, Mass. 

American Vestlette Company, Cleveland, O. 

Armspear Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y. 

Atlas Railway Supply Company, Chicago, 111. 

Baltimore Ball Bearing Company, Baltimore, Md. 
Bethlehem Steel Company, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

American Street Railway Association. • 259 

Bishop Gutta Percha Company, New York, N. Y. 

Blair, John F., Detroit, Mich. 

Brady Brass Company, New York, N. Y. 

Brandeau, George F., Utica, N. Y. 

Brill Company, J. G, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brown, Harold P., New York, N. Y. 

Burnham, Williams & Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Camp Company, H. B., Aultman, O. 

Cheatam Electric Switching Device Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Christensen Engineering Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Climax Stock Guard Company, Chicago, 111. 

Conant, R. W., Cambridge, Mass. 

Consolidated Car Fender Company, New York, N. Y. 

Consolidated Car Heating Company, Albany, N. Y. 

Continuous Rail Joint Company of America, Newark, N. J. 

Crane Company, Chicago, 111. 

Creaghead Engineering Company, Cincinnati, O. 

Crocker-Wheeler Company, x\mpere, N. J. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111. 

Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works, Chicago, 111. 

Detroit Trolley & Manufacturing Company, Detroit, Mich. 

Doolittle, H. K., Watertown, N. Y. 

Dorner Truck & Foundry Company, Logansport, Ind. 

Duff Manufacturing Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Electric Railway Switch Company, Detroit, Mich. 
Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Globe Ticket Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Gold Street Car Heating Company, New York, N. Y. 
Gould Storage Battery Company, New York, N. Y. 
Griffin Wheel Company, Chicago, 111. 

Hale & Kilburn Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Harrington, C. J., New York, N. Y. 

Heywood Brothers & Wakefield Company, Wakefield, Mass. 
Hunter Illuminated Car Sign Company, Cincinnati, O. 

International Register Company, Chicago, 111. 

Jewett Car Company, Newark, O. 

Johns, H. W.-Manville Company, New York, N. Y. 

260 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Kalamazoo Railway Supply Company, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Kellogg Switch & Supply Company, Chicago, 111. 
Kinnear Manufacturing Company, Columbus, O. 
Knell Air Brake Company, Battle Creek, Mich. 
Kuhlman Car Company, G. C, Collingwood, O. 

Lancaster, Robert A., Jr., Richmond, Va. 

Le Valley Vitae Carbon Brush Company, New York, N. Y. 

Lorain Steel Company, Lorain, O. 

Ludlow Supply Company, Cleveland, O. 

Lumen Bearing Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Magann Air Brake Company, C. P., Detroit, Mich. 
Maltby Lumber Company, Bay City, Mich. 
Merritt & Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Morris Electric Company, New York, N. Y. 
McGuire Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111. 

National Carbon Company, Cleveland, O. 

National Lead Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

National Lock Washer Company, Newark, N. J. 

Nernst Lamp Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Newcomb, F. W., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

New Haven Car Register Company, New Haven, Conn. 

Northern Electric Manufacturing Company, Madison, Wis. 

Nuttall Company, R. D., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, O. 
Ohmer Car Register Company, Dayton, O. 

Pantasote Company, New York, N. Y. 

Peckham Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y. 

Pennsylvania Steel Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pierson, F. B., Detroit, Mich. 

Pittsburg Blue Print Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Pittsburg Reduction Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Process Copper & Brass Company, Jersey City, N. J. 

Reid, Alexander, New York, N. Y. 

Reversible Electrical Car Sign Company, Richmond, Va. 

Ridlon Company, Frank, Boston, Mass. 

Root Track Scraper Company, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Scarritt Car Seat Works, St. Louis, Mo. 
Shepard, W. J. & Company, Denver, Colo. 
Sherwin-Williams Company, Cleveland, O. 
Smith Heating Company, Peter, Detroit, Mich. 

American Street Railway Association. 261 

Spear Carbon Company, St. Mary's, Pa. 

Springfield Manufacturing Company, Bridgeport, Conn, 

Squires Automatic Feed Water Controller Co., New York, N. Y. 

Standard Paint Co., New York, N. Y. 

Standard Pole & Tie Company, New York, N. Y. 

Standard Traction Brake Company, New York, N. Y. 

Standard Underground Cable Company, Chicago, 111. 

Standard Varnish Works, New York, N. Y. 

Stanley Electric Manufacturing Company, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Star Brass Works, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Stephenson Company, John, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Sterling Lubricator Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

Sterling-Meaker Company, Newark, N. J. 

St. Louis Register Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Street Railway Journal, New York, N. Y. 

Street Railway Review, Chicago, 111.. 

Strong, Carlisle & Hammond Company, Cleveland, O. 

Taylor Electric Truck Company, Troy, N. Y. 

Thomas, Edward G., Boston, Mass. 

Tramway & Railway World, London, England. 

Union Stop & Signal Company, Fall River, Mass. 

United States Steel Company, Boston, Mass. 

United States Wood Preserving Company, New York, N. Y. 

Universal Sanitary Cuspidor Company, Worcester, Mass. 

Van Dorn & Dutton Company, Cleveland, O. 

Van Dorn-Elliott Electric Company, Cleveland, O. 

Van Dorn Company, W. T., Chicago, 111. 

Weber Railway Joint Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111. 
Western Electrician, Chicago, 111. 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Wharton, Jr., & Company, Incp., William, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Company, Detroit, Mich. 
Wilmarth & Morton Company, Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Wcrmer Machine Company, C. C, Detroit, Mich. 


Below are given the names and business connection of the 

representatives of manufacturers who attended the meeting, as 

shown by the registers of the Association : 

Ackley, Charles S., Sterling-Meaker Co., New York. 
Ackerly, Hiram E., American Car Seat Co., Brooklyn. 

262 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Adams, Harry Edwin, W. G. Nagel Electric Co., Toledo. 
Ahearn, Thomas, Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Ottawa. 
Alden, Charles A., Pennsylvania Steel Co., Steelton, Pa. 
Alexander, Charles, Mechanical Boiler Cleaner Co., Providence. 
Alexander, C. H., Loos & Dilworth, Philadelphia. 
Alford, W. H., Ohmer Car Register Co., Dayton, O. 
Allen, O. Percy, Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co., Detroit. 
Allen, E. T., Cleveland Frog and Crossing Co., Cleveland. 
Allison, Giles S., New York. 

Alper, Nathan, Great Western Smelting and Refining Co., Chicago. 
Amtz, William C, Pennsylvania Steel Co., Philadelphia. 
Anderson, Arthur A., Standard Underground Cable Co., Pittsburg. 
Anderson, Alexander S., Adams & Westlake Co., Chicago. 
Angerer, Victor S., William Wharton, Jr., & Co., Incp., Philadelphia. 
Anthony, Francis G, New Haven Car Register Co., New Haven. 
Anthony, Willis M., New Haven Car Register Co., New Haven. 
Archer, J. Warren, Rossiter, MacGovern & Co., New York. 
Armstrong, A. H., General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
Armstrong, J. H. American Machinery Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Armstrong, William A., Jr., Mayer & Englund Co., Philadelphia. 
Arnell, Chris., Knell Air Brake Co., Pontiac, Mich. 
Arnold, Ward S., Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Chicago. 
Ashton, E. Percy, Michigan Electric Co., Detroit. 
Atkin, Godfrey H., Electric Storage Battery Co., Chicago. 
Atkinson, J. M., J. M. Atkinson Co., Chicago. 
Avery, A., American Union Electric Co., New York. 
Avery, F. E., Motor Truck and Vehicle Co., Columbus, O. 
Ayres, H. C, Michigan Electric Co., Detroit. 

Bailey, Theodore P., General Electric Co., Chicago. 

Baily, George C, John A. Roebling's Sons Co., Chicago. 

Baird, Charles C, H. B. Camp Co., New York. 

Baker, Walter H., National Lead Co., St. Louis. 

Ballard, A. W., General Electric Co., Portland, Ore. 

Balon, Andrew, John Stephenson Co., Elizabeth, N. J. 

Barce, S. B., Triumph Electric Co., Detroit. 

Barnard, Bleecker S., Standard Vitrified Conduit Co., New York. 

Barnard, J. B., Standard Vitrified Conduit Co., New York. 

Baron, George, U. S. Steel Co., Everett, Mass. 

Barr, B. M., Continuous Rail Joint Co., Newark, N. J. 

Barr, James C, Weber Railway Joint Mfg. Co., New York. 

Barry, C. E., General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Barry, J. G., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Barthal, Oliver E., Mechanical Engineer, Detroit. 

Bates, C. F, National Ticket Co., Cleveland. 

American Street Railway Association. 263 

Bates, Putnam A., Crocker-Wheeler Co., Ampere, N. J. 

Battin, C. H., Tennis Co. Cincinnati. 

Baxter, M., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Beach, H. E., New Haven Car Register Co., New Haven. 

Beach, Fred W., Bassett-Presley Co., Cleveland. 

Beach, R. H., General Electric Co., New York. 

Beauchin, N. J., Universal Sanitary Cuspidor Co., Worcester. 

Becker, G. F., H. W. Johns-Manville Co., Milwaukee. 

Beckman, B. C, Standard Paint, Co., Chicago. 

Beebe, Robert C, Pneumatic Railway Equipment Co., Cleveland. 

Belknap, R. E., Pennsylvania Steel Co., Chicago. 

Berg, Nicholas, Automatic Car Brake Co., Utica. 

Bergenthal, V. W., Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Bergmann, William, John Stephenson Co., Elizabeth, N. J. 

Berry, A. Hall, Lovell Co., New York. 

Berry, Bertram, Heywood Bros. & Wakefield Co., New York. 

Berry, W. S., American Electric Switch Co., Pittsburg. 

Beylard, L. D., National Conduit and Cable Co., Philadelphia. 

Bibbins. J. R., Westinghouse Companies, New York. 

Bigelow, George S., Chicago Varnish Co., Chicago. 

Bigelow, H. T., Hale & Kilburn Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Biggs, P. H., Wormer Machinery Co., Detroit. 

Billheimer, F. B., Kinnear Mfg. Co., Columbus, O. 

Black, F. B., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Blair, John F., Engineer, Detroit. 

Blanchard, Edward S., Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland. 

Bland, Robert, Christensen Engineering, Milwaukee. 

Blewitt, Scott H., American Car and Foundry Co., St. Louis. 

Blizard, Charles, Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia. 

Blumenthal, H. S., Detroit Trolley and Mfg. Co., Detroit. 

Bogue, W. C, American Steel & Wire Co., Chicago. 

Bolles, Frank G., Bullock Electric Mfg. Co., Cincinnati. 

Bowman, W. P., John A. Roebling Son's Co., Cleveland. 

Boyd, F. C, New Haven Car Register Co., New Haven. 

Boyd, P. M., Lorain Steel Co., Lorain, O. 

Boyer, F. N, General Electric Co., Chicago. 

Boyer, S. B., Domer Truck and Foundry Co., Logansport, Ind. 

Braden, N. S., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Cleveland. 

Bradfield, H. S., American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co., Buffalo. 

Brady, Daniel M., Brady Brass Co., New York. 

Brady, Paul T., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Syracuse. 

Bragg, C. A., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. 

Braine, L. F., Continuous Rail Joint Co., Newark, N. J. 

Brandau, Charles, Automatic Car Brake Co., Utica. 

264 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Brandau, John, Automatic Car Brake Co., Utica. 

Breidenbach, William F., Ohmer Car Register Co., Dayton, O. 

Brennan, D. M., Edison Illuminating Co., Detroit. 

Brett, J. A., Electrical Installation Co., Chicago. 

Brewer, Williard, Knell Air Brake Co., Battle Creek. 

Brill, J. Ellwood, J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia. 

Brislin, A. J., Standard Traction Brake Co., New York. 

Brown, Benson E., Acme White Lead and Color Works, Detroit. 

Brown, Charles, Hunter Illuminated Car Sign Co., Cincinnati. 

Brown, H. N., Globe Ticket Co., Philadelphia. 

Brown, Harold P., New York. 

Brown, R. S., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Boston. 

Brown, William H., International Register Co., Chicago. 

Budd, James H., Lorain Steel Co., Lorain, O. 

Buddecke, William A., H. W. Johns-Manville Co., St. Louis. 

Buehler, J. G., Columbia Machine Works, Brooklyn. 

Bullock, Edward, Michigan Electric Co., Detroit. 

Bunce, J., Knell Air Brake Co., Battle Creek. 

Bunting, W., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Burch, Edward P., Consulting Engineer, Minneapolis. 

Burke, E., Automatic Stoker Co., Detroit. 

Burg, W. A., Ohio Brass Co., Chicago. 

Burt, L. M., Pittsburg Reduction Co., Pittsburg. 

Bushnell, W. E., Kalamazoo Railway Supply Co., Kalamazoo. 

Butterfield, J. L., St. Louis Car Wheel Co., St. Louis. 

Calisch, J. C, General Electric Co., Buffalo. 

Cameron, H. F. de B., Electric Storage Battery Co., Detroit. 

Camp, H. H., H. B. Camp Co., Akron, O. 

Campbell, D. A., Columbia Refining Co., New York. 

Campbell, A. N., Columbia Refining Co., New York. 

Carey, Thomas F., John Stephenson Co., Boston. 

Carey, W. Gibson, General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Carleton, W. M., Nernst Lamp Co., Pittsburg. 

Carr, Robert F., Dearborn Drug & Chemical Co., Chicago. 

Carr, W. Frank, Falk Co., Milwaukee. 

Carson, J. H., Sterling-Meaker Co., New York. 

Carter, S. P., Merritt & Co., Philadelphia. 

Case, Charles L., Under-Feed Stoker Co., Chicago. 

Case, F. E., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Chamberlin, E. G, Standard Pole and Tie Co., New York. 

Chapin, Edward H., Rochester Car Wheel Works, Rochester. 

Chappell, C. C, Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Chicago. 

Chase, E. D., Root Track Scraper Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Chase, T. F., Ohio Brass Co., Toronto, O. 

American Street Railway Association. 265 

Chandler, George, American Steel & Wire Co., Dayton, O. 

Cheney, H. N., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Christensen, N. A., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Chur, Walter, American Railway Supply Co., New York. 

Clark, Charles S., Pennsylvania Steel Co., Boston. 

Clark, Frank H., Helios-Upton Co., Chicago. 

Clarke, Iverson Brooks, Standard Traction Brake Co., Pittsburg. 

Clarke, J. M., Continuous Rail Joint Co., New York. 

Clarke, J. V., Le Valley Vitae Carbon Brush Co., New York. 

Clitz, Randolph, Lorain Steel Co., Lorain, O. 

Coakley, F. J., Samson Cordage Works, Boston. 

Cobb, C. W., Western Electric Co., Cleveland. 

Cobb, G. W., Boston Woven Hose and Rubber Co., Detroit. 

Cobert, Frank, Christensen Engineering Co., Detroit. 

Cockey, Marston, John A. Roebling's Sons Co., New York. 

Cockley, W. A., Mayer & Englund Co., New York. 

Colby, Safford K., Pittsburg Reduction Co., Pittsburg. 

Coleman, Charles E., Eugene Munsell & Co., Chicago. 

Conant, R. W., Testing Instruments, Cambridge, Mass. 

Conger, Chilion P., MacPherson Switch and Frog Co., Niagara Falls. 

Conover, A. B., John A. Roebling's Sons Co., Chicago. 

Conway, Peter, Maltby Lumber Co., Detroit. 

Cooke, W. J., McGuire Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Cookson, T. J., Steam Water Purification, Cincinnati. 

Cooper, H. S., Electrical Engineering and Development Co., New York. 

Coote, J. Maxwell, Harold P. Brown, New York. 

Corey, F. B., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Cottrell, J. P., Electric Railway Switch Co., Detroit. 

Cransheur, J. B., Electric Railway Equipment Co., Cincinnati. 

Cranston, J. S., General Electric Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Crockett, L. M., Star Brass Works-, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Crockett, W. P., Hart Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Crouse, J. L., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., New York. 

Cummins, William, Standard Traction Brake Co., Cincinnati. 

Cunningham, J. T., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Curtis, C. G., General Electric Co., Philadelphia. 

Cutter, George, George Cutter Co., Chicago. 

Dalby, A. B., General Supply Co., New York. 

Dailey, S. H., Harold P. Brown, New York. 

Dalley, A. H. Charles, Under-Feed Stoker Co., Chicago. 

Dalton, P. J., Continuous Rail Joint Co., Troy. 

Davis, Arthur V., Pittsburg Reduction Co., Pittsburg. 

Davis, C. H., Trenton Tower Automobile, Columbus, O. 

Davis, H. P., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

266 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Davis, Thomas, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Davis, W. J., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Davis, Jr., W. J., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Dawson, J. A., Street Railway Supplies, Montreal. 

Dean, D. B., J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia. 

De Gress, Francis B., Crocker- Wheeler Co., New York. 

Denton, J. H., Christensen Engineering Co., New York. 

De Remer, W. L., Spencer Otis Co., Chicago. 

De Steese, H., Stuart-Howland Co., Boston. 

Devers, L. R., Automatic Track Switch, Mummaville, O. 

Dewson, E. H., Standard Traction Brake Co., Pittsburg. 

Dickson, F., F. H. Newcomb, Brooklyn. 

Dittrick, A. R., Brake Shoe Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Dixon, Jr., Joseph F., Christensen Engineering Co., New York. 

Dodd, Samuel T., Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

Dodd, William C, National Lock Washer Co., Newark, N. J. 

Dolph, John C, Standard Varnish Works, New York. 

Donaldson, William W., Gould Storage Battery Co., New York. 

Doniker, H. G, Giles S. Allison, New York. 

Doolittle, H. K, Car Windows, Watertown, N. Y. 

Dorner, H. A., Dorner Truck and Foundry Co., Logansport, Ind. 

Dow, Alex, Edison Illuminating Co., Detroit. 

Doyle, H. S., Western Electric Supply Co., St. Louis. 

Doyle, W. L., John A. Roebling's Sons Co., Trenton. 

Draffen, E. L., Gould Storage Battery Co., Chicago. 

Drake, F. S., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., New York. 

Driffield, S. R., Brake Shoe Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Dryer, Irvin, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Drysdale, Thomas, Edison Illuminating Co., Detroit. 

Duncan, J. McA., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Dusinberre, George B., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Dutton, W. A., Van Dorn and Dutton Co., Cleveland. 

Easterbrook, J. S., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Eckert, S. H., National Conduit and Cable Co., New York. 

Egan, S. P., J. A. Fay & Egan Co., Cincinnati. 

Eldred, Jr., John E., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Ellicott, Charles Remington, Standard Traction Brake Co., New York. 

Ellicott, J. R., Standard Traction Brake Co., New York. 

Elliott, J. N., Van Dorn & Elliott Electric Co., Cleveland. 

Elliott, W. H., Elliott Bros. Electric Co., Cleveland. 

Ellis, Clifford J., Pennsylvania Steel Co., Chicago. 

Ellis, S. P. S., Lorain Steel Co., Pittsburg. 

Elmquist, F. A., Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland. 

Embick, John B., Wendell & MacDuffie, New York. 

American Street Railway Association. 267 

Entwisle, E. B., Lorain Steel Co., Johnstown, Pa. 
Estep, Frank A., R. D. Nuttall Co., Pittsburg. 
Evans, D. J., Lorain Steel Co., Chicago. 
Evans, H. C, Lorain Steel Co., New York. 
Ewing, George C, Nernst Lamp Co., Boston. 
Eyre, M. K., Buckeye Electric Co., Cleveland. 

Faber, E. S., General Electric Co., New York. 

Falk, Otto H., Falk Co., Milwaukee. 

Fasquelle, L. J., Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland. 

Fellows, J. William, Boston Woven Hose and Rubber Co., Cambridge, 

Field, E. R., Western Electric Co., Detroit. 
Field, H. G., Field & Hinchman, Detroit. 
Finney, S. H., H. W. Johns-Manville Co., Chicago. 
Fitzgerald, A., Roe Stephens Mfg. Co., Detroit. 
Fleming, A. E., Nernst Lamp Co., Pittsburg. 
Floyd, Walter J., Nernst Lamp Co., New York. 
Fluegel, Otto L., Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works, Detroit. 
Foote, O. A., Van Dorn-Elliott Electric Co., Cleveland. 
Forde, Bert, Crocker-Wheeler Co., Chicago. 
Foster, James A., Adams & Westlake Co., Philadelphia. 
Forsyth, W. H., Curtain Supply Co., Chicago. 
Fountain, Jr., J., American Union Electric Co., New York. 
Franklin, Wallace, Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Detrpit. 
Fraser, J. William, Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia. 
Freed, George F., Duff Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 
Freeman, C. K., Armspear Mfg. Co., Chicago. 
Frenyear, T. C, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Buffalo. 
Frost, Harry W., Berry Bros., Ltd., Detroit. 
Fry, Emmet M., Lorain Steel Co., Chicago. 
Funsten, F. H., Phelps Co., Detroit. 

Gage, B. O., United States Steel Co., Everitt, Mass. 
Gale, F. H., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 
Gallagher, J. M., Mayer & Englund Co., Philadelphia. 
Gardner, W. C, Jewett Car Co., Newark, O. 

Gardner, W. W., American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co., New York. 
Garland, N. W., Ohio Brass- Co., New York. 
Garton, W. R., W. R. Garton Co., Chicago. 
Gaviston, W. O., Columbia Incandescent Lamp Co., St. Louis. 
Gavitt, J. E., Federal Supply Co., Chicago. 
Gaylord, T. P., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Chicago. 
Gemunder, Arthur, American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co., Columbus, 

268. Twenty-First Annual Meeting, 

Gellatly, Burt, Ohio Brass Co., Pittsburg. 

Gibson, Robert, Blue Print Paper and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Gibbs, H. W., William Hall & Co., Boston. 

Goble, W. H., Christensen Engineering Co., New York. 

Gold, Edward E., Gold Car Heating and Lighting Co., New York. 

Goldey, Paul R., Ar-Co Circuit Breaker Co., Philadelphia. 

Goodby, Alfred, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Gordon, J. R., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Atlanta. 

Gowing, J. Parker, Pratt & Lambert, Chicago. 

Grace, Edward S., Wheeler Condenser and Engineering Co., Chicago. 

Grace, J. C, G. P. McGann Air Brake Co., Toronto. 

Gray, W. H., Townsend, Reed & Co., Indianapolis. 

Green, Charles, Knell Air Brake Co., Battle Creek. 

Green, F. C, Consolidated Car Heating Co., Albany. 

Green, Frederick P., Standard Traction Brake Co., New York. 

Grier, Thomas Graham, American Circular Loom Co., Chicago. 

Griffin, J. M., Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co., Detroit. 

Griffith, Rush E., J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia. 

Griffiths, De Witt Clinton, Globe Ticket Co., Philadelphia. 

Haines, Fred W., Triumph Electric Co., Cincinnati. 

Haines, W. L., Consolidated Car Fender Co., New York. 

Hall, F. B., International Register Co., Chicago. 

Hamilton, C. M., F. Bissell Co., Toledo. 

Hamilton, G. W., Burnham, Williams & Co., Philadelphia. 

Hamlin, J. S., U. S. Steel Co., Everett, Mass. 

Hammond, E. H., American Electrical Works, Chicago. 

Hammond, Samuel F., Pa. Electric and Railway Supply Co., Pittsburg. 

Hammond, Jr., W. S., Consolidated Car Heating Co., Albany. 

Hanna, J. A., Electric Railway Supplies, Cleveland. 

Hanson, Clifford Taft, Bethlehem Steel Co., So. Bethlehem, Pa. 

Harpell, W. S., Griffin Wheel Co., Chicago. 

Harper, R. H., Western Electric Co., Philadelphia. 

Harrington, C. J., Rail Bonds, New York. 

Harris, C. M., Pittsburg Reduction Co., Pittsburg. 

Harris, S., American Union Electrical Co., New York. 

Hart, H. H., Hart Tie Plate, Chicago. 

Hart, O. W., Union Stop and Signal Co., Fall River, Mass. 

Harting, W. J., American Electric Co., Detroit. 

Hartwell, Arthur, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Hartwig, W. J., Crocker- Wheeler Co., Detroit. 

Harwood, G. A., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Harvey, James, Springfield Mfg. Co., Bridgeport, Conn. 

Harvey, Leroy M., Northern Electrical Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Haskell, George M., J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia. 

American Street Railway Association. 269 

Hastings, George S., George S. Hastings & Co., Cleveland. 

Hatch, Edward B., H. W. Johns-Manville Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Hatch, F. E., Hatch Electric Co., Green Bay, Wis. 

Hawkins, George B., Christensen Engineering Co., New York. 

Hawley, Cornell S., Consolidated Car Heating Co., New York. 

Hayes, J. M., New Haven Car Register Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Heil, J., Heil Rail Joint Welding Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Heller, H. W., Heller Mfg. Co., Pottstown, Pa. 

Henderson, James, Harold P. Brown, New York. 

Henry, Fred, Heywood Bros. & Wakefield Co., Wakefield, Mass. 

Henry, O. D., Lorain Steel Co., Johnstown, Pa. 

Herrick, Albert B., Gould Storage Battery Co., New York. 

Heulings-, Jr., W. H., J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia. 

High, John M., Pantasote Co., New York. 

Hilchings, F. W., Allen & Morrison Brake Shoe & Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Hilton, A. A., Ft. Wayne Foundry and Machine Co., Chicago. 

Hinman, Walter, Ohmer Fare Register Co., Dayton, O. 

Hinman, W. E., Ohmer Fare Register Co., Dayton, O. 

Hoadley, George M., Bemis Car Truck Co., New York. 

Hocker, H. L., Lorain Steel Co., Lorain, O. 

Hodges, Percy, Pittsburg Reduction Co., Boston. 

Hogan, James, Michigan Electric Co., Detroit. 

Hollingsworth, George, Consolidated Car Fender Co., New York. 

Holloway, H. C, Weber Railway Joint Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Hollowood, James, Harold P. Brown, New York. 

Hoit, Lehman B., Bullock Electric Mfg. Co., Cleveland. 

Holmes, B. P., New York City Railway Claim Bureau, New York. 

Hoopes, William, Pittsburg Reduction Co., Pittsburg. 

Hopkins, Joel C, Knell Air Brake Co., Battle Creek. 

Hopkins, Jr., W. A., Motor Truck and Vehicle Co., Columbus, O. 

Horan, J. B., National Conduit and Cable Co., New York. 

Hotchkiss, E., Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

Hough, Benjamin Kent, Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

Hough, C. D., General Electric Co., Aurora, 111. 

Hover, P. M., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Howard, F. K, Chicago Equipment Co., Chicago. 

Howard, George E., Scarritt Car Seat Works, St. Louis. 

Howell, Thomas Paull, Kuhlman Car Co., Cleveland. 

Hopewell, T. B., L. C. Chase & Co., Boston. 

Humphrey, C. B., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Cincinnati. 

Hunter, Lytle J., Hunter Illuminated Car Sign Co., Cincinnati. 

Hurd, G. A., Crane Co., Chicago. 

Hutchins, S. D., Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Columbus, O. 

Hutchinson, F. L., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

270 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Irwin, C. E., J. G. Miller Railway Supply Co., St. Louis. 

Jackman, George W., Springfield Mfg. Co., Bridgeport, Conn. 
Jacob, George H., Seidler-Miner Electric Co., Detroit. 
James, J. C, Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 
Janson, Louis, American Car Seat Co., Brooklyn. 
Jenkins, B. B., Jenkins' Sander, Toronto, Ont. 
Johnson, Alfred, Reliable Trolley Harp, Quincy, 111. 
Johnson, A. J., Federal Mfg. Co., Cleveland. 
Johnson, Charles F., Railway Equipment, Buffalo. 
Johnson, Claude, Creaghead Engineering Co., Cincinnati. 
Johnson, O. W., Johnson Wrecking Frog Co., Cleveland. 
Johnston, A. R., Clarence Brooks & Co., Newark, N. J. 
Jones, Arthur E., National Lead Co., Cincinnati. 
Jones, B. J., Sargent & Lundy, Chicago. 
Junkins, S. A., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Boston. 
Junkins, S. E., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Boston. 

Kalas, Anthony T., Q. & C Co., Chicago. 

Keegan, T. E., Detroit Automatic Stoker Co., Detroit. 

Kemp, H. S., Reversible Electric Car Sign Co., Richmond, Va. 

Kennedy, F. B., New Haven Car Register Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Kent, R. B., Atlas Railway Supply Co., Chicago. 

Kerschner, W. R., Columbia Machine Works, Brooklyn. 

Kerr, H. H., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Chicago. 

Keyes, F. A., American Steel & Wire Co., New York. 

Kier, S. W., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Kimball, Herman P., Standard Underground Cable Co., New York. 

Kimble, R. L., Central Electric Co., Chicago. 

King, Alvin S., Sterling Varnish Co., Pittsburg. 

King, C. K, Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

King, C. P., Brady Brass Co., Jersey City. 

King, Charles P., Valee Supply Co., Philadelphia. 

Kingston, William W., Lorain Steel Co., Atlanta. 

Kinsman, F. E., Kinsman Electric and Railway Supply Co., New York. 

Kirkland, James L., American Circular Loom Co., New York. 

Kirkpatrick, E. R, McRoy Clay Works, Brazil, Ind. 

Klauder, R. H., Electric Storage Battery Co., St. Louis. 

Kleinschmidt, H. F. A., Lorain Steel Co., Johnstown, Pa. 

Krauff, E. J., Powell & Turner Truck Co., Troy. 

Knickerbocker, C. K, Griffin Wheel Co., Chicago. 

Knight, Charles D., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Knight, Jr., C. S., American Steel Wire Co., Chicago. 

Korst, Albert, Union Mica Co., New York. 

Krauschaar, C. F., Krauschaar Lamp and Reflector Co., St. Louis. 

American Street Railway Association. 271 

Kuhlman. G. C, G. C. Kuhlman Car Co., Cleveland. 
Kuhn, Frank, United Electric Heating Co., Detroit. 
Kuhn, Koburt, United Electric Heating .Co., Detroit. 

Laichinger, John H., American Electric Co., Detroit. 

Lambe, A. B., Canadian General Electric Co., Toronto, Ont. 

Lancaster, Jr., R. H., Reversible Electric Car Sign Co., Richmond, Va. 

Lane, Nat P., Parrott Varnish Co., Philadelphia. 

Lannius, B. G., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Lawless, E. J., John Stephenson Co., Elizabeth, N. J. 

Lawrie, Alvah K., Pittsburg Reduction Co., Pittsburg. 

Leach, P. J., American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co., Detroit. 

Lewis, Frank J., Victor Electrical Co., Cleveland. 

Lewis, Wilbur, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., New York. 

Leidenger, Joseph, Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton, O. 

Leidenger, Peter, Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton, O. 

Lewis, W. H., Curtain Supply Co., Chicago. 

Lillibridge, Ray D., Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., New York. 

Lincoln, P. M., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Lindsay, Ellwood C, Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia. 

Lintern, William, Nichols-Lintern Co., Cleveland. 

Littlefield, A. S., Lorain Steel Co., Chicago. 

Livsey, J. H., General Electric Co., Detroit. 

Lockvvood, Joseph E., Michigan Electric Co., Detroit. 

Lovejoy, F. H., Strong, Carlisle & Hammond Co., Cleveland. 

Lovejoy, J. R., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Lucas, George C, Cleveland Frog and Crossing Co., Cleveland. 

Lucas, J., Cleveland Frog and Crossing Co., Cleveland. 

Ludlow, James B., Ludlow Supply Co., Cleveland. 

Lyons, James W., Allis-Chalmers Co., Chicago. 

MacFadden, J. P., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 
MacGovern, Frank, Rossiter, MacGovern & Co., New York. 
McCarthy, James B., Public Lighting Commission, Detroit. 
McClintock, O. N., Bellamy Vestlette Mfg. Co., Cleveland. 
McCormack, E. D., Canadian General Electric Co., Toronto, Ont. 
McCormack, W. G., Ohio Brass Co., Toronto, Ont. 
McCowen, J. H., Lorain Steel Co., Lorain, O. 
McCoy, Frank, St. Louis Car Co., Pittsburg. 
McDonald, M. J., J. R. McCardell & Co., Trenton. 
McDonald, William F, Automatic Heating Co., Detroit. 
McDonald, W. S., Detroit Trolley and Mfg. Co., Detroit. 
McEwan, J., Powell Truck Co., Troy. 
McGaven, John C, Seidler-Miner Electric Co., Detroit. 
McGough, S. P., Continuous Rail Joint Co., Chicago. 

272 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

McGill, J. H., Standard Railway Materials Co., Chicago. 

McGivley, Thomas A., Duff Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

McGuire, W. A., McGuire Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Mcintosh, George W., A. E. Holaday Mfg. Co., New Haven, Conn. 

McKinlock, Walter C, Chicago. 

McLean, E. B., Sterling-Meaker Co., New York. 

McMichael, J. G., Atlas Railway Supply Co., Chicago. 

McQuale, Jr., John A., American Steel & Wire Co., Philadelphia. 

McQueen, W. J., Gold Street Car Heating Co., New York. 

McQuiston, J. G, Westinghouse Companies, Pittsburg. 

McVicker, William B., Dearborn Drug and Chemical Works, New York. 

Macdonald, M., Ohmer Fare Register Co., Cleveland. 

Mackenzie, John, Johnson Wrecking and Frog Co., Cleveland. 

Madill, Thomas, Sherwin-Williams Co., Chicago. 

Magann, G. P., G. P. Magann Air Brake Co., Toronto, Ont. 

Mahony, J. J., General Electric Co., New York. 

Main, Charles, Magann Air Brake Co., Detroit. 

Maltby, A., Maltby Lumber Co., Bay City, Mich. 

Maltby, Irving A., Maltby Lumber Co., Bay City, Mich. 

Manson, Ray H., Kellogg Switchboard and Supply Co., Chicago. 

Markall, W. B., Markall Electric Co., Washington, D. C. 

Markham, F. L., George S. Hastings & Co., Cleveland. 

Marks, Albert G, National Lead Co., Detroit. 

Marks, Frank R., Metal Sales Co., Cleveland. 

Marks, Walter F, National Lead Co., Detroit. 

Marsh, H. C, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Cincinnati. 

Martin, C. W., Consolidated Car Heating Co., Chicago. 

Martin, F. L., Kellogg Switchboard and Supply Co., Chicago. 

Marymont, David J., Detroit Trolley and Mfg. Co., Detroit. 

Mason, Frederick H., Feed Water Purification, Detroit. 

Mason, J. F., Ohio Brass Co., Chicago. 

Mason, W. H., Dallett & Co., Philadelphia. 

Mason, W. R., Mechanical Boiler Cleaner Co., Chicago. 

Masterson, Frank D., Chase-Shawmut Co., Boston. 

Maycock, J., Pratt & Lambert, New York. 

Mayhew, Judson T., Northern Electric Co., Detroit. 

Mayo, William B., Hooven, Owens & Rentschler Co., New York. 

Mead, George A., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Medbury, C. F., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Detroit. 

Meech, C. E., Wilmarth & Morman Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Medbury, Charles F., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Detroit. 

Meek, J. E., H. W. Johns-Manville Co., New York. 

Mellon, William R., Murphy Varnish Co., Chicago. 

Meeten, Wesley, Wallace Supply Co., New York. 

American Street Railway Association. 273 

Meinema, A., W. B. Austin & Co., Chicago. 

Metzger, William E., Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co., Detroit. 

Merrick, Frank Anderson, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Johns- 

Merrill. J. J., Chall Water Tube Boilers, Chicago. 

Merritt, Fred L., Standard Pole and Line Co., New York. 

Metterhausen, C, Wallace Supply Co., Chicago. 

Metzelaar, Anthony, Knell Air Brake Co., Battle Creek. 

Mickey, R. K., National Carbon Co., Cleveland. 

Miller, C. S., United States Steel Co., Everett, Mass. 

Miller, D. N., Miller Sanding Machine, Hamilton, Ont. 

Miller, Frank, C. J. Harrington, New York. 

Miller, J. G., Pennsylvania Steel Co., St. Louis. 

Miller, J. H., Continuous Rail Joint Co., St. Louis. 

Milloy, Peter D., International Trolley Controller Co., Buffalo. 

Miner, F. J., Seidler-Miner Electric Co., Detroit. 

Moloney, J. J., General Electric Co., New York. 

Moore, Miles F., Morden Frog and Crossing Works, Chicago. 

Moore, R. E., General Electric Co., Philadelphia. 

Moran, William M., Townsend, Reed & Co., Indianapolis. 

Morrell, Frank A., Fowler & Robert Mfg. Co., Brooklyn. 

Morris, Elmer P., American Union Electric Co., New York. 

Morrison, James, G. P. Magann Air Brake Co., Detroit. 

Morrow, George L. K., Detroit Automatic Stoker Co., Detroit. 

Morse, George C, Rochester Car Wheel Works, Taunton, Mass. 

Morton, E. H., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Detroit. 

Mueller, Ralph S., Sawyer-Man Electric Co., New York. 

Mulford, William W„ American Telephone and Telegraph Co., New 

Mullin, E. H., General Electric Co., New York. 

Munoz, S. C, Munoz Boiler Co., New York. 

Murphy, Andrew J., Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia. 

Nate, J. J.. Sternberg-Carlson Co. 

Neall, N. J., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Nef, J. J., Christensen Engineering Co., New York. 

Nellis, George A., Sawyer-Man Electric Co., Pittsburg. 

Nethercut, Edgar S., Paige Iron Works, Chicago. 

Nute, John W., St. Louis Car Wheel Works, St. Louis. 

Nutter, Alonzo E., United States Curtain Co., Newark, N. J. 

Nevins, C. M., C. J. Harrington, New York. 

Newbury, W. A., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Wilmington, Del. 

Neuell, Frank C, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Newcomb, F. H., Uniform Caps, Brooklyn. 

274 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Newell, F. C, Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Pittsburg. 

Newhall, E. G., Newhall & Co, Detroit. 

Newton, D. M, American Electric Co, Detroit. 

Nicol, C. E, Armspear Mfg. Co, New York. 

Noe, C. E, General Electric Co, Chicago. 

Noyes, Ernest High, Pittsburg Reduction Co, Pittsburg. 

Oakley, William E, Worcester Steel Foundry Co, Worcester, Mass. 

Oatman, D. P, Nernst Lamp Co, Pittsburg. 

Odena, Jr., Fred. M, Buckeye Electric Co, Cleveland. 

Ohmer, John F, Ohmer Fare Register Co, Dayton, O. 

Oliver, J. W, American Machinery Co, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Osborne, L. A, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co, Pittsburg. 

Overstreet, H. E, Climax Stock Guard Co, Chicago. 

Packer, E, American Union Electric Co, New York. 

Paetzker, E. J, American Steel & Wire Co, Chicago. 

Paine, F. B. H, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co, New York. 

Paradis, Ernest J, W. G. Nagel Electric Co, Toledo. 

Parker, W. E, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co, Buffalo. 

Parmelee, George H, Lorain Steel Co, Johnstown, Pa. 

Parmenter, George A, Life Guards, Cambridge, Mass. 

Parshall, L. A, Ball & Wood Co, Detroit. 

Parsons, R P, Pennsylvania Steel Co, Chicago. 

Partridge, Arthur S, Street Railway Supplies, St. Louis. 

Partridge, James, Partridge Carbon Works, Sandusky, O. 

Pashby, B. F, Potts' Trolley Wheel Co, Detroit. 

Patch^ N. K. B, Lumen Bearing Co, Buffalo. 

Patenall, T. H, Union Switch and Signal Co, Swissvale, Pa. 

Patterson, E. B, Bassett-Presley Co, Cleveland. 

Paulson, Niel, Jewett Car Co., Newark, O. 

Payne, A. E, Creaghead Engineering Co, Cincinnati. 

Peck, H, Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co, Detroit. 

Peirce, Edward B, American Track Barrow, Lowell, Mass. 

Peirce, J. A, Rossiter, McGovern & Co, St. Louis. 

Pell, D. W, George S. Hastings & Co, Lima, O. 

Pendleton,- D. D, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co, Pittsburg. 

Perrault, Jesse D, Detroit. 

Perrine, F. A. C, Stanley Electric Mfg. Co, Pittsfield, Mass. 

Perry, David H., G. C. Kuhlman Car Co, Cleveland. 

Perry, James W, H. W. Johns-Manville Co, New York. 

Peterson, E. H, General Electric Co, Detroit. 

Pevear, J. B, General Electric Co, Cincinnati. 

Phelps, Neil S, Knell Air Brake Co, Battle Creek. 

Phelps, William J, Phelps Co, Detroit. 

American Street Railway Association. 275 

Phelps, William Edwin, Phelps Co., Detroit. 

Phillips, E. F., Edison Illuminating Co., Detroit. 

Pierce, C. C, General Electric Co., Boston. 

Pierce, R. H., Pierce, Richardson & Neiler, Chicago. 

Pierson, F. B., National Lead Co., Detroit. 

Pomeroy, L. R. ; General Electric Co., New York. 

Pope, W. C, Globe Ticket Co., Philadelphia. 

Poppenhusen, P. Albert. Green Engineering Co., Chicago. 

Porter, J. Y., Porter Derailing Switches, Cleveland. 

Porter, W., Ohio Brass Co., Chicago. 

Porter, William M., Alphaduct Mfg. Co., New York. 

Porterfield, C. D., Atlas Railway Supply Co., Chicago. 

Post, H. R., Chicago Brass and Copper Works, Chicago. 

Potee, A. U., Ohmer Fare Register Co., Dayton, O. 

Potter, W. B., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Potts, Walter C, H. Hanshaw, Detroit. 

Powell, Charles W., Powell Truck Co., Troy. 

Power, William W., Christensen Engineering Co., New York. 

Powers, E. C, Ludlow Supply Co., Cleveland. 

Pratt, G. K, Niles Car Co., Niles, O. 

Pratt, H. T., American Steel & Wire Co., Cleveland. 

Priest, E. D., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Probasco, William M., Westinghouse Companies, Pittsburg. 

Provost, George Watson, R. D. Nuttall Co., Pittsburg. 

Pulver, G. W., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Syracuse. 

Quinn, Hugh, Peter Smith & Co., Chicago. . 

Randall, F. C, Christensen Engineering Co., New York. 

Ransom, Henry N., Christensen Engineering Co., Cleveland. 

Rawls, R. B., American Steel & Wire Co., Chicago. 

Rawstron, H., Allen & Morrison Brake Shoe & Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Ray, William D., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., New York. 

Raymond, F. W., Magann Air Brake Co., St. Louis. 

Raynor, H. J., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Detroit. 

Regester, C. W., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Reinoehl, C. W., Pennsylvania Steel Co., Steelton, Pa. 

Reed, Alexander, United States Wood Preserving Co., New York. 

Reid, Arthur, Shelby Electric Co., Shelby, O. 

Reitzell, William Rufus, Pullman Automatic Ventilator Co., York, Pa. 

Relda, H. C, Ohmer Car Register Co., Cleveland. 

Renshaw, C, Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Reubens, Charles M., Brady Brass Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

Reynolds, A. J., National Ticket Co., Cleveland. 

276 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Reynolds, E. E., Maltby Lumber Co., Bay City, Mich: 

Rice, Thomas L., Hunter Illuminated Sign Co., Cincinnati. 

Richards, F. A., John Stephenson Co., Cleveland. 

Richards, J. F., Seidler-Miner Electric Co., Detroit. 

Richards, W. J., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Richards, William F., General Supplies, Detroit. 

Ricks, Charles A., G. C. Kuhlman Car Co., Cleveland. 

Riley, James, Christensen Engineering Co., Cleveland. 

Riley, James J., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Robison, Walter R., Electric Railway Switch Co., Detroit. 

Roe, Julian, Crocker- Wheeler Co., Chicago. 

Rousseau, A. J., Stromberg-Carlson Tel. Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Rooke, George F, Rooke Register Co., Peoria, 111. 

Root, F. N., Root Track Scraper Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Rosenthal, C. D., General Electric Co., St. Louis. 

Rummell, G. F., American Steel Wire Co., Chicago. 

Runge, E. T.. International Register Co., Chicago. 

Rushmore, David B., Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

Russell, F. D., Rochester Car Wheel Works, Rochester. 

Ruth, F. J., F. J. Ruth & Co., Chicago. 

Rutherford, E. C, Magann Air Brake Co., Detroit. 

Rutherford, J. A., Pittsburg Reduction Co., Pittsburg. 

Salle, G. M., American Electric Co., Detroit. 

Sommon, B. J., American Electric Switch Co., Pittsburg. 

Sanford, G. H., Piatt & Washburn Refining Co., New York. 

Sangworthy, E. S., Adams-Westlake Co., Chicago. 

Sanville, -H. F., A. & J. M. Anderson Mfg. Co., Boston. 

Sargent, F. W., American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co.. New York. 

Schenck, S. C, Sterling Varnish Co., Pittsburg. 

Schneider, F., Van Dorn & Dutton Co., Cleveland. 

Schroeder, Albert F., Globe Machinery and Stamping Co., Cleveland. 

Schultz, E. F., Murphy Varnish Co. Chicago. 

Schumacher, George L., Pneumatic Railway Equipment Co., Cleveland. 

Schwable, H. C, Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Scott, T., McMitshkern Co., Detroit. 

Scranton, B. H., American Electrical Heater Co., Detroit. 

Seaman, H., Electric Storage Battery Co., Detroit. 

Searing, George S., Hart Switches, Chicago. 

Searles, A. L., Fort Wayne Electric Works, Ft. Wayne. 

Seavey, F. H., Process Copper & Brass Co., Boston. 

Seidler, B. F., Seidler-Miner Electric Co., Detroit. 

Seilers, Edward, Ohmer Fare Register Co., Dayton. 

Seldon, Jr., William H., Bullock Electric Mfg. Co., Detroit. 

Shainwald, J. C, Standard Paint Co.. Chicago. 

American Street Railway Association. 277 

Sharp, Edward P., Lumen Bearing Co., Buffalo. 

Sharpe, W. E., Atlas Engine Works, Indianapolis. 

Shepard, A. B. v General Electric Co., Cleveland. 

Shepherd, W. J., Columbian Watch and Clock Holder, Denver. 

Sheppard, J. H., American Steel & Wire Co., Worcester. 

Sherry, John, Sterling Lubricator Co., Rochester. 

Shippy, H. L., John A. Roebling's Sons Co., New York. 

Shute, Henry D., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Sias, F. S., National Conduit and Cable Co., Boston. 

Sisson, A. H., Jewett Car Co., Newark, O. 

Skinner, C. E., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Slocum, A. W., Keystone Car Wheel Co., Pittsburg. 

Smethurst, W. A., Smethurst & Allen, Philadelphia. 

Smettem, William T., Weber Railway Joint Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Smith, D. W.. Peter Smith Heater Co., Detroit. 

Smith, E. J., Peter Smith Pleater Co., Detroit. 

Smith, George B., Seidler-Miner Electric Co., Detroit. 

Smith, George W., Electric Storage Battery Co., Chicago. 

Smith, Herbert W., Stuart-Howland Co., Boston. 

Smith, J. C, Allegheny Brake Shoe Co., Allegheny. 

Smith, William M., Chicago Insulated Wire Co., Sycamore, 111. 

Sniffin, E. H., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., New York. 

Snow, Philip C, Globe Ticket Co., Philadelphia. 

Soper, Warren Y., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Ottawa, Ont. 

Spear, F. R., Spear & Miller Co., Chicago. 

Spear, Grant N., Dearborn Drug & Chemical Co., Chicago. 

Speer, J. S., Speer Carbon Co., St. Marys, Pa. 

Stanley. G. J., Nernst Lamp Co., Pittsburg. 

Stare, Burton R., Peckham Mfg. Co., Kingston, N. Y. 

Stare, William, Peckam Mfg. Co., Kingston, N. Y. 

Startsman, Charles W., Crocker-Wheeler Co., Ampere, N. J. 

Stebbins, E. Vail, Electric Storage Battery Co., Cleveland. 

Stecker, Charles, Electric Storage Battery Co., Detroit. 

Stedman, J. H., Ohmer Fare Register Co., Rochester. 

Stevens, W. F., Kalamazoo Railway Supply Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Stewart, B. F., McGuire Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Stewart, John A., John A. Stewart Electric Co., Cincinnati. 

Stieringer, Luther, New York. 

Stiles, R., American Union Electric Co., Columbus, O. 

Stoddard, D. G., Michigan Electric Co., Detroit. 

Storer, Norman W., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Stout, John F., William Hall & Co., Boston. 

Stowell, Myron R., Patterson-Sargent Co., Cleveland. 

Stridiron, William, Berry Bros., Ltd., Detroit. 

278 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Strieby, F. S., General Electric Co., Louisville. 
Sturdevant, C. R., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 
Sturdevant, S. A., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 
Sullivan, W. F., Crocker-Wheeler Co., Cleveland. 
Sutherland, J. D., American Steel & Wire Co., Pittsburg. 
Sutton, William, St. Louis Car Co., St. Louis: 
Suydam, H. H., Cincinnati Mfg. Co., Cincinnati. 
Swan, G. W., John A. Roebling's Sons Co., New York. 
Swink, William, Hunter Sign and Fender Co., Cincinnati. 
Sylvester, P. J., Pennsylvania Steel Co., Boston. 

Taber, Edwin G, General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Tate, H. F., National Conduit and Cable Co., Chicago. 

Taylor, Frank H., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Taylor, John, Taylor Electric Truck Co., Troy. 

Tell, Richard P., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Temple, Albert, Harold P. Brown, New York. 

Tench, W. E., W. E. Tench & Co., Detroit. 

Thibert, N., Universal Sanitary Cuspidor Co., Worcester. 

Thibert, N. R., Universal Sanitary Cuspidor Co., Worcester. 

Tingley, U. G., John A. Roebling's Sons Co., Trenton. 

Titus, J. V. E., Garton-Daniels Co.. Keokuk, la. 

Thomas, Edward G., Mechanical Engineer, Boston. 

Thomson, F. C, Detroit Automatic Stoker Co., Detroit. 

Thomas, Q. A., Strong Spring Co., Detroit. 

Thomas, Maurice W., Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Detroit. 

Thomas, R. L., National Lock Washer Co., New York. 

Thomas, W. H., Indianapolis Switch and Frog Co., Springfield, O. 

Thompson, J. S., American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co., Chicago. 

Thompson, W. B., Edison Illuminating Co., Detroit. 

Tolman, Charles P., Christensen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Tomb, George R., Pneumatic Railway Equipment Co., Cleveland. 

Tonks, H., American Union Electric Co., New York. 

Trawick, S. W., General Electric Co., Atlanta. 

Turner, H. N., Acme White Lead and Color Co., New York. 

Turner, J., Powell Truck Co., Troy. 

Tyler, Hiram, Globe Register Co., Dayton. 

Umphray, George H., Under-Feed Stoker Co., Chicago. 
Underwood, C. W., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Buffalo. 
Uthoff, Otto W., Ohio Brass Co., St. Louis. 

Vail, Carl M., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., New York. 
Van Deventer, Christopher, Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Chicago. 
Van Dorn, W. T., W. T. Van Dorn Co., Chicago. 
Van Sicklen, N. H., American Steel & Wire Co., Chicago. 

American Street Railway Association. 279 

Vide, F. S., Standard Underground Cable Co., Pittsburg. 
Vosburgh, A. C, New Process Raw Hide Co., Syracuse. 

Wabbling, J. E., American Union Electric Co., New York. 

Walker, Henry L., Henry L. Walker Co., Detroit. 

Walker, M. S., F. Bissell Co., Toledo. 

Wallace, C. D., Yost Writing Machine Co., New York. 

Ward, John E., Gold Car Heating and Lighting Co., New York. 

Wardwell, C. M., Michigan Electric Co., Detroit. 

Warren, Arthur, Westinghouse Companies, London, Eng. 

Waters, William L., Christerisen Engineering Co., Milwaukee. 

Weatherby, W. E., Burroughs Adding Machine, St. Louis. 

Weithas, Richard L., National Lead Co., New York. 

Welling, William, Hunter Illuminated Car Sign Co., Cincinnati. 

Wells, Charles- J., Fostoria Incandescent Lamp Co., Fostoria. 

Wendell, Jr., Jacob, Wendell & MacDuffie, New York. 

Weston, W. H., Paige Iron Works, Chicago. 

Wharton. W. Rodman, Wm. Wharton, Jr. & Co., Incp., Philadelphia. 

Wheelden, W. E., Christensen Engineering Co., Boston. 

Wheeler, John T., F. J. Ruth & Co., Chicago. 

Whinery, S. B., Pittsburg Blue Print Co., Pittsburg. 

Whipple, A. L., Curtain Supply Co., New York. 

White, Leroy H., White Power and Speed Regulator, Kalamazoo. 

White, W. A., Johns-Pratt Co., Hartford. 

Whitcomb, F. L., Griffin Wheel Co., Chicago. 

Whitlock, F. B., National Malleable Casting Co., Indianapolis. 

Whiteside, W. H., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Whitton, R. L., Berry Bros., Ltd., Detroit. 

Wickwire, E. F., Sterling-Meaker Co., Newark, N. J. 

Wilcox, C. Hart, Arbuckle-Ryan Co., Toledo. 

Wilcoxon, C. N., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Lima, O. 

Wiley, J. R., Standard Underground Cable Co., Chicago. 

Wilkinson, A. L., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Willard, E. R., Standard Paint Co., Chicago. 

Willebrands, G. W., Street Railroad Crossing, Detroit. 

Willcox, Francis W., General Electric Co., Harrison, N. J. 

Williams, Edward M., Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland. 

Williams, Lowell, Pullman Automatic Ventilator Co., Philadelphia. 

Williams, W. J., Cahall Water Tube Boilers, Chicago. 

Wilson, Harold R., Stanley Electric Mfg. Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

Wise, Clift, Street Railroad Contractor, Chicago. 

Wisman, W. H., Devers & Wisman, Mummaville, O. 

Wisner, A. C, Knell Air Brake Co., Battle Creek. 

Wissing, W. H., Crocker- Wheeler Co., St. Louis. 

Woltman, E., Albert & J. M. Anderson Mfg. Co., New York. 

Wood, Charles N., Frank Ridlon Co., Boston. 

280 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Wood, N. L., Frank Ridlon Co., Boston. 

Wood, M. M., General Electric Co., Schenectady. 

Woodbridge, J. Lester, .Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia. 

Woodbury, W. H., Electric Railway Switch Co., Detroit. 

Woodward, A. H., International Register Co., Chicago. 

Woodward, A. M., Acme White Lead and Color Works, Detroit. 

Woodruff, W. W., Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. 

Wranfred, C. N., Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 

Wright, C. R., American Machinery Co., Grand Rapids. 

Wright, Louis- G., Nichols-Lintern Co., Cleveland. 

Yarnall, V. H., American Vitrified Conduit Co., New York. 
Yates, M. de F., New Haven Car Register Co., New Haven. 
Young, J. S., Griffin Wheel Co., Chicago. 


Although the tendency to employ the time during the 
Convention in the actual business of the meetings and in the 
inspection of the exhibits is growing stronger each year, there 
was abundant opportunity at Detroit for indulging in the social 
side of life. The city in itself is most attractive and the 
charming weather during the Convention rendered it a pleas- 
ure even to walk along the streets. The free use of the street 
cars centering in Detroit was liberally taken advantage of 
by all and numerous parties enjoyed tbe rides through the 
outskirts and suburbs of the city. The local committee was 
not remiss, however, in providing ample entertainment for 
the delegates and supplymen, with their ladies. 

An informal -reception to the ladies was held at the Cadil- 
lac Hotel, the headquarters of the Association, on Wednesday, 
where the ladies had an opportunity of making and renewing 
acquaintances. The Ladies' Committee, composed of a num- 
ber of Detroit ladies, was indefatigable in its efforts to make 
the visitors feel at home, and it is unnecessary to add that they 
succeeded to an eminent degree. 

The first formal function arranged for was on Wednesday 
evening when a reception was given at the hotel. This was 
largely attended by the ladies and gentlemen of the Conven- 
tion, all of whom had an enjoyable time. There was dancing 
and refreshments were served. 

American Street Railway Association. 281 

On Thursday Messrs. Berry Bros., Ltd., of Detroit, ten- 
dered a tally-ho ride to the ladies to Belle Isle. It was noticed, 
however, there were a good many men in the pSrty ! Some 
forty vehicles were used to take the company and it was a 
great treat, aided by the fine weather. 

On Thursday evening the entire lower part of the Detroit 
Opera House was reserved for the use of the delegates and 
supplymen, with their ladies, and some six hundred persons 
enjoyed the play, "When Johnny Comes Marching Home." 

On Friday a trolley ride was given to the ladies to Mt. 
Clemens, via the Rapid Railway and Gratiot Avenue, returning 
via the Shore Line to the Country Club, Grosse Pointe, where 
an elaborate luncheon was served, returning to the city at four 
o'clock: This was the chief entertainment of the Conven- 
tion, and it was a very enjoyable affair; the perfect weather 
continuing and all arrangements for the trip being of a most 
satisfactory character. 

The Officers and Executive Committee received many 
courtesies from the local street railway men, who improved 
every opportunity to make them happy. 

The railway companies of the city of Detroit spared no 
pains to render their guests comfortable and to ensure them 
a pleasant sojourn in the city, and in this they succeeded to 
the complete satisfaction of all concerned. 

It may be mentioned that the attendance at the Detroit 
Convention was the largest in the- history of the Asso- 
ciation — more than three-quarters of the members sending 
delegates — and the convention will pass into the history of 
the Association as a most pronounced success. 

Following is a list of the committees in charge of the 
arrangements for the meeting: 



Jere C. Hutchins, Chairman; George H. Russel, John H. Fry, 
Albert E. Peters, Walter Ross, Albert H. Stanley, Irwin Fullerton. 


John H. Fry, Chairman ; Thomas Farmer, John Kerwin, Edward J. 
Burdick, W. O. Wood, F. E. Merrill, James Bullen, Albert Eastman. 

282 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Wm. Webber, W. O. Russell, Fred C. Peters, James Anderson, F. W. 

Albert E. Peters, Chairman ; Thomas Patterson, Harry V. Catlin, 
W. F. Bien, Paul Dohrman, David Brown, Thomas Lynch, R. W. F. 
Peters, C. B. King, Thomas Beath, W. C. Hopper. 


Irwin Fullerton, Chairman ; F. A. Hinchman, Robert Oakman, 
George W. Parker, Joseph Bampton, F. W. Brooks, A. F. Edwards, 
John Twomey, Edward H. Ives, Wm. R. Frazer, Louis Schneider, 
Ernst Klussman. 


George H. Russel, Chairman ; Gov. A. T. Bliss - , Mayor Wm. C. 
Maybury, C. J. Reilly, H. M. Duffield, Arthur Pack, J. B. Corliss, 
F. J. Hecker, Dr. Benjamin P. Brodie, C. D. Joslyn, Benton R. 
Hanchett, Jr., Thos. T. Leete, Jr., G B. Gunderson, W. E. Quinby, 
James E. Scripps, H. A. Everett, E. W. Moore, C. M. Swift, R. A. 
Harman, J. D. Hawks, S. F. Angus, George Hendrie, Clarence Black, 
O. B. Taylor, J. T. Keena, Michael Brennan, Fred. Smith, Wm. J. 
Gray, John C. Donnelly. 


Albert H. Stanley, Chairman; Harry Bullen, W. J. Dawson, 
Dr. Hedley Williamson, Robert Johnson, John L. Ross, H. S. Swift, 
Charles Roe, Lewis A. Stoneman, Mrs. George H. Russel, Mrs. 
Michael Brennan, Mrs. A. B. duPont, Mrs. John H. Fry, Mrs. 
Albert H. Stanley, Mrs. Irwin Fullerton, Mrs. G. B. Gunderson, Mrs. 
W. J. Gray, Mrs. John C. Donnelly, Mrs. Walter Ross, Mrs. James 
T. Keena, Mrs. Arthur Pack, Mrs. Wm. R. Frazer, Mrs. Thomas 
Farmer, Mrs. F. A. Hinchman, Mrs. J. D. Hawks, Mrs. F. S. Angus, 
Mrs. C. M. Swift, Mrs. F. W. Brooks, Mrs. C. D. Joslyn, Mrs. Thos. 
T. Leete, Jr., Mrs. C. B. King, Mrs. C. J. Reilly, Mrs. Joseph Bamp- 
ton, Miss Sarah H. Russel, Miss Fanny M. M. Peters. 


Walter Ross, Chairman. 

P. C. Baker, Detroit Evening News. 

James Schermerhorn, Detroit Today. 

George E. Miller, Detroit Tribune. 

Theodore E. Quinby, Detroit Free Press. 

Henry P. Hetherington, Detroit Journal. 

Curt Hoffman, Abend Post. 

Adolph Niederpruem, Michigan Volksblatt. 

American Street Railway Association. 


G. Walter Meade. 


The following named ladies were at the convention : 

Mrs. Charles A. Alden, Steelton, 

Mrs. O. Perry Allen, Detroit. 

Mrs. H. C. Ayres, Detroit. 

Mrs. W. L. Arnold, Chicago. 

Mrs. E. Percy Ashton, Milwau- 

Mrs. W. K. Auhbold, Oneida, N. 

Mrs. Theodore P. Bailey, Chi- 
Mrs. Joseph Bampton, Detroit. 
Mrs. D. D. Bartlett, Boston, 

Mrs. R. H. Beach, New York. 
Mrs. Julia K. Bean, St. Joseph, 

Mrs. W. K. Beard, Philadelphia. 
Mrs. R. E. Belknap, Chicago. 
Mrs. W. S. Berry, Pittsburg. 
Mrs. S. M. Bird, Rockland, Me. 
Mrs. F. B. Black, Mansfield, O. 
Mrs. Robert Bland, Milwaukee. 
Mrs. Will H. Bloss, Anderson, 

Mrs. H. S. Blumenthal, Detroit. 
Mrs. Frank G. Bolles, Cincinnati. 
Mrs. J. M. Bramlette, East St. 

Louis, 111. 
Miss F. Breckhill, Dayton, O. 
Mrs. Willard Brewer, Battle 

Mrs. William F. Breidenbach, 

Mrs. F. W. Brooks, Detroit. 
Mrs. Frank L. Brown, Omaha, 

Mrs. J. Q. Brown, Oakland, Cal. 
Mrs. J. Bunce, Battle Creek. 
Mrs. E. J. Burdick, Detroit. 

Mrs. P. V. Burington, Columbus, 

Mrs. James Butler, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. 

Mrs. George B. Cade, Asbury 

Park, N. J. 
Miss Ida E. Caldwell, Detroit. 
Mrs. C. E. A. Carr, London, Ont. 
Mrs. E. R. Carrington, London, 

Mrs. H. V. Catlin, Detroit. 
Mrs. E. G. Chamberlain, New 

Mrs. W. D. Chapman, Greenburg, 

Mrs. Charles S. Clark, Boston. 
Mrs. H. P. Clark, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Mrs. H. P. Clegg, Dayton, O. 
Miss Pauline Clitz, Lorain, O. 
Mrs. C. W. Cobb, Cleveland. 
Mrs. S. S. Crane, Altoona, Pa. 
Mrs. Charles Currie, Akron, O. 
Mrs. F. P. Crockett, Kalamazoo. 

Mrs. P. J. Dalton, Troy. 

Mrs. J. F. Daly, New York. 

Mrs. Edward Daniell, Menomi- 
nee, Mich. 

Miss Edna Davis, Cleveland. 

Mrs. George S. Davis, Cleveland. 

Mrs. C. A. Denman, Toledo. 

Mrs. E. S. Dimmock, Bay City, 

Mrs. Joseph F. Dixon, Jr., New 


Mrs. H. K. Doolittle, Watertown, 
N. Y. 

Mrs. C. B. Easty, East St. Louis, 

Mrs. John Ehrhardt, Cleveland, 



Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Mrs. Clifford J. Ellis, Chicago. 
Mrs. Charles O. Evarts, Kansas 

City, Kan. 
Mrs. H. A. Everett, Detroit. 

Mrs. Thomas Farmer, Detroit. 
Miss Farmer, Detroit. 
Miss Elizabeth Farmer, Detroit. 
Mrs. A. E. Fleming, Pittsburg. 
Mrs. James A. Foster, Philadel- 
Mrs. Wallace Franklin, Detroit. 
Miss Grace E. Franklin, Detroit. 
Mrs. W. R. Frazer, Detroit. 
Mrs. J. H. Fry, Detroit. 
Mrs. Irwin Fullerton, Detroit. 

Mrs. Robert S. Goff, Fall River, 

Mrs. J. C. Grace, Toronto, Ont. 
Mrs. C. K. Green, Hamilton, Ont. 
Miss M. E. Greene, Augusta, Ga. 
Miss Grey, Springfield, O. 
Mrs. T. B. Griffith, Hamilton, Ont. 
Mrs. Gunderson, Detroit. 

Mrs. F. B. Hall, Chicago. 

Mrs. C. J. Harrington, New York. 

Mrs. W. E. Harington, Camden, 

Mrs. G. A. Harwood, Mansfield, 

Mrs. George S. Hastings, Cleve- 

Mrs. Thomas Hawken, Rockland, 

Mrs. J. Heil, Milwaukee. 

Miss Emma Heise, Detroit. 

Mrs. O. D. Henry, Johnstown, 

Mrs. P. A. Hinds, Indianapolis, 

Mrs. W. E. Hinman, Dayton, O. 

Mrs. J. B. Hogarth, Denver, Colo. 

Mrs. J. C. Hopkins, Battle Creek. 

Mrs. G. S. Johnson, Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich. 
Mrs. J. Jordan, Cleveland. 

Mrs. John Kerwin, Detroit. 
Mrs. A. S. Kibbe, Joliet, 111. 
Mrs. C. B. King, Detroit. 
Mrs. C. K. King, Mansfield, O. 
Mrs. F. E. Kinsman, New York. 
Mrs. George W. Knox, Chicago. 

Mrs. Charles H. Lahr, Akron, O. 
Mrs. Albion E. Lang, Toledo, O. 
Mrs. E. S. Langworthy, Chicago. 
Mrs. Leach, Buffalo. 
Mrs. A. S. Linn, Jr., Utica, N. Y. 
Mrs. J. H. Livsey, Detroit. 
Mrs. J. Lucas, Cleveland. 
Miss J. Lucas, Cleveland. 
Mrs. S. G. Ludlam, Gloucester, 

Mrs. Thomas W. McAndrews, 
Hoboken, N. J. 

Mrs. Ira A. McCormack, New 

Mrs. W. G. McDole, Cleveland. 

Mrs. D. W. McGregor, New 
Brunswick, N. J. 

Mrs. W. A. McGuire, Chicago. 

Mrs. Walter C. McKinlock, Chi- 

Mrs. W. J. McQueen, New York. 

Miss McQueen, New York. 

Mrs. W. B. McVicker, New York. 

Mrs. H. C. Mackay, Milwaukee. 

Mrs. George E. Macomber, Rock- 
land, Me. 

Mrs. G. P. Magann, Toronto, Ont. 

Mrs. John J. Magilton, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. 

Mrs. A. G. Maish, Des Moines, 

Mrs. Frank R. Marks, Cleveland. 

American Street Railway Association. 


Mrs. Thomas Marlow.Des Moines, 

Mrs. A. C. Marshall, Detroit. 

Mrs. C. W. Martin, Chicago. 

Mrs. T. C. Martin, New York. 

Mrs. C. F. Medbury, Detroit. 

Mrs. Wesley Meeten, New York. 

Mrs. A. H. Metzelaar, Battle 

Mrs. J. Millar, Buffalo. 

Mrs. Thomas Millen, New York. 

Mrs. D. N. Miller, Hamilton, Ont. 

Mrs. J. G. Miller, St. Louis. 

Mrs. John H. Miller, Springfield, 

Miss C. Miller, Springfield, O. 

Mrs. J. E. Mills, Chicago. 

Mrs. Thomas J. Minary, Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

Mrs. F. J. Miner, Detroit. 

Mrs. G. R. Mitchell, Springfield, 

Mrs. D. S. Moffatt, Cleveland, O. 

Mrs. Miles F. Moore, Chicago. 

Mrs. Elmer P. Morris, New York. 

Mrs. F. B. Musser, Harrisburg, 

Mrs. S. L. Nelson, Danville, 111. 

Mrs. Edgar S. Nethercut, Chi- 

Mrs. F. H. Newcomb, New York. 

Mrs. E. G. Newhall, Detroit. 

Mrs. H. A. Nicholl, Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Mrs. Alonzo E. Nutter, Newark, 
N. J. 

Mrs. Robert Oakman, Detroit. 
Mrs. F. M. Odena, Jr., Cleveland. 
Mrs. J. W. Oliver, Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich. 

Mrs. Arthur Pack, Detroit. 
Mrs. D. O. Paige, New York. 

Miss A. Paige, New York. 
Mrs. J. H. Parshall, Detroit. 
Mrs. L. A. Parshall, Detroit. 
Mrs. James Partridge, Sandusky, 

Mrs. T. H. Paternell, Pittsburg. 
Mrs. A. E. Payne, Cincinnati. 
Mrs. H. M. Pease, Buffalo. 
Mrs. D. W. Pell, Lima, O. 
Miss Penington, Chicago. 
Mrs. William Pestell, Worcester, 

Miss F. M. M. Peters, Detroit. 
Mrs. W. E. Phelps, Detroit. 
Mrs. E. F. Phillips, Detroit. 
Mrs. F. B. Pierson, Detroit. 
Mrs. H. H. Polk, Des Moines, la. 
Mrs. W. Porter, Chicago. 
Mrs. William W. Porter, New 

Mrs. A. E. Potter, Providence, 

R. I. 

Mrs. George L. Radcliffe, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Mrs. Andrew Radel, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. 

Mrs. R. L. Rand, Kalamazoo, 

Mrs. Henry N. Ransom, Cleve- 

Mrs. O. M. Rau, Milwaukee. 

Mrs. William D. Ray, New York. 

Mrs. H. J. Raynor, Detroit. 

Mrs. Alexander Reed, New York. 

Mrs. E. Reed, New York. 

Mrs. C. H. Reichard, Camden, 
N. J. 

Mrs. W. J. Richards, Milwaukee, 

Mrs. W. F. Richardson, Chicago. 

Mrs. Albert S. Richey, Anderson, 

Mrs. C. A. Ricker, Cleveland. 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Mrs. Walter Ross, Detroit. 
Miss B. Rosseau, Chicago. 
Miss E. Rosseau, Chicago. 
Mrs. E. N. Root, Kalamazoo. 
Mrs. George H. Russell, Detroit. 
Miss Sarah H. Russell, Detroit. 

Mrs. William C. Sampson, An- 
derson, Ind. 

Mrs. H. C. Schwable, Mansfield, 

Mrs. A. W. Slocum, Pittsburg. 

Mrs. F. Skillman, Gloucester, 

Mrs. C. E. Skinner, Pittsburg. 

Mrs. A. H. Smith, New York. 

Mrs. F. E. Smith, Chicago. 

Mrs. George W. Smith, Chicago. 

Mrs. Grant W. Spear, Chicago. 

Mrs. George A. Stanley, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Mrs. W. F. Stevens, Kalamazoo. 

Mrs. B. F. Stewart, Chicago. 

Mrs. H. S. Swift, Detroit. 

Mrs. P. J. Sylvester, Boston. 

Mrs. W. B. Tarkington, Omaha, 

Mrs. Maurice W. Thomas, De- 

Mrs. J. J. Thorne, Bay City, 

Miss Amelia R. Tolman, Milwau- 

Miss Ida J. Tompkins, Detroit. 

Mrs. E. E. Russell Tratman, Chi- 

Mrs. G. H. Umphray, Detroit. 

Mrs. H. E. Vreeland, New York. 
Mrs. H. H. Vreeland, New York. 

Mrs. Henry L. Walker, Detroit. 

Mrs. William Walmsley, Chicago. 

Miss Walmsley, Chicago. 

Mrs. Thomas F. Walsh, New 
Brunswick, N. J. 

Mrs. Arthur Warren, London, 

Mrs. Charles W. Wason, Cleve- 

Mrs. E. J. Wehrley, Danville, 

Mrs. Frank Wells, New York. 

Mrs. J. E. Welsh, Des Moines, la. 

Miss Jessee Wharton, Butte, Mont. 

Mrs. W. H. Whiteside, Pittsburg. 

Mrs. R. L. Whitton, Detroit. 

Mrs. F. W. Wilcox, Harrison, 
N. J. 

Mrs. A. C. Wisner, Battle Creek. 

Miss A. Wood, Schenectady. 

Mrs. Charles N. Wood, Boston. 

Mrs. J. Lester Woodbridge, 

Mrs. M. de F. Yates, New Ha- 
ven, Conn. 

Mrs. J. M. Yount, Jersey City, 
N. J. 

Mrs. F. M. Zimmermann, Au- 
rora, 111. 

American Street Railway Association. 


IS Si 




|cloWr 10% 

wJKuBSi i v^ 



288 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


CANAPE Cadillac Cocktails 


TORTUE VERT, CLAIRE, aux Quenelles Amontillado 



Sauterne B. G. 1884. 



FILET MIGNON, a la Martin 

Pontet Canet B. G. 



CAILLE, ROTI, au Cresson Pommery Sec 




CAFE Cigars 

American Street Railzvay Association. 


m> u 5 i c 

1. March, 

2. Overture, 

"On Duty," 

" The Silver Bells," 

3. "The Mississippi Bubble," 

4. Waltz, 

" Lazarre," 

5. Grand Selection from the Opera " II Trovatore," 

6. Two Step, 

7. Selection, 

8. Intermezzo, 

" Bill Bailey," 

" Maid Marian," 

"Cavalleria Rusticana," 

1 "On a Sunday Afternoon," 
/ " Please Let Me Sleep," 

10. March, 

"The Bachelor Maids," 

11. " Zallah," An Egyptian Dance, 

12. " Galop Automobile," 













Ibotel CaDtllac ©rcbestra 


Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Installation of ©fficers jElect 


Toastmaster, H. H. VREELAND, 
New York. 

" Slumber Song," Quartette, 

Mrs. Ellis, Miss Beyer, Mr. Jarvis, Mr. Slade. 

" The Growth of Detroit as I Have Noted It." 

Hon. William C. Maybury, Mayor of Detroit. 


" I Had a Flower," 

Mrs. Ellis. 


The F.— 30 Motor," 

Gen. Eugene Griffin, New York. 

"The Bay of Biscay," 

Mr. Jarvis. 

" How the People Would Run a Street Railway," 

Mr. Michael Brennan, Detroit. 


"Angus MacDonald," 

Miss Beyer. 


" The Future Electric Railway," 

Mr. W. Caryl Ely, Buffalo. 

"Gypsy Jahn," 

Mr. Slade. 


" The Trolley ; its Future State," 

Mr. James T. Keena, Detroit. 

" The Parting Kiss," Quartette, 

Mrs. Ellis, Miss Beyer, Mr. Jarvis, Mr. Slade. 


American Street Railway Association. 


292 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


The Detroit banquet was quite up to the high standard 
which the banquets of the Association have attained. There 
was nothing lacking in the cuisine or arrangements for the 
service, and the decorations were appropriate. The vocal 
music rendered between the toasts was especially acceptable. 

The presence of Mr. Jere C. Hutchins, the President-elect 
of the Association, who had come from a sanitarium where he 
had been under treatment, was a matter of satisfaction to the 
guests ; and his remarks, although made under considerable 
physical stress, were received with much favor. 

The four hundred persons, ladies and gentlemen, at the 
banquet, passed a very enjoyable evening. 


President Vreeland — In accordance with the usual custom 
of the American Street Railway Association, the President 
takes this opportunity of explaining to the guests of the 
Association who we are and what we represent. In order 
that I may not infringe on the time allotted to the gentlemen 
who are to speak to-night, I will say for the information of 
the ladies and gentlemen who are present that we represent 
the United States and Canada in an industry that started only 
a few years ago and has made a progress, the story of which 
reads like the tale of Aladdin's Lamp in the Arabian Night's 
Entertainment. Our business has gone beyond what any 
of us anticipated, and our membership to-day represents 25,000 
miles of electric railroads in the United States and Canada, 
with some $2,000,000,000.00 in capitalization. You have here 
representatives of the street railways from the Gulf to the 
St. Lawrence, and from Maine to the border States on the 
Pacific. You have here, gentlemen, not the men who oper- 
ated street railroads fifteen and twenty years ago, and who 
were the capitalists of the day, but you have the workingmen, 
the men who are practically in charge of these large railroad 
properties ; men who took themselves up by their boot straps 

American Street Railway- Association. 293 

and lifted themselves into their positions. (Applause.) We 
have reached an era in street railroading where the man who 
represents the property does not talk to the public, does not 
talk to the municipality, does not talk to the patrons of the 
company with his hand on his pocketbook. The men who 
handle the interests of these properties are representatives 
of interests of thousands and thousands of shareholders. It 
is only the other day that a man, when he did any talking 
in connection with these properties, did it largely for him- 
self. On the other hand, we who are operating these prop- 
erties to-day, are operating them as a great trust. We repre- 
sent the interests of thousands. The individual interest has 
sunk out of sight. We have expended millions of dollars in 
the development of transportation facilities which are the 
greatest boon to the people of this country ; the greatest boon 
to its cities ; the greatest boon to its towns ; the greatest boon 
to its suburban and interurban territory, and to-day we come 
here in convention assembled representing these large inter- 

In coming to your city we were happy in receiving a most 
cordial welcome. We came here for business. We have 
transacted our business in an orderly manner and we have 
no doubt that the business we have transacted will be of 
value in the further development of the electric railroad, 
which has so largely aided in the civilizing and broadening, 
and bringing into closer communication, all the territories of 
the United States and Canada. We have not been niggardly in 
our expenditure of money. The electrical art has gone ahead 
faster than any man could keep pace with it. The things of 
yesterday have been thrown away for the things of to-day. 
We have expended millions of dollars in electrical develop- 
ment which is back of us, but we are going ahead and not 
stopping. The high voltage long distance transmission of 
electricity, which has been developed in the last five years, has 
made this wonderful extension of the urban and interurban 
electric railway business possible. Even to-day, in our Asso- 
ciation, we are considering mechanical and electrical problems 

294- Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

o'f the greatest importance, and which, in their ultimate appli- 
cations, may make it desirable for us to lay aside much of 
the work which we have done in recent years. 

Gentlemen, as the retiring- President of your Association, 
it becomes my duty to call your attention to the officers 
elected to preside over the deliberations and manage the 
affairs of the Association during the coming year. On the 
last day of our convention it is customary to elect a new set 
of officers, and it is the custom to install the newly-elected 
officers at the banquet. Your Committee on Nominations 
presented the names of the following gentlemen, .for the offices 
indicated, and they were unanimously elected : 

President, Jere C. Hutchins, Detroit ; First Vice-President, 
W. Caryl Ely, Buffalo; Second Vice-President, W. Kelsey 
Schoepf, Cincinnati; Third Vice-President, P. S. Arkwright, 
Atlanta ; Executive Committee, the President, the Vice-Presi- 
dents, and H. H. Vreeland, New York ; R. T. Laffin, Worces- 
ter ; Andrew Radel, Bridgeport ; Walter P. Read, Salt Lake 
City ; Willard J. Hield, Minneapolis ; Secretary and Treasurer, 
T. C. Penington, Chicago. 

It is usual to listen to an address from the incoming Presi- 
dent at the close of the session, but owing to the illness of 
Mr. Hutchins, and the fact that he has been more active during 
the convention than he should have been, contrary to the 
advice of his physician, he was not able to appear at the con- 
vention at the time of his election ; and I will take this oppor- 
tunity of presenting your new President, Mr. Jere C. Hutchins. 
(Loud applause.) 


Mr. Hutchins — Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 
I very sincerely appreciate the graciousness of my introduction 
and your generous greeting. It happens that I face you in 
a double role. I desire, as Chairman of the Local Committee 
of Arrangements, to thank all of the members of our local 
committees for their efforts in your behalf. (Applause.) And 
I more especially desire to thank each of you, particularly 

American Street Railway Association. 295, 

the ladies, for the great pleasure your presence affords us. 
None of us here in Detroit can- live long enough to forget 
the scenes and faces of the Detroit Convention (applause), 
or to cease to foster and cherish those sweet friendships which 
have been formed and cemented here. (Applause.) 

Among those who are to address you this evening are our 
accomplished Mayor (applause), and two other Detroit gen- 
tlemen of Hibernian extraction. (Laughter and applause.) 
I had intended firing a few anticipatory shots at them, be- 
cause what they may say will doubtless be deserving of some 
censure; but the action of your delegates, as announced by 
Mr. Vreeland, in placing me at the head of this great national 
organization has quite disarmed me for such a task, so that 
whatever further I may now be able to say to you must be 
said as it wells up from my heart in appreciation of the great 
honor that has been conferred upon me, upon my company, 
and upon my City and State. (Applause.) 

I am very. glad, ladies and gentlemen, that it is my good 
fortune to live on earth now ; — not at some former time, not in 
some future age, but NOW, in the glorious beginning of this 
new century, when the men and women of this splendid as- 
semblage are my co-temporaries, associates and friends. This 
is, indeed, a potent age and time. The light of all the truths 
affecting mankind which have been evolved from out the 
ages are focused upon it, and there are not among the sons 
of men any who are doing more for the glory of their time 
than is being done in the great electrical field, in which your 
efforts are being directed. (Applause.) I mean electric 
railway workers in no restricted sense. I mean all electric 
railway workers, and especially those engineers and inventors 
and manufacturers whose splendid work is now being exhib- 
ited in Detroit. (Applause.) Your part in life is to provide 
for the convenient comings and goings of the people. This 
you have accomplished in our great centers of population so 
that the masses are now moved as move the tides of the ocean ; 
and you have done infinitely more — you have invoked the 
silent forces of nature and linked these busy centers with the 

296 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

quiet country side, and at your touch the tired city worker 
now swiftly escapes to nature's free out of doors. (Great 
applause.) Here, is the clamor and the tumult and the rush 
and the roar of the great city. There, a few minutes away, 
is the woodland, the waving- grass, the rounding shore, the 
grandeur of fields, the setting of orchards ; all that comes with 
the gentle rays of morning, and all the beauty of the setting 
sun ; and you have brought these sweet and ennobling scenes 
within the reach of all. Your work is revolutionary and will 
be felt while time lasts ; for these great highways you have 
created and are creating lead to health and happiness ; not 
alone over shady lanes and over the hilltops, but you are aiding 
in lifting our civilization up to those still higher summits very 
near that realm which lies a little beyond them. (Applause.) 
Ladies and gentlemen, I thank you very much for your at- 
tention and now leave you in the hands of our accomplished 
toastmaster, Mr. Vreeland. (Applause.) 



The Toastmaster (Mr. Vreeland) — Ladies and Gentlemen: 
I now assume the role of toastmaster, and I ask your indul- 
gence, as it is something I have never done before — in Detroit. 
If you will kindly refer to the first page of the menu card 
(and I will wait a moment until you have an opportunity), 
you will notice in the bow of the boat, in which Cadillac is 
approaching the shore, on September 26, 1701, partly con- 
cealed by the drooping folds of the flag, a young man, of 
whom I will tell you later. He is now Mayor of your city. 
What his history has been during the intervening years, you 
Detroit gentlemen know better than I. It is enough to say 
that he is Mayor of Detroit, and, as he said himself at the 
convention the other day, he is a bachelor. After looking over 
this assemblage this evening, I cannot understand that for 
a minute. 

Gentlemen, the welcome given the American Street Rail- 
way Association was as full and free as anv I have heard ex- 

American Street Raihuay Association. 297 

tended in any city. The Mayor did not present us the key ; 
he unlocked the doors and threw away the key. He also 
tied up the police. No member of this Association, so far 
as the records go, has gotten into any trouble since he has 
been in Detroit ; but in addition to all this they opened the 
doors of the city hall and put the word "Welcome" above it. 
I have not had an opportunity, on account of my arduous 
duties, to go over and take charge in your name ; and as we 
are leaving town in the morning, and the time is too short 
for us to make the attempt, I think we will have to leave 
the Mayor in charge of the city until the next time our friend 
Hutchins invites us here. Mr. Maybury has been Mayor so 
long that they may bury him as Mayor. (Laughter and 
applause.) The Mayor will now respond to the toast, "The 
City of Detroit." 

Mayor Maybury — Mr. Toastmaster, Ladies and Gentlemen : This 
is not the first time that I have discovered the lawless disregard of 
truth and veracity which attaches to New Yorkers when they come 
into the West. A glance at the very handsome canoe on the cover 
of the menu card, and the fact that there are no ladies in the com- 
pany, will acquit me any time; and I have discovered a peculiar 
thing in my life when my friends seem to refer so often to my lone- 
liness and weakness — I discover that it is always done by one who has 
been most signally and graciously treated in this world. Why, my 
dear friends, our friend Vreeland, instead of attacking me in my 
defenseless- position, ought to go down on his knees three times a 
day and be thankful that he has such a good helpmate. (Applause.) 

I am somewhat disconcerted to-night, and I will explain to you 
why I am disconcerted. Our dear friend, Jere Hutchins, as we 
familiarly call him, was sick in the hospital a few days ago, and I 
called upon him. While there I took occasion to read to him the 
speech I had prepared for this occasion. He borrowed my manu- 
script, and it is evident that he learned the speech well ; and it is a 
good speech. (Laughter and applause.) You see what little chance 
I have here, my dear friends, either with the stranger or the neighbor, 
and I believe my only means of escape is to get myself a wife. 

Xow, I want to pause for a moment to do that thing which wells 
up from mv heart with great spontaneity — to tell you, on behalf of 
the citizens of Detroit, of every creed and kind, that we thank you for 
having honored Jere Hutchins. (Applause.) Some years ago we 

298 Tiventy-First Annual Meeting 

learned that a gentleman from Kentucky was coming here to take 
charge of our railroads, and we looked upon his coming with unusual 
interest as to the outcome of his administration of the affairs of our 
street railway. He was not here very long before we discovered 
that he was possessed of a most exemplary character, a remarkable 
sweetness of disposition, coupled with rare executive ability, which 
has caused you to honor him to-day, as we always honor him in this 
community. (Applause.) I say to you to-night that closely associ- 
ated with the pleasure of being here is the fact that the cloud is lift- 
ing that seemed to surround Mr. Hutchins a few days ago, and 
to-night we are grateful that Jere Hutchins is permitted to be here. 
Long and lovingly may he linger with us; long and lovingly, only 
to become, as some day he must, a tender and sainted memory, a 
memory that will linger as the twilight lingers after the sun has set. 

As I look upon the list of toasts, and see the gentlemen who are 
to succeed me, I feel somewhat as the oculist did when he asked a 
man, to whom he had given two or three bottles of his eye elixir, to 
send him a testimonial, and some time afterward he received the fol- 
lowing : "Dear Doctor — I was blind, but now, since I have taken 
two bottles of your elixir, I can see my finish." I happened, on one 
occasion, when I was making an address, to refer to "ships that pass in 
the night," and I was called aside by some of the boys and asked if 
I had not made a mistake, and whether I did not refer to chips that 
pass in the night. Some gentleman said that the trouble was not 
with the ships or the chips, but the great trouble was the carriages 
that often pass in the night. 

We have in the railroad service in Detroit a number of very 
amiable gentlemen. It is the greatest pelasure in the world for me 
to give a note to a man seeking employment on the street railway, 
and send him with it to Mr. Stanley. It often happens that the 
man is not successful in securing employment, but they all say it is 
the greatest pleasure in the world to be refused by Mr. Stanley. 
Then we have Mr. Walter Ross. You ought to see Walter Ross when 
a party comes around who has had a, collision with a street car, which 
has taken a few inches of paint off his wagon, and he makes a claim 
large enough to cover the entire cost of the wagon. That is the 
time when you see Walter Ross at his very best. You will hear before 
long from the attorney of the company, Mr. Michael Brennan, a 
gentleman who sits to the left. Mr. Brennan belongs to a very 
exclusive club, which is called the Yondotega Club. It is located on 
Jefferson avenue, and probably some of you have been invited to visit 
the club. It is said to represent in its membership the greater part 
of the wealth and all of the wit of Detroit; and it is customary for the 
conductor on the observation car to stop the car opposite the club 

American Street Railway Association. 299 

and say : "It now affords me great pleasure to point out the Yondotega 
Club, containing most of the wealth and all the wit in the city of 
Detroit." It so happened that last week Mr. Brennan was a passenger 
on that car, and after the usual speech had been made, Mr. Brennan 
stepped off the car. The conductor added, "That is one of them, but 
I do not know which he is." Mr. Brennan went in and threw dice 
with himself for a half hour to see which class he belonged to. 

I had a peculiar experience before coming 'here to-night. I went 
to the barber shop and there was a gentleman in one of the chairs 
who was much distressed. The voice was familiar, and the gentle- 
man kept saying to the barber, "Shave me so that I will look scrappy 
to-night ; I am going to attend the railroad men's banquet. Make me 
look like a terror." The barber folded up his razor and said, "You 
ought to have told me that before I began, for the job was complete 
then"; and Mr. J. T. Keena arose from the chair. (Laughter.) 

Now, my dear friends, this occasion is worthy of a sentiment, 
not all of levity, though all of pleasure, and may I paraphrase the 
words of a distinguished writer of our day in expressing some of the 
recollections, not of the Detroit of the past, but the recollection of 
this night and Detroit as represented here. In childhood I placed 
my little boat upon the water, freighted with childish anticipation, 
and I saw her cross the pond and strand upon the further shore. 
In boyhood I sent out, in all joyful anticipation of that happy time of 
life, a more pretentious vessel, and she sailed away, and never re- 
turned. In the full flush of manhood I sent out the great four- 
master, laden with every ambition, and she, too, disappeared away 
beneath the horizon, and never came back again ; and then I sent out, 
as we do now, our vessel charged with charity and laden with kindly 
greetings to all whom she meets upon her way, knowing that she 
will alone and surely return laden with affection and brotherly love. 

The Toastmaster — Ladies and Gentlemen : A few weeks 
ago I requested General Eugene Griffin, of the General Elec- 
tric Company, to talk to us to-night on the development of the 
electric motor. Mr. Griffin said that a request from me was 
a command, and President Coffin, of the General Electric Co., 
assured me such was the fact. The day before yesterday I 
received a telegram from General Griffin that some matters 
in connection with the subway in New York made it almost 
imperative that he should remain in that city, but that he would 

300 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

keep his engagement to attend this banquet and respond to the 
toast, if I wired him to come. I have a similar messaee from 

7 O 

Mr. Coffin. We all know what a good friend of purs General 
Griffin is, and on such an occasion we could do nothing but 
release him. 

We have the following message from General Griffin: 

New York, October 10, 1902. 
Mr. H. H. Vreeland, care Cadillac Hotel, Detroit. 

Please accept for yourself and associates my deep regret that 
imperative duties here have prevented my being with you to-night. 
It would have been instructive and inspiring to me to have been able 
to meet such a splendid and representative body of men. I desire 
to warmly congratulate you upon what I am informed is the most 
brilliant meeting of the kind which has ever taken place. 





The Toastmaster — We now come to the toast which ex- 
plains why I am acting as toastmaster to-night. The gentle- 
man who is to respond to this toast would not care to speak 
if anyone in Detroit, who knew his past life, were to introduce 
him. Consequently they called upon me to act as toastmaster. 
I know nothing about him and do not know in what manner 
to introduce him to my railroad associates. I assume that 
he needs no introduction to the Detroit people, from what 
I have heard. I have read his biography, but there is nothing 
special or important there. It runs along the usual course — 
he started as a poor bov. had an ordinary education, etc., and 
finally was admitted to the bar ; and it goes on to say that he 
is now studying law at the expense of the Detroit United 
Railway. The gentleman needs no introduction, as I say, to 
the Detroit people, and he certainly will never again require 
an introduction to this Association, should we be fortunate 
enough to again meet in Detroit. Gentlemen, I have the honor 
to introduce Mr. Michael Brennan, who will respond to the 
toast, "How the People Would Run a Street Railway." 

American Street Railway Association. 301 

Mr. Brennan — Mr. Toastmaster, Ladies and Gentlemen: Even 
if I had nothing to say to-night, this inspiring audience, the fair faces 
of the ladies, and I may say, perhaps, without any exaggeration, the 
intelligent faces of the gentlemen, would be a sufficient excuse, even 
without preparation, to say a few words. I am not gifted by nature, 
like our chairman. On one occasion, when asked by one of his col- 
leagues at one of those large meetings that are held by the Metropoli- 
tan Street Railway Association, in New York — "Mr. Vreeland, how 
long can you talk on a' given subject?" "Well," Mr. Vreeland said, 
"if I have nothing to say I can speak for two days at a time, but if 
I have something to say I can speak indefinitely" ; and this statement 
needs no affirmation or testimony of mine, after you have seen him 
for two days conducting that splendid meeting in the cellar of the 
Light Guard Armory, to reach that conclusion. Why, ladies and 
gentlemen, if I had that magnificent physical presence, and that glo- 
rious voice, with my own head, I could do almost anything. (Laugh- 
ter and applause.) That is no slight compliment to Mr. Vreeland. 

I was referred to, I suppose, in that aggregation of speakers that 
Mr. Hutchins mentioned in his address, when he said that three gen- 
tlemen of Hibernian extraction would address you. There is really 
only one gentleman of real Hibernian extraction amongst them, and 
I am the person. My friend, Mr. Maybury, the mayor, although hav- 
ing a splendid map of Ireland written upon his expressive counte- 
nance, and my little friend, Mr. Keena, my old companion — these 
are representatives of the little tribe of Irishmen that in the old coun- 
try are called "Leprehauns" or "fairies." Besides that, they are simply 
second growth. They were not launched in Ireland at all ; they were 
simply traced to Ireland, some distance back. (Laughter.) 

I notice by the program that I am to respond to the toast, "How 
the People Would Run a Street Railroad." Some of you are afraid 
that I shall pull out my manuscript and possibly give you a collection 
of statistics. I have no such intention, because after a superficial 
study of this question I came to the conclusion that the people could 
not run a railroad at all. I started first with the ladies ; I know 
they cannot run a railroad, because they would have to .put the 
motorman on the rear platform in order to carry out their customary 
habit of alighting from a car by turning their backs upon him. I 
know they cannot run a railroad, especially in the summer time, for 
you have noticed, no doubt, when a woman desires to get on an open 
car, she usually walks up and down the side of the car, each seat 
beckoning, and out of politeness she does not know which seat to get 
in. The newspapers cannot run a street railroad, with all due def- 
erence to my friend, Mr. Quinby (of the Free Press). The news- 
papers are not always well posted on the situation of the street rail- 

302 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

roads. They oftentimes think we are the despised aggregation of 
wealth and tyranny that the little politician says we are. Now, I 
do not say that against all the newspapers, because Mr. Quinby here 
knows there is no greater friend of the newspaper than I am, but I 
am simply stating how the ordinary newspaper goes at the street- 
car question — not always in the right light. We will pass the news- 
papers, as I think they are going to be our friends, especially after 
their eyes are opened and they come to see our good points. The 
politician cannot run a railroad, and I can prove that to the satisfac- 
tion of the gentlemen, and I know I can prove it to the satisfaction 
of the ladies, because I do not think our intelligent, astute and gen- 
erous mayor, even, can run a street car. I heard Mr. Maybury's ad- 
dress the other morning. It was- a splendid confession that the street- 
car people in this city knew how to run their business. Mr. Maybury 
tried to run our business for a short time by making us operate a three- 
cent-car-fare system, but he now acknowledges that he was wrong, 
and admits that the people in charge of the property know how to 
operate the system in a satisfactory manner. Whenever you hear a 
politician, and he is more than a politician — he is a statesman — when- 
ever you hear a man like Mr. Maybury admit he is wrong, then you 
know there is some progress going on in the world. I will not speak 
of municipal ownership ; that is too abstract and absurd. I am not 
one of those who believe in the ' municipal ownership of street rail- 
ways. I think that when our boards of public works, our aldermen, 
and our various municipal bodies find it necessary to corral public 
servants in some large open lots in our city, in order to tell them 
how to vote, that we had better not encourage municipal ownership, 
and thereby add such a large number to the already large list of city 
employes ; so, to my mind, municipal ownership is out of the ques- 
tion. (Applause.) 

I have come to the conclusion, after the opening remarks of our 
eloquent chairman, that the people who know how to run a street 
railway system are the people who are doing it ; the people who are 
not running it in their own selfish interest, but the people who are 
running it in the interest of the small stockholder, the widows and 
the orphans, and others, who have their all invested in street railroad 
properties. I think that these people know how to run a street railway. 
(Applause.) I think they know how and are doing it; because there 
is not an invention, there is not an improvement, there is not a bit of 
machinery that goes into the composition and make-up of a street 
car, but intelligent men like Mr. Vreeland, Mr. Hutchins, Mr. Ely and 
other street railway men take advantage of for their own interest as 
well as the interest of the public, and the public gets the very best 
appliances that invention and improvement can suggest. (Applause.) 

American Street Railway Association. 303 

I was much pleased with that part of the address of welcome of 
Mr. Maybury. at the opening of the Convention, when he described 
the benefits of the street railway industry to all classes. I was par- 
ticularly pleased with the address of your President, when he said 
that instead of cringing, instead of apologizing, instead of whining, 
when the politician, or the newspaper, or some other interest opposed 
your interests, that the position you should take, that we all should 
take, was to stand up for the rights of your property, the same as the 
grocer or dry-goods dealer stands up for his rights, and the manu- 
facturing man stands up for his interest. (Applause.) That is the 
position we should take, and if we take that position, the newspaper 
men will come to our side. Instead of the newspaper men saying 
that you should only have a franchise for five years, and in every 
way possible seeking to discourage the building of good railroads, 
you will see the newspaper men stand up for giving long franchises, 
the same as- are given to steam railroads, and you will see the poli- 
ticians stand up and give you every facility and every accommoda- 
tion for the building of railroads that will defy time as the world 
goes on. (Applause.) That, instead of being terrified and frightened 
by the attacks of the reformer or the politician, you will have them 
with you in all your enterprises. 

But I did not start out to philosophise or preach. I notice that, 
further down on the programme, there's a toast relating to the future 
of the street railway, which is to be responded to by our friend, Mr. 
Ely, of Buffalo, and also another toast relating to the future state of 
the street railway, which is to be responded to by my worthy friend, 
Mr. Keena. Now, I don't see where they make the distinction between 
the future and future state of the street railway, except possibly that 
the practical man is going to tell you what will become of the street 
railway in this world, and Mr. Keena, being the man of speculation 
and imagination, and of far-reaching thought, who does not know 
anything about street railways in this life, will tell what is going to 
become of them in the next. I will leave that subject to the able 
hands- of Mr. Ely, who will- tell you about the street railways on 
earth, and to Mr. Keena in Hades, where I presume he will take it 
up with our enemies. At any rate, we are martyrs-elect, being en- 
titled to the crown, not only of martyrdom, but also to the crown of 
civic canonization some time after we die, unless there is some such 
system as the railways have, in which some over-zealous advocate 
will pick out the bad spots in our career, like our chairman, and 
present us- in a false light before the audience. And, by the way, I 
had almost forgotten the introduction that our worthy mayor had 
given me about the Yondotega Club. I was so wrapt up in his elo- 
quence that I forgot the subject-matter of it. Mr. Maybury has such 


304 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

a peculiarly sweet voice, that has such an effect upon the ladies, that 
he is not like the man the poet describes who could be happy with 
either dear charmer, were t'other dear charmer away. That is not 
true of Mr. Maybury. He can be happy with each and every one of 

Speaking of the Yondotega Club, I belong to that club, which he 
calls exclusive. The story is true, substantially as he told it, be- 
cause Mr. Maybury never tells an entire untruth. There is always 
some foundation for what he says. I was on the observation car 
Yolande, and I will tell you why I was there. I have a pass on the 
road. I had forgotten the pass, and I had no money. I knew the 
colored porter, Carey, of the observation car. I thought Carey would 
carry me down for nothing, and he did it, and that is the reason 
I went on the observation car instead of the regular car, so that it 
was not necessary for me to shake dice with myself to know what 
class I belonged to in the club, as I belong neither to the class with 
exclusive wealth, or the class of exclusive brains, nor to the class- 
to which our classical friend, Colonel Hecker belongs, for he has 
both. I belong to the same class as our claim agent, Walter Ross, 
although I have more hair than he has. I belong to the class that is 
needed. My class, I am sorry to say, has been depreciating, but I am 
too old to reclaim it — I belong to that class necessary in the Yondo- 
tega Club, as an object lesson, to exhibit the man that has neither 
brains nor the faculty of obtaining wealth. I thank you. CAp- 


The Toastmaster — Ladies and gentlemen, the last speaker 
has unfairly taken advantage of a poor workingman. Mr. 
Hutchins, with the astuteness of our class, has made a memo- 
randum on his cuff to deduct twenty-five cents from Bren- 
nan's next bill for that free ride, and to discharge the con- 
ductor. (Laughter.) 

With regard to the gentleman who is to respond to the 
next toast, I am at home. They had somewhat the advantage 
of me, when I introduced the previous speakers, but now 
I am in my own State. Why the Local Committee has selected 
that toast for Mr. Ely I cannot understand — "The Future of 
Electric Railways.'' I do not understand that he knows any- 
thing about the present state of electric railways. Mr. Ely 

American Street Railway Association. 305 

has responded to the toast, ''The Ladies," from time imme- 
morial in this Association ; and this is the first time I ever 
knew him to be called upon to respond to such a toast as this. 
I always regret that I was not educated as a lawyer when 
I behold Mr. Ely's success. You all recall the story of the 
days when large fortunes were accumulated rapidly in the 
West, of the fellow who went into a hotel and asked the 
clerk for a room. The clerk roughly told him he had no 
rooms. The man went out and bought the hotel and came 
back and discharged the clerk. Mr. Ely was running a little 
railroad up at Niagara Falls, and in connection with that 
railway he went to the manager of the system in Buffalo 
and asked for some consideration, and the gentleman in Buffalo 
very rudely repulsed Mr. Ely. He walked out and bought 
the railroad and then came back and discharged the President 
and General Manager. It was his legal ability, not his prac- 
tical knowledge of street railway operation, which enabled 
him to do this ; but inasmuch as in New York State no one 
ever speaks to the toast assigned him, I think Mr. Ely will 
get along fairly well with this one. 

Mr. Toastmaster, Ladies and Gentlemen : Mr. Brennan very 
truly says that we are all handicapped by the toastmaster. We are 
indeed; that gentleman seems upon ordinary occasions to be a plain, 
everyday street railroad man, and then he comes to an occasion like 
this and suddenly blazes upon our astonished vision like some splendid 
meteor. Instead of being that which he seems to be, a plain matter of 
fact, unvarnished man, he is a Cicero, a Socrates and a Demosthenes 
in disguise. (Applause.) But, Mr. Toastmaster, I am doubly em- 
barrassed at this moment, not only by your shining presence, but by 
the magnificent rendition of the song by Mr. Jarvis. In the absorption 
of the moment it has caused me to forget all the things I was about 
to say, and indeed the speechmaking were well omitted if we could 
listen to such singing, and from its effect upon this audience, I think 
I can truly state, Mr. Toastmaster, that gifted as you are with the 
power of eloquence, you would exchange it all for the power of song. 

I have been struck by several extreme manifestations of propriety 
in the menu card and the arrangement and subjects of the toasts. 
First comes the magnificent picture of Mayor Maybury landing upon 
the shores of Detroit in the year 1701, to which, Mr. Toastmaster, you 
have referred, and then comes the very appropriate heading of the 

306 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

list of toasts. The first subject' on the program is entitled "Remarks 
by Mr. Vreeland;" followed next by a "Slumber Song." (Laughter.) 

Ladies and Gentlemen: I come to you upon the banks of the Detroit 
from the banks of the Niagara, two rivers famous always in the his- 
tory of North America. Some little time before Cadillac founded the 
city of Detroit, that other great French explorer, La Salle, had dis- 
covered the Niagara and had built upon its shores at the place which 
now bears his name the first sailing vessel that navigated the waters of Lake 
Erie, and for years during the colonial history of this country Niagara 
and Detroit were the most important posts of England, north and west 
of Pittsburg. During the memorable five months' siege of Detroit in 
the year 1763, it was to the Niagara that all eyes turned for relief and 
succor from the savage hordes of Pontiac, and it was from the Niagara 
that almost precisely one hundred and thirty nine years ago the detach- 
ments of Dalzell and Wilkins proceeded to the relief of the exhausted 
and half famished garrison of Detroit, commanded by the heroic and 
valiant Gladwyn, and finally raised the memorable siege and disbursed 
the host of blood-thirsty besiegers throughout the western wilderness. 
Niagara and Detroit were among the last posts to be surrendered by 
the English to the victorious American colonies at the end of the hold- 
over period after the close of the war of the American Revolution, 
and both regions were bloody battlegrounds of the war of 1812, and 
to-day the frail Griffon, the bark of La Salle, is succeeded upon and 
about both streams by countless vessels bearing within their capacious 
holds a commerce so mighty that it is one of the most striking facts 
of the modern civilized world. (Applause.) 

During mv drive along the banks of the Detroit above the city this 
afternoon I was much struck by the similarity between that scenery 
and the shores of the Niagara above Niagara Falls, and when it was 
related to me that the procuring of the right of way for the electric 
road had been exceedingly difficult, because of the great love of the 
French-Canadian farmers for their pleasant farms upon the banks of 
the stream, there was forcibly brought to my mind an incident con- 
nected with procuring the right of way for the power transmission 
line between Niagara Falls and Buffalo. The farms along the Niagara 
river in that locality were owned at the time for the most part by 
Germans, and they too have that love for the soil, which leads them 
to cling to their lands with great tenacity. After three rights of way 
had been procured across those farms for as many steam railroads, and 
the right of way for the electric railroad, of which I was at that time 
president, there came along to visit the farmers the smooth-tongued 
right of way agent, who endeavored to persuade the farmers that the 
granting of the right of way by them for the power transmission line 

American Street Raihvay Association. 307 

would be attended by great benefits. Their farms were rather narrow, 
and the cutting out of so many strips of land had considerably reduced 
the area thereof, and a sturdy German objected to making the grant 
for the foregoing reason. The right of way man persisted and dwelt 
with great stress upon the resulting benefits. The wise old German 
said "Yah- Yah, I see how it is, but if this thing keeps up, pretty soon 
you will have all my farm and I will have nothing but benefits." 

But I am admonished that my time is drawing to a close. It is 
now five minutes past one a. m. by my time ; five minutes past twelve 
by your railroad time, and twenty-three minutes to one by Detroit city 
time. I do not consider this time an appropriate time for occupying 
much of your time. In this connection let me say that our delegates 
seem to be much mixed up by the different kinds of time that seem to 
prevail in your fair city, and I am reminded of the story of the sum- 
mer visitor at a country farm house, who remarked to the owner of the 
house that it was very difficult to tell the correct time by the old 
family clock, to which the host replied, "It is simple enough ; when 
it is ten minutes of three it strikes seven, and then we know it is 
twenty minutes of nine." (Applause.) 

There is an apparent duplication of the subject of toasts upon the 
list this evening, which has been pointed out. The one assigned Mr. 
Keena is most appropriate. He being a good Catholic was expected 
by the committee to know much more about the future state than I 
would, but I think I can say one thing about the trolley and its future 
state, which will commend itself to you all. If I should seek to cor- 
rectly describe to you the garb of our toastmaster when handling an 
electric car in the future state, it would be necessary for me to portray 
him wearing upon his hands a pair of asbestos gloves to protect him- 
self from the excessive heat. (Applause.) 

Mr. Toastmaster, a long time ago a mighty city at the zenith of its 
power ruled the world; then all roads led to Rome; If in the natural 
course of time the citizens of Detroit shall continue to conduct them- 
selves toward visitors to this 'city, as you all have done toward us, 
there will surely come a time when all electric roads of the future will 
lead to Detroit. (Applause.) 

Mr. Toastmaster, we have all greatly enjoyed our stay in this 
beautiful city of Detroit, and very greatly the abundant courtesy and 
hospitality which has been accorded to us. We have come and we 
have been conquered. Speaking for myself, my subjugation has been 
most complete. I had the very great pleasure to be entertained this 
afternoon, in company with about three other men, by about two 
hundred and fifty women. We did not attempt to entertain them, and, 

308 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Mr. Toastmaster, I think that it is a testimonial to my powers and my 
prowess that at this time in the morning, after such an afternoon, I 
am able to see and hear, but I love to tell the story and speak of it 
with pride and with pleasure, and I desire to say in closing, that if 
the question where this convention shall be held another year, shall be 
left to my vote as a member of the Executive Committee, and it 
shall be held out as an inducement to me that a year from now I 
should have the pleasure of another such afternoon, my voice is still 
for Detroit. (Laughter and applause.) 


The Toastmaster — I would respectfully request of the ladies 
that if that invitation is accepted they will hold their enter- 
tainment on some other afternoon than the busy afternoon of 
the Association. 

I am again confronted with the task of introducing a gen- 
tleman to whom I was only introduced at the commencement 
of this dinner. He has been so well introduced by the Mayor 
and Mr. Brennan, however, that there is very little left for 
me to say, further than in asking a gentleman to-day what 
was a good point to use, he said, "Well, Mr. Brennan and 
Mr. Keena are both lawyers in Detroit. I would rather at 
any time entrust a case to Mr. Keena's eloquence than to 
Mr. Brennan's judgment." Mr. Keena will address you on 
the toast, "The Trolley ; Its Future State." 

Mr. Brennan — Mr. Toastmaster, I will warrant you it was 
Keena told you that. 

The Toastmaster — Don't interrupt the speaker ; you've had 
your chance. 

Mr. Keena — Ladies and Gentlemen, Mr. Toastmaster : As quite 
apropos to Mr. Brennan's interruption of the toastmaster while in- 
troducing me, a friend of Mr. Brennan's said to me that, to substan- 
tiate any story, he would rather have Mr. Brennan's imagination than 
the testimony of a dozen eye-witnesses. (Laughter.) 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, if I show any embarrassment in my 
address this evening, please remember that it is the first time I have 
ever been permitted to speak in the presence of Mrs. Keena. 

There have been several references made this evening to myseFf 
and to my size. I cannot help it. What the Lord intended in my 

American Street Railway Association. 309 

construction I do not know, excepting probably he thought there was 
no use of making two bites of a cherry ; but this has been my ob- 
servation, Mr. Toastmaster — the nearer you live to nature, the closer 
you grow to the ground ; the less liable you are to come under the 
influences of the moon ; and high elevation makes most people light- 
headed. Large men intimidate me, and have from the time of my 
boyhood. They overawed me ; they disturbed my ideas of value. 
Take my friend, George Russel, here, than whom there is no more 
kindly or tender-hearted gentleman on God's footstool, yet for years 
when I saw him coming toward me with his magnificent accumulation 
of physical surplus and undivided profits, I could not get over the 
impression that I detected in his eye a gastronomic gleam, and that 
I heard him muttering to himself, fee, fi, fo, fum, I smell the blood 
of an Irishman ; and it was not until I learned that Mr. Russel never 
ate oyster crabs that I became entirely at rest in his presence, in- 
ferring therefrom that all his appetites, like his appointments, were 
large. (Applause.) 

There is this peculiarity about me, that while I am overawed by 
the presence of large men, the presence of large women has quite a 
different effect upon me. I may tremble and shake like an Aspen 
leaf in the presence of large men, but I am just as bold and adjust- 
able as any old leaf in the presence of large women. I never loved 
a woman yet that wasn't three sizes too large for me. I run from 
large men, and to large women. In fact, I have been suspected of 
three. A lady once said to me that I must have been born with a 
vaulting ambition. She stood six feet two in her stocking feet, and I 
would have kissed her again if the chair had not broken under me. 

When I was born, there is a tradition in my family that I had 
an abnormally large head. My head was a wonder! The neighbors 
and friends came in and talked at it, and went away and talked about 
it. A horoscope and a loving mother said that I would some day be 
a great man ; that I would be a leader among men, a great politician, 
and possibly the mayor of a great city. An old-fashioned family 
doctor said it was water on the brain. The doctor was right. The 
star in 'my political firmament was lost in the milky way. The doctor 
said that there was a baby in the next block that was born with more 
indications of political preferment and prospects than I. He said that 
the baby's name was Maybury and that he was born with wind on his 
stomach. Maybury and I were boys together, and ever since^ that 
time it has been a good-natured rivalry between wind and water. 

Coming out of the East to the West for this occasion to do honor 
to a man who has won my heart, and that is Mr. Hutchins, I was 
quite anxious to become acquainted with the gentlemen whom I might 

310 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

meet this evening, and the first on the list was Mr. Vreeland. I 
said to Mr. Hutchins, not having met Mr. Vreeland, "What kind of 
a man is Mr. Vreeland; is- he a man my size?" Now, Mr. Hutchins, 
in all his answers, being saturated with his business, is either alle- 
gorical of, or reverential to, that business, and when I asked Mr. 
Hutchins if Mr. Vreeland looked like me, he said : "Vreeland look 
like you? Why," he said, "there isn't a thing about Mr. Vreeland 
that even suggests a spur or a plug line. Mr. Vreeland looks more 
like a one-track suburban, with a double switch in the middle, ending 
in a turn-table that is worked by a crank." He said: "Mr. Vreeland 
is a genius in his way; he has the greatest faculty of any man I ever 
knew, of not letting you know what he knows." He said : "I have 
known Mr. Vreeland to talk for two hours, and not give you the 
slightest impression that he knew anything." I think we have had 
two or three examples of that peculiar genius to-night. 

"Now," he said, "Mr. Keena, I will tell you how he became 
President of the Metropolitan Road in New York. When they changed 
from the old horse-car system, the Board of Directors met together, 
and 'they said : 'We don't care whether we adopt cable or electric 
system; whatever the motive power is, if you run the road you must 
have common, ordinary horse-sense behind it, and Vreeland is the 
man who has that, and he was elected President' Why, Mr. Vree- 
land is so gifted with horse-sense that his friends are too polite to 
look him in the mouth. No man has ever been able to make him take 
water. You can lead him to it, but you cannot make him drink, and 
true to tradition, if he does drink, he takes a horse's-neck. If he 
has a lump on his leg, he calls it a spavin ; if he has a cold, he calls 
it the heaves, and he complains a good deal because the flies lack 
discrimination. He made a bet with a man that he couldn't guess his 
age. The man was a veterinary surgeon, and he guessed it to an 
hour the moment he opened his mouth. Horse-sense is a hobby with 
Vreeland, so much so that his friends call it hobby-horse sense." 

There was some confusion in these toasts, and I said to one of 
the committee when I noticed it, "Don't you think you made a mis- 
take in having those two toasts so identical, Mr. Ely having 'The 
Future of the Electric Railway,' and mine being 'The Trolley; Its 
Future State'?" He said, "No, we did that on purpose." He said, 
"Ely is a great wit, and we gave him the live subject. You are 
supposed to be dead — serious, and you are to treat the matter in a 
mortuary sense." He says, "It will be a live subject when Ely gets 
it, but he will kill it ; he will talk it to death, and when you get it, 
it will be a stiff proposition." So I inferred that I was to hold a kind 
of- an inquest on the remains of this subject after treatment by Mr. 

American Street Railway Association. 311 

Ely, and having talked it over with the jury here present, and con- 
sidering the fact that his speech did not show the slightest signs 
of premeditation or intent, we will simply find him guilty of man- 

I went to Mr. Hutchins about this subject, to see just how he 
would like to have me treat it. He said he had assigned these par- 
ticular subjects to Mr. Brennan and myself because he knew that we 
had too much discretion to tell anything we knew, and furthermore, 
if we told all we knew, it wouldn't make any difference. This hap- 
pened in Mr. Brennan's office. I was called in there on a matter of 
consultation — in a railroad matter. Mr. Brennan is attorney for the 
road, you know. Mr. Brennan has quite a bright mind. It has quite 
a religious turn to it. It is so religious that I have occasional^ 
known him to make a holy show of himself. His mind is quite 
luminous ; you might call it phosphorescent, because you can get the 
best results out of it when you take him in a dark room and rub 
his head. Now let me make a suggestion right here. If you want to 
get the best out of an Irishman who hasn't any tails to his coat, rub 
him on the head, and if you don't see stars right off, he is no Irish- 
man. We were in Mr. Brennan's office this day, and Mr. Brennan's 
mind didn't work. We took him into the dark room — I think they call 
it a library. Mr. Brennan and I walked in first and Mr. Hutchins 
stayed behind to hide his pocketbook, and then he came in. We 
rubbed Mr. Brennan's head and it worked beautifully. Whenever 
Mr. Hutchins wanted a positive opinion, he rubbed Brennan's head, 
and when he wanted a negative opinion, he rubbed mine. When he 
put our heads together, it made a complete circuit. Mr. Hutchins 
was so satisfied with the results that on the way out Mr. Brennan 
and I said: "Mr. Hutchins, you better let us run your road for a 
month or two." He said : "How would you run it ?" We replied : 
"Run it with our heads." "Well," he said, "I don't know but that 
would be. a good way to make a test of the new alternating current 
system. It would be so full of Irish breaks." Mr. Hutchins was 
very much excited that day, and when over-excited, I notice he 
becomes quite religious. On the way out he mentioned several people, 
not individually, but collectively. He said something about Hell and 
air brakes, and expressed the wish that they would take their air 
brakes with them. Now, I think that was very considerate of Mr. 
Hutchins. I don't know of anything more convenient in Hell than an 
air brake. He said: "Keena, you are a Catholic?" I admitted that I 
didn't eat meat on Friday. "Now," he said to me, "I am not altogether 
familiar with your religion, but you have one more progressive way 
station than they have in the other religions — that is Purgatory." 
He said : "What kind of a place is Purgatory ; what is the difference 

312 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

between Purgatory and Hell?" "Why," I said, "Mr. Hutchins, if 
you die and go to Purgatory, your stay is temporary, but if you die 
and go to Hell, you have got a life job. To illustrate in another 
way," I said, "if you had a franchise in Purgatory, it would run along 
a number of years, and then you would have to have it renewed, but 
if you had a franchise in Hell, it would be perpetual." He reflected 
a while and said, "Well, considering the experience I have had in 
Detroit on the subject of renewing franchises, I think I would rather 
go to Hell." He said : "That is the only place you really could give 
three-cent fares and universal transfers. You could save on fuel. 
You could run it on hot air." He said it would be very attractive 
for investors, because nobody would object to watered stock; there 
could be no freeze-out. "Then," he said, "another thing, we could 
get away from Stedman's royalties. I understand Mr. Stedman has 
had his copyright allowed in Heaven and applied for one in Purga- 
tory, but I do not think he would go as far as Hell, so the worst of 
the next world is not without its comforts. If I ever went there to 
run a road, I think I would take Walter Ross as adjuster of damage 
claims. I would want Ross, because Ross would know everybody 
that went there, and then Ross always looks so like the Devil. You 
see, Ross was in my office in his early days and got acquainted with 
every one of my clients. He studied law for a time until he was 
elected judge, and then he didn't need any law. He had a luxurious 
mop of hair when he left me. He got married shortly afterward. At 
this point in my conversation with Mr. Hutchins, Mr. Brennan broke 
in and told a story appropos to my getting the trolley line into the 
infernal region, about a religious friend of his, who at a quasi- 
religious meeting was called upon to recite the Apostles' Creed. This 
gentleman was French and knew very little about English. He was 
called upon to recite in English. He got as far as "He descended into 
Hell"— descended into Hell — descended into Hell — and he could go no 
further. He called upon one of his English friends to finish the 
prayer. The next day, in talking the subject over, he said: "I hope 
the good Lord will forgive me for not knowing enough English to 
get him out of that unfortunate position," and I hope you gentle- 
men will forgive me for not knowing enough about "The Trolley and 
Its Future State" to get it out of Hell. (Applause.) 

The Toastmaster — Ladies and Gentlemen : Before an- 
nouncing the closing number by the quartette, I would like to 
take this opportunity, on behalf of the Association, of thank- 
ing our friends of the Detroit United Railway, the municipal 
authorities, the citizens of Detroit, and the ladies, for the 

American Street Railway Association. 313 

cordial hospitality and generous welcome they have extended 
to us during our convention here. (Applause.) 

"When we came to your city, the doors, as they opened on 
their hinges, bade us welcome, and as we go away we will 
catch the refrain saying to us — Now that you know us, come 
back again. (Applause.) 

Mr. Brennan — I move that a vote of thanks be given to 
our toastmaster for the eloquent and able manner in which he 
has conducted the exercises to-night. All in favor will say 
aye. (No nays.) 

Mr. Brennan — Three cheers, members of the Association, 
for our new President. (And they were given.) 

The company dispersed. 

314 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 



American Street Railway Association. 


■ NAME. 

I. The name of the Association shall be " The American Street 
Railway Association," and its office shall be at the place where the 
Secretary resides. 


II. The object of this Association shall be the acquisition of experi- 
mental, statistical and scientific knowledge, relating to the construction, 
equipment and operation of street railways, and the diffusion of this 
knowledge among the members of this Association, with the view of in- 
creasing the accommodation of passengers, improving the service and 
reducing its cost; the establishment and maintenance of a spirit of fra- 
ternity among the members of the Association by social intercourse, ana 
the encouragement of cordial and friendly relations between the roads 
and the public. 


III. The members of this Association shall consist of American 
Street Railway Companies, or lessees, or individual owners of street 
railways; and each member shall be entitled to one vote by a delega- 
tion presenting proper credentials. 


IV. This Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the 
members present at a regular meeting, after the proposed amendment 
shall have been submitted, in writing, at the preceding regular meeting 
and a copy sent to each of the members. 



I. Every applicant for membership shall signify the same, in 
writing, to the Secretary, enclosing the requisite fee, and shall sign the 
Constitution and By-Laws. 


II. The Officers shall consist of a President, three Vice-Presidents, 
and five others, who shall constitute the Executive Committee, and ? 

American Street Railway Association. 315 

Secretary and Treasurer. The Executive Committee shall have the 
entire charge and management of the affairs of the Association. The 
Officers and Executive Committee shall be elected by ballot, at each 
regular meeting of the Association, and shall hold office until their 
successors shall be elected. The duties of Secretary and Treasurer 
shall be performed by the same person. The Secretary and Treasurer 
shall not be a member of the Executive Committee. 


III. The officers of the Association shall assume their duties imme- 
diately after the close of the meeting at which they are elected; they 
shall hold meetings at the call of the President, or, in his absence, at the 
call of the Vice-Presidents, in their order, and make arrangements for 
carrying out the objects of the Association. 


IV. The President, if present, or in his absence, one of the Vice- 
Presidents, in their order, if present, shall preside at all meetings of the 
Association and of the Executive Committee. 


V. The duties of the Treasurer shall be to receive and safely keep 
all moneys of the Association; to keep correct accounts of the same, 
and pay all bills approved by the President; and he shall make an 
annual report to be submitted to the Association. He shall give a bond 
to the President in such sum, and with such sureties, as shall be 
approved by the Executive Committee. 


VI. The duties of the Secretary shall be to take minutes of all 
proceedings of the Association and of the Executive Committee and 
enter them in proper books for the purpose. He shall conduct the cor- 
respondence of the Association, read minutes and notices of all meetings, 
and also papers and communications, if the authors wish it, and perform 
whatever duties may be required in the Constitution and By-Laws 
appertaining to his department. He shall be paid a salary, to be fixed 
by the Executive Committee. 


VII. The regular meeting of the Association shall be held at such 
time between the fifteenth day of September and the fifteenth day of 
December, in each year, as the Executive Committee may decide to be 
best suited to the locality in which the meeting is to be held; the time 
to be decided on and each member of the Association notified of the 
selection by the first day of March in the year in which the meeting is to 
be held. Special meetings may be held upon the order of the Executive 
Committee. Notice of every meeting shall be given by the Secretary, in a 
circular addressed to each member, at least thirty days before the time of 
meeting. Fifteen members shall constitute a quorum of any meeting. 

3 16 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 


VIII. At the regular meeting of the Association the order of busi- 
ness shall be : 

1. The reading of the minutes of the last meeting. 

2. The address of the President. 

3. The report of the Executive Committee on the management of 
the Association during the previous year. 

4. The report of the Treasurer. 

5. Reports of Special Committees. 

6. The election of Officers. 

7. The reading and discussion of papers of which notice has been 
given to the Secretary, at least thirty days prior to the meeting. 

8. General business. 


IX. At other general meetings of the Association, the order of busi- 
ness shall be the same, except as to the 3d, 4th and 6th clauses. 


X. The Secretary shall send notices to all members of the Associa- 
tion at least thirty days before each meeting, mentioning the papers to 
be read and any special business to be brought before the meeting. 


XI The Executive Committee shall meet one hour before each 
meeting of the Association; and on other occasions when the President 
shall deem it necessary, upon such reasonable notice, specifying the 
business to be attended to, as the Committee shall, by vote, determine. 


XII. All votes, except as herein otherwise provided, shall be viva 
voce ; and in case of a tie, the presiding officer may vote. 


XIII. Any member, with the concurrence of the presiding officer, 
may admit a friend to each meeting of the Association; but such person 
shall not take any part in the discussion, unless permitted by the meet- 


XIV. All papers read at the meetings of the Association must re- 
late to matters connected with the objects of the Association, and must 
be approved by the Executive Committee before being read, unless no- 
tice of the same shall have been previously given to the Secretary, as 
hereinbefore provided. 

American Street Railway Association. 317 


XV. All papers, drawings and models submitted to the meeting of 
the Association shall remain the property of the owners, subject, how- 
ever, to be retained by the Executive Committee for examination and 
use, but at the owner's risk. 


XVI. Members shall pay an admission fee of twenty-five dollars, 
and annual dues of twenty-five dollars, payable in advance. The Ex- 
ecutive Committee shall have no power to expend, for any purpose 
whatever, an amount exceeding that received, as hereinbefore provided 
for. It shall be the duty of the members to make such returns to the 
Secretary as shall be required by the Executive Committee. 


XVII. No member whose annual payment shall be in arrears shall 
be entitled to vote. 


XVIII. Any member may retire from membership by giving written 
notice to that effect to the Secretary, and the payment of all annual 
dues to that date, but shall remain a member, and liable to the pay- 
ment of annual dues until such payments are made, except as herein- 
after provided. 


XIX. A member may be expelled from the Association by ballot 
of two-thirds of the members voting at any regular meeting of the As- 
sociation, upon the written recommendation of the Executive Com- 


XX. All rules not provided for in these By-Laws shall be those 
found in Roberts' Rules of Order. 


XXI. All propositions for adding to or altering any of these By- 
Laws shall be laid before the Executive Committee, which shall bring 
them before the next regular meeting of the Association, if it shall think 
fit; and it shall be the duty of the Committee to do so, on the request, 
in writing, of any five members of the Association. 


XXII. Each member of the Association shall be furnished by the 
Secretary with a copy of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Associa- 
tion, and also a list of the members. 

3 18 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 




Arranged Alphabetically According to Cities. 

Akron, O., Northern Ohio Traction Co. 

Pres., H. A. Everett; Vice-Pres., Will Christy; Sec, C. F. Moore; 
Treas., J. R. Nutt; Gen. Man., Charles Currie; Gen. Supt., W. H. 
Douglass ; Elec. Eng., T. W. Shelton. 

Albany, N. Y., United Traction Co. 

Pres., John W. McNamara ; Vice-Pres., Francis N. Mann, Jr. ; Sec, 
Charles G. Cleminshaw ; Treas., James McCredie ; Aud., George H. 
Redway ; Supts., Edgar S. Fassett, Charles H. Smith ; Elec. and Mech. 
Eng., Herschel A. Benedict ; Elec, Stephen O'Hare. 

Allentown, Pa., Lehigh Valley Traction Co. 

Pres., Robert E. Wright ; Vice-Pres., Loftin E. Johnson ; Sec. and 
Treas., C. M. Bates ; Aud., John E. Kenny ; Gen. Man., Samuel Harris ; 
Supt., Henry C. Barrow ; Elec. Supt., Richard R. Nevins ; Elec, R. C. 

Alton, 111., Alton Ry., Gas and Elec. Co. 

Pres., Treas. and Gen. Man., Joseph F. Porter; Vice-Pres., O. S. 
Stowell ; Sec, Henry S. Baker; Aud., H. E. Weeks; Supt. Ry. Dept, 
W. E. Porter; Elec Supt., H. O. Channon. 

Altoona, Pa., Altoona and Logan Valley Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Samuel G. DeCoursey ; Vice-Pres., H. J. Crowley ; Sec. and 
Treas., Charles L. S. Tingley; Gen. Man., Scott S. Crane; Elec. Supt., 
John R. Blackhall. 

Anderson, Ind., Union Traction Co. of Indiana. 

Pres., George F. McCulloch ; Vice-Pres., Philip Matter ; Sec, James 
A. Van Osdol ; Treas., William C. Sampson ; Aud., F. S. Sage ; Asst. 
Gen. Man., A. L. Drum; Asst. Supt., Charles A. Baldwin; Elec. Eng., 
A. S. Richey; Chief Eng. and Roadmaster, Will H. Bloss. 

American Street Railway Association. 319 

Asbury Park, N. J., Atlantic Coast Elec. R. R. Co. 

Receiver, James Smith, Jr.; Pres., W. E. Benjamin; Vice-Pres., 
Daniel O. Day; Sec. and Treas., Albert C. Twining; Aud., George B. 
Cade; Gen. Man., Scott F. Hazelrigg; Elec, Louis Gaw. 

Ashtabula, O., Pennsylvania and Ohio Ry. Co. 

Pres., Thomas Fricken ; Vice-Pres., W. F. Stanley; Sec, Thomas 
McGovern ; Treas:, B. W. Baldwin ; Supt., T. C. Smith. 

Atchison, Kan., Atchison Ry., Light and Power Co. 

Pres., J. P. Pomeroy; Vice-Pres., W. P. Waggener; Sec, James M. 
Chisham ; Treas., C. S. Hetherington ; Gen. Supt., C. M. Marshall ; 
Elec. Supt., J. F. Roth. 

Atlanta, Ga., Georgia Ry. and Elec. Co. 

Pres., P. S. Arkwright ; Vice-Pres., J. G. Rossman; Vice-Pres. and 
Gen. Man., D. A. Belden; Sec, T. K. Glenn; Treas., G. W. Brine; Aud., 
H. Flynn; Supt., H. N. Hurt; Mast. Mech., A. M. Moore; Elec, J. N. 

Augusta, Ga., Augusta Ry. and Elec. Co. 

Pres., Daniel B. Dyer; Vice-Pres. and Supt., William E. Moore; 
Sec, Treas. and Aud., Andrew J. McKnight. 

Aurora, 111., Elgin, Aurora and Southern Traction Co. 

Pres., L. J. Wolf; Vice-Pres., Warren Bicknell ; Sec. and Treas., 
H. C. Lang; Aud., W. P. Harvey; Gen. Man., Frank M. Zimmerman; 
Supt., W. A. Ballou. 

Austin, Texas, Austin Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Ira H. Evans ; Vice-Pres., Franklin H. Watriss ; Sec. and 
Supt., Frank E. Scovill ; Treas., Edward P. Wilmont ; Mast. Mech., 
Rudolph Eggeling. 

Baltimore, Md., United Rys. and Elec. Co. 

Pres., J. M. Hood ; Vice-Pres., George R. Webb ; Sec. and Treas., 
H. C. Mcjilton; Aud., A. E. Stubbs; Gen. Man., William A. House; 
Gen. Supt., W. C. Ludwig; Elec. Supt., P. O. Keilholtz; Elec, T. A. 

Bay City, Mich., Bay Cities Consolidated Ry. Co. 

Pres., M. P. Heraty; Gen. Man., E. S. Dimmock; Supt., William 
Luxton ; Elec, J. J. Thorne. 

320 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Binghamton, N. Y., Binghamton R. R. Co. 

Pres., G. Tracy Rogers ; Vice-Pres., George E. Green ; Sec, Joseph 
M. Johnson ; Treas., H. C. Hardie ; Gen. Man. and Purch. Agt., J. P. 
E. Clark; Elec, F. W. Summers. 

Birmingham, Ala., Birmingham Ry., Light and Power Co. 

Pres., Robert Jemison; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., George H. 
Davis ; Sec, J. P. Ross ; Treas. and Aud., C. 0. Simpson ; Man. Ry. 
Dept., J. B. McClary; Supt. of Traffic, George H. Harris. 

Boston, Mass., Boston Elevated Ry. Co. 

Pres., William A. Bancroft; Vice-Pres., Charles S. Sergeant; 
Clerk, John T. Burnett ; Treas., William Hooper ; Aud., Henry L. 
Wilson; Supt. of Surface Lines, Julius E. Rugg; Supt. Dept. of Wires 
and Conduits, Charles H. Hile ; Supt. of M. P. and Mach., Charles F. 
Baker; Supt. of Tracks, Richard F. Hapgood. 

Boston, Mass., Boston and Northern St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., P. F. Sullivan; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., E. C. Foster; 
Second Vice-Pres., Horace B. Rogers ; Sec, Charles Williams ; Treas., 
J. H. Goodspeed ; Aud., D. Dana Bartlett ; Gen. Supt., H. C. Page ; 
Elec. Eng., Charles F. Bancroft. 

Boston, Mass., Boston and Worcester St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., W. M. Butler; Vice-Pres., H. Fisher Eldridge; Sec and 
Treas., George A. Butman ; Purch. Agent, James F. Shaw ; Supt., A. C. 
Ralph; Chief Eng., E. H. Rogers. 

Boston, Mass., Old Colony St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., P. F. Sullivan; First Vice-Pres., John P. Morse; Second 
Vice-Pres., Horace B. Rogers ; Sec, Charles Williams ; Treas., Joseph 
H. Goodspeed ; Aud., D. Dana Bartlett ; Gen. Man., E. C. Foster ; Gen. 
Supt., Robert S. Goff; Elec. Supt., Charles F. Bancroft. 

Bridgeport, Conn., Connecticut Ry. and Lighting Co. 

Pres., A. M. Young; First Vice-Pres., R. A. C. Smith; Second 
Vice-Pres., George E. Terry; Sec. and Treas., Lewis Lillie; Asst. Sec. 
and Treas., E W. Poole; Aud., C. F. Bryant; Man. Dir., Walton Clark; 
Gen. Man., John E. Sewell ; Elec. Supt., W. T. Oviatt. 

American Street Railway Association. 321 

Bridgeton, N. J., Bridgeton and Millville Traction Co. 

Pres., Samuel G. DeCoursey; Vice-Pres., Henry J. Crowley; Sec. 
and Treas., Charles L. S. Tingley; Gen. Man., B. Frank Hires; Elec. 
Supt., J. R. Blackhall. 

Buffalo, N. Y., International Ry. Co. 

Pres., W. Caryl Ely ; Vice-Pres., Daniel S. Lamont ; Sec. and 
Treas., Richard E. Rankine; Aud., H. M. Pease; Gen. Man., T. E.. 
Mitten ; Supt. of Operation, C. A. Coons ; Elec. Eng., C. K. Marshall ; 
Supt. of Construction and Main, of Way, T. W. Wilson ; Supt. of 
Rolling Stock and Buildings, J. Millar; Passenger and Freight Agent, 
J. F. Stephenson. 

Butte, Mont., Butte Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., William A. Clark ; Vice-Pres., F. E. Sargeant ; Sec. and 
Treas., J. C. Kennedy; Gen. Man., Jesse R. Wharton; Supt., Jesse S. 

Camden, N. J., Camden and Suburban Ry. Co. 

Pres., William S. Scull ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Walter E. 
Harrington; Sec, Samuel T. Corliss; Treas., Heulings Lippincott. 

Canton, O., Canton-Akron Ry. Co. 

Pres., W. H. Hoover ; Vice-Pres., L. E. Myers ; Sec, C. Eldridge ; 
Treas., P. L. Saltonstall ; Aud., W. Goldthwaite ; Gen. Man., George W. 
Rounds ; Gen. Supt., A. W. Rauch. 

Charleston, S. C, Charleston Consolidated Ry., Gas and Elec. 

Pres., Frank K. Carey; Vice-Pres., Philip H. Gadsden; Sec. and 
Aud., Pinckney J. Ballaguer ; Treas., M. Triest; Man., S. H. Wilson; 
Supt. Ry. Div., Theodore W. Passailaigue ; Elec, Wallace W. Fuller. 

Chester, Pa., Chester Traction Co. 

Pres., John A. Rigg; Vice-Pres., Henry C. Moore; Sec and Treas., 
William S. Bell; Gen. Man., Frank L. Fuller; Gen. Supt., John Mac- 
Fayden ; Asst. Supt., F. A. Dillman. 

Chicago, 111., Calumet Elec. St. Ry Co. 

Pres., John Farson ; Sec, Treas. and Aud., E. E. Simmons ; Gen. 
Man., H. M. Sloan. 

322 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Chicago, 111., Chicago City Ry. Co. 

Pres., D. G. Hamilton; First Vice-Pres., Joseph Leiter; Second 
Vice-Pres., George T. Smith; Sec. and Aud., C. N. Duffy; Treas., T. 
C. Penington ; Gen. Man., Robert McCulloch ; Asst. Gen. Man., Richard 
McCulloch; Elec, J. C. Burgess; Mast. Mech., M. O'Brien; Supt. of 
Tracks and Buildings, H. B. Fleming. 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., John M. Roach; Vice-Pres., Edwin S. Hart- 
well ; Sec. and Treas., C. F. Marlow ; Aud., F. E. Smith ; Gen. Supt., 
John J. Linden; Elec. Supt., J. Z. Murphy. 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Elec. Traction Co. 

Receiver, Charles Henrotin ; Pres., J. S. Bache ; Aud., John E. 
Cooke ; Gen. Man., A. E. Davies ; Elec. Supt., Charles F. Dorington ; 
Elec, William Drake. 

Chicago, 111., Chicago Union Traction Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., John M. Roach ; First Vice-Pres., R. A. C. 
Smith ; Second Vice-Pres., Walter H. Wilson ; Sec, Markham B. Orde ; 
Treas., James H. Eckels; Aud., F. E. Smith; Gen. Supt., T. A. Hen- 
derson ; Elec. Supt., J. Z. Murphy. 

Chicago, 111., Northwestern Elevated R. R. Co. 

Pres., Clarence Buckingham ; Vice-Pres., Charles Counselman ; Sec. 
and Treas., William V. Griffin; Gen. Supt, Frank Hedley; Supt., 
Robert B. Stearns ; Elec Supt, August Hanson. 

Chicago, 111., South Chicago City Ry. Co. 

Pres., Dwight F. Cameron ; Vice-Pres., D. M. Cummings ; Sec, 
Treas. and Purch. Agt, O. S. Gaither ; Aud., William R. Gaither; Supt., 
William Walmsley. 

Cincinnati, O., Cincinnati and Eastern Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., George R. Scrugham; Vice-Pres., Lee H. 
Brooks ; Sec. and Treas., John M. Kennedy ; Asst. Sec. and Treas., 
William E. Hutton; Aud., C. J. Williams; Gen. Supt., B. E. Merwin; 
Elec. Supt., F. H. Talbot. 

Cincinnati, O., Cincinnati Traction Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man.. W. Kelsey Schoepf ; Vice-Pres., J. B. Foraker, 
Jr. ; Sec, S. C. Cooper : Treas., Dana Stevens ; Aud., W. H. Mac- 
Alister ; Supt., John Harris. 

American Street Railway Association. 323 

Cleveland. O., Cleveland City Ry. Co. 

Pres., Mark A. Hanna ; Vice-Pres., C. F. Emery ; Sec. and Treas., 
John Ehrhardt ; Supt., George G. Mulhern ; Elec. Supt., E. J. Cook. 

Cleveland, O., Cleveland Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Horace E. Andrews ; Vice-Pres., R. A. Harmon ; Sec, Henry 
J. Davies ; Treas.. G. S. Russell ; Asst. Treas.. F. C. Bangs ; Aud., Wil- 
liam G. McDole : Gen. Man., J. J. Stanley; Gen. Supt., George L. Rad- 
cliffe : Chief Eng., D. F. Carver. 

Cleveland, O., Cleveland, Painesville and Eastern R. R. Co. 

Pres., Charles W. Wason ; Vice-Pres., J. A. Beidler; Sec, Fred S. 
Eorton ; Asst. Sec. G. E. Bender ; Treas., Charles A. Post ; Supt., 
Joseph Jordan. 

Cleveland, O., Eastern Ohio Traction Co. 

Pres., H. Clark Ford ; Vice-Pres., H. A. Sherwin ; Sec. and Treas., 

E. G. Tillotson ; Aud., F. H. Kirkham; Gen. Man., R. L. Andrews; 
Supts., James O'Hara and J. J. Doyle. 

Cleveland, O., Lake Shore Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., B. Mahler; First Vice-Pres., J. B. Hanna; Second Vice- 
Pres., W. H. Price; Sec, F. W. Coen ; Aud., A. C. Henry; Gen. Supt., 

F. J. Stout. 

Colorado Springs, Colo., Colorado Springs Interurban Ry. Co. 

Pres., ; Sec. and Treas., William Lloyd; Aud., J. 

Henry ; Gen. Supt., D. L. Macaffree. 

Columbus, Ga., Columbus R. R. Co. 

Pres., George J. Baldwin; Vice-Pres., John F. Flournoy; Sec, 
Frank U. Garrard ; Treas., H. B. Sawyer ; Gen. Mans., Stone & Web- 
ster ; Man., H. S. Reynolds ; Gen. Supt., F. E. Reidhead. 

Columbus, O., Columbus Ry. Co. 

Pres., Robert E. Sheldon ; First Vice-Pres., Treas. and Gen. Man., 
Edward K. Stewart; Second Vice-Pres., Clarence M. Clark; Sec. and 
Aud., Philander V. Burington ; Gen. Supt., Michael S. Hopkins. 

324 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Council Bluffs, la., Omaha and Council Bluffs Ry. and Bridge 

Pres., Nathan W. Wells ; Vice-Pres., George F. Wright ; Sec, 
Charles T. Stewart; Treas., J. H. Millard; Gen. Supt., W. B. Tarking- 

Dallas, Tex., Dallas Consolidated Elec. St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., P. S. du Pont; Vice-Pres., W. K. du Pont; Sec. and Gen. 
Man., Edward T. Moore; Treas., John J. Raskob; Aud.. C. R. Burton; 
Elec. Supt., William C. Urie. 

Danville, 111., Danville St. Ry. and Light Co. 

Pres., W. B. McKinley; Vice-Pres., George F. Duncan; Sec. and 
Treas., E. Woodman; Aud., James Johnson; Gen. Man., S. L. Nelson; 
Gen. Supt., L. E. Fischer; Supt., M. Connor. 

Davenport, la., Tri-City Ry. Co. 

Pres., Edward E. Cook; Vice-Pres., Frederick C. Denkmann ; Sec, 
Treas. and Gen. Man., James F. Lardner ; Gen. Supt., John G. Huntoon ; 
Supt., Robert Hill ; Elec. Eng., John D. Fish. 

Dayton, O., Dayton and Western Traction Co. 

Pres., Treas. and Gen. Man., Valentine Winters ; Vice-Pres., Charles 
B. Clegg; Sec, J. H. Winters; Aud., Charles E. Eckert ; Supt., Howard 
Fravel ; Elec, William Eby. 

Dayton, O., People's Ry. Co. 

Pres., John A. McMahon ; Vice-Pres., Henry J. Crowley; Sec. 
and Treas., Charles L. S. Tingley ; Acting Gen. Man., Joseph L. Breen ; 
Supt., Nelson Routzahn ; Elec. Supt., John R. Blackhall ; Elec, A. J. 

De Kalb, 111., De Kalb-Sycamore Elec. Co. 

Pres., W. B. Ullman ; Vice-Pres., J. D. Harvey ; Sec. and Treas., 
L. Chaldecott ; Gen. Supt., John W. Glidden. 

Denison, Tex., Denison and Sherman Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Treas., J. P. Crerar; Vice-Pres., John Crerar; Asst. Sec, 
H. H. Barde ; Supt., H. T. Morrison. 

American Street Railway Association. 325 

Denver, Colo., Denver City Tramway Co. 

Pres. William G. Evans ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., John A. Beeler ; 
Sec. and Treas., George E. Ross-Lewin ; Aud., John B. Hogarth ; Gen. 
Supt., Simeon W. Cantril ; Elec, A. M. Ballou. 

Des Moines, la., Des Moines City Ry. Co. 

Pres., J. S. Polk ; Sec. and Gen. Supt., A. G. Maish ; Treas. and 
Gen. Man., George B. Hippee. 

Detroit, Mich., Detroit United Ry. 

Pres., Jere C. Hutchins; Vice-Pres., Arthur Pack; Asst. Sec, A. 
E. Peters ; Treas., George H. Russell ; Aud., Irwin Fulterton ; Gen. 
Supt., Albert H. Stanley; Asst. Gen. Supt., Harry Bullen; Supt. of 
M. P., Thomas Farmer ; Asst. Supt. of M. P. and Overhead Dept., 

E. J. Burdick ; Supt. of Tracks, John Kerwin. 

Detroit, Mich., Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor and Jackson Ry. 

Pres., J. D. Hawks; Vice-Pres. and Treas., S. F. Angus; Sec, 

F. A. Hinchman; Gen. Man., F. E. Merrill; Gen. Supt. S. J. Dill. 

Detroit, Mich., Rapid Ry. System. 

Pres., Jere C. Hutchins ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., F. W. Brooks ; 
Sec, A. E. Peters ; Treas., George H. Russell ; Aud., H. S. Swift ; Gen. 
Supt., W. O. Wood; Chief Eng., A. C. Marshall; Div. Supts., C. A. 
Culver and F. C. Hill. 

Duluth, Minn., Duluth-Superior Traction Co. 

Pres., C. G. Goodrich; Vice-Pres., J. H. Davis; Sec. and Treas., 
Luther Mendenhall ; Aud., S. L. Reichert ; Gen. Man., Herbert Warren ; 
Supts., D. C. Moore and Alfred Williams. 

East St. Louis, 111., East St. Louis and Suburban Ry. Co. 

Pres., C. M. Clark; Vice-Pres., L. C. Haynes ; Sec. and Treas., 
Edward Abend, Jr. ; Aud., Fred. Sunsel ; Gen. Supt., J. M. Bramlette ; 
Supt., William H. Guyton ; Elec. Supt, R. W. Bailey. 

Edgewater, N. J., New Jersey and Hudson River Ry. and 
Ferry Co. 

Pres., A. Merritt Taylor; First Vice-Pres., W. H. Clark; Second 
Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Frank R. Ford; Sec and Treas., W. N. 
Barrows; Aud., C. A. Twining; Gen. Supt., F. W. Bacon. 

326 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Elmira, N. Y., Elmira Water, Light and R. R. Co. 

Pres., Ray Tompkins ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., William W. Cole ; 
Sec. and Treas., John M. Diven; Aud., H. M. Beardsley; Supt, Francis 
G. Maloney; Elec. Supt., H. M. Beugler. 

El Paso, Tex., El Paso Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Leigh Clark; Vice-Pres. and Man., H. T. Edgar; Treas., 
H. B. Sawyer; Gen. Mans., Stone & Webster. 

Evansville, Ind., Evansville Elec. Ry. 

Pres., James O. Parker ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., H. D. Moran ; 
Sec, A. Gilehrist; Treas., L. Shipherd ; Supt., John Cash; Elec. Supt, 
A. H. Mann. 

Exeter, N. H., Exeter, Hampton and Amesbury St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Warren Brown; Sec, John Templeton; Treas., E. L. Pride; 
Aud., Charles E. Stanwood ; Gen. Man., A. E. McReel ; Elec Supt., 
J. H. Herlick. 

Fishkill-on-Hudson, N. Y., Citizens' R. R., Light and Power 


Pres. and Gen. Man., John T. Smith; Vice-Pres., E. L. Tompkins; 
Sec, Samuel K. Phillips; Treas., W. H. Southard; Supt., C. B. Reyn- 
olds; Elec. Supt., W. L. Blakely. 

Florence, Colo., Florence Elec. St. Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., Thomas Robinson ; Vice-Pres. and Treas., 
Harley A. Cook ; Sec, Harry Robinson. 

Fond du Lac, Wis., Fond du Lac St. Ry. and Light Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., T. F. Grover; Sec. and Treas., William E. 
Cole ; Elec. Supt., Harry Hayes. 

Ft. Wayne, Ind., Ft. W T ayne Traction Co. 

Pres., H. P. Eells; Vice-Pres., E. H. Bourne; Sec. and Treas., H. 
P. Mcintosh: Aud., Harry Vordermark; Gen. Man., A. L. Scott; Supt., 
James W. Tompkins ; Elec, M. Kehoe. 

Galesburg, 111., Galesburg Elec. Motor and Power Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., Fred Seacord ; Vice-Pres., Robert Chappell ; 
Sec. and Treas., Loren Stevens ; Supt., Charles Munson ; Elec, Robert 

American Street Railway Association. 327 

Galveston, Tex., Galveston City Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Purch. Agt., R. B. Baer; Vice-Pres., Walter G. Oakman; 
Sec. and Asst. Treas, A. Drouilhet ; Asst. Sec. and Treas., George A. 
Turnbull; Mast. Mech, Fred. J. Bennett. 

Gloucester, N. J., Camden, Gloucester and Woodbury Ry. Co. 

Pres., J. Willard Morgan; Vice-Pres., A. R. Kuser ; Sec, Forrest 
Dryden ; Treas., Charles G. Clark; Aud., James R. Shurtz ; Gen. Man., 
M. C. Ludlam ; Supt., George E. Tracy. 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Grand Rapids Ry. Co. 

Pres., C. M. Clark ; First Vice-Pres., L. J. Rindge ; Second Vice- 
Pres. and Gen. Man., G. S. Johnson; Sec. and Treas., B. S. Hanchett, 
Jr. ; Supt. of Transportation. J. C. Madigan ; Supt. of Construction, 
D. Campbell; Elec. Supt. and Mast. Mech., W. W. Annable; Chief 
Eng., A. C. Ogilby. 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Grand Rapids, Grand Haven and Mus- 
kegon Ry. Co. 

Pres., James D. Hawks ; Vice-Pres., Thomas F. Carroll ; Sec, Wal- 
lace Franklyn ; Treas., Carl M. Vail ; Aud. and Purch. Agt., Kirke 
Lathrop ; Supt., J. E. Webster ; Pass, and Freight Solicitor, Thomas L. 

Great Falls, Mont., Great Falls St. 1 Ry. Co. 

Receiver, W. D. Dickinson ; Pres., A. S. Bigelow ; Vice-Pres., H. 
H. Stevens ; Sec. and Treas., W. J. Ladd. 

Greensburg, Pa., Pittsburg, McKeesport and Greensburg Ry. 


Pres, L. B. Huff; Vice-Pres, E. C. Gibson; Sec, J. F. McCabe; 
Treas. and Gen. Man, W. D. Chapman. 

Hamilton, O., Cincinnati, Dayton and Toledo Traction Co. 

Pres, M. J. Mandelbaum; Vice-Pres, Will Christy; Sec, H. C. 
Lang: Treas, F. T. Pomeroy ; Aud, John T. Huntington; Gen. Man, 
F. J. J. Sloat; Gen. Supt, C. E. Palmer; Elec Supt, L. M. Sheldon. 

Hamilton, Ontario, Hamilton Elec. Light and Cataract Power 

Co., Ltd. 

Pres, J. M. Gibson; Vice-Pres, James Dixon; Sec. and Gen. Man, 
William C. Hawkins ; Treas, John Moodie ; Accountant, George D. 
Fearman ; Traction Man, C. K. Green. 

328 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Hancock, Mich., Houghton County St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., F. J. Bawden ; Vice-Pres., W. O. Chapman ; Treas., Henry 
B. Sawyer; Gen. Mans., Stone & Webster; Man., J. H. Oakley. 

Harrisburg, Pa., Harrisburg Traction Co. 

Pres.. Edwin Bailey ; Vice-Pres., B. F. Myers ; Sec. and Treas., 
William J. Calder; Supt., Frank B. Musser. 

Hartford, Conn., Hartford St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., E. S. Goodrich ; Vice-Pres., Samuel G. Dunham ; Sec. and 
Treas., Daniel R. Howe ; Gen. Man., Norman McD. Crawford ; Supt., 
Frank Caum. 

Hazleton, Pa., Lehigh Traction Co. 

Pres, C. W. Kline ; Vice-Pres., W. H. Lawall ; Sec. and Aud, E. 
S. Doud; Treas., N. C. Yost; Gen. Man., A. Markle; Supt, George W. 
Thompson; Asst. Supt., James Good; Elec. Eng, C. A. B. Houck. 

Hoboken, N. J., Jersey City, Hoboken and Paterson St. Ry. 


Pres. and Gen. Man, David Young; Vice-Pres, John F. Shanley ; 
Sec, Frank J. Davis ; Treas, George W. Roe ; Aud, Schuyler C. 
Stivers; Gen. Supt, Warren S. Hall; Elec. Supt, William S. Jackson; 
Mast. Mech, P. J. Connors. 

Holland, Mich., Grand Rapids, Holland and Lake Michigan 

Pres, B. S. Hanchett, Jr.; Vice-Pres, L. J. Rindge; Sec, Willard 
Kingsley ; Treas. and Gen. Man, Strathearn Hendrie; Aud, Charles 
Floyd; Supt, John Busby. 

Houston, Tex., Houston Elec. Co. 

Pres, George J. Baldwin ; Vice-Pres, H. F. MacGregor ; Sec. and 
Asst. Treas, W. H. Tucker ; Treas, H. B. Sawyer ; Gen. Mans, Stone 
& Webster; Gen. Supt, H. K. Payne; Elec, J. F. Usener. 

Huntington, W. Va., Camden Interstate Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man, John Graham; Sec, William F. North; 
Treas, Thomas McK. Hays ; Supt, W. W. Magoon ; Elec. and Mech. 
Eng, James Fagan. 

American Street Raihvay Association. 329 

Indianapolis, Ind., Indianapolis St. Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., Hugh J. McGowan; Vice-Pres. and Asst. 
Gen. Man., James M. Jones; Sec, Henry Jameson; Treas. and Asst. 
Sec, W. F. Milholland ; Supt., Miller Elliott ; Asst. Supt., T. F. Lewis ; 
Mast. Mech., Charles Remelius. 

Indianapolis, Ind., Indianapolis, Lebanon and Frankfort Trac- 
tion Co. 

Pres., George Townsend ; Vice-Pres., Pierre Gray ; Sec, William S. 
Reed; Treas., Robert P. Woods; Elec, William M. Moran. 

Jackson, Miss., Jackson Elec. Ry., Light and Power Co. 

Pres., Frank G. Jones ; Vice-Pres., H. H. Corson ; Sec, Treas. and 
Aud., S. T. Carnes ; Gen. Man., Gilbert F. Brown. 

Jacksonville, Fla., Jacksonville Elec. Co. 

Pres., George J. Baldwin ; Vice-Pres. and Aud., A. Stuart Pratt ; 
Sec, Henry R. Hayes; Treas., Henry B. Sawyer; Asst. Treas., A. A. 
Wright; Gen. Mans., Stone & Webster; Gen. Supt., William Henry 
Tucker ; Supt., Hardy Croom. 

Jersey City, N. J., North Jersey St. Ry Co. 

Pres., Edward F. C. Young; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man.. David 
Young; Sec, Wilbur S. Johnson; Treas., Edward N. Hill; Aud., 
Elwood D. Hibbs ; Gen. Supt., C. M. Shipman ; Asst. to Gen. Supt., 
VV. J. Ramsey ; Purch. Agt, C. H. Thorne ; Chief Eng., James G. 
Elliott; Mast. Mech., J. M. Yount. 

Johnstown, Pa., Johnstown Pass. Ry. Co. 

Pres., T. C. du Pont ; Vice-Pres., W. R. Thomas ; Sec. and Man., 
S. E. Young ; Treas. and Avid., Herman Baumer ; Gen. Supt., E. M. 
du Pont ; Elec, C. J. Devine. 

Joliet, 111., Chicago and Joliet Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Samuel G. De Coursey; Vice-Pres., Henry J. Crowley; Sec 
and Treas., Charles L. S. Tingley; Aud., W. H. Heun ; Gen. Man., 
F. E. Fisher ; Supt. of Roadway, Charles Snyder ; Elec, H. S. Patter- 

Kalamazoo, Mich., Michigan Traction Co. 

Pres., Evans R. Dick; Asst. to Pres., Gerald Holsman; Sec. and 
Treas., John J. Collier; Gen. Man., D. A. Hegarty; Supts., E. C. Corey, 
R. L. Rand, A. F. Walters. 

330 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Kansas City, Mo., Metropolitan St. Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., Bernard Corrigan ; Vice-Pres., L. E. James ; 
Sec. and Treas., W. E. Kirkpatrick; Aud., J. A. Harder; Gen. Supt., 
William A. Satterlee. 

Kenosha, Wis., Kenosha Electric Ry. Co. 

Pres., Bion J. Arnold; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., W. L. Arnold; 
Sec. and Treas., R. G. Arnold. 

Khoxville, Tenn., Knoxville Traction Co. 

Pres., R. Lancaster Williams ; Vice-Pres., E. L. Bemiss ; Sec, Leon 
Sunder; Treas.. W. S. Shields; Gen. Man., C. H. Harvey; Supt., 
William G. Woolfolk. 

Lancaster, Pa., Conestoga Traction Co. 

Pres., William B. Given; Sec. and Treas., O. M. Hoffman; Gen. 
Man., Frank S. Given; Supt., Howard B. Rhodes; Elec. Supt., John 
H. Cramer. 

Leavenworth, Kas., Kansas City-Leavenworth Ry. Co. 

Pres., D. H. Kimberley; Vice-Pres., William H. Gabriel; Sec. and 
Gen. Man., Herbert W. Wolcott ; Treas., Charles O. Evarts ; Elec, 
E. Church; Chief Eng., H. Flegie. 

Lebanon, Pa., Lebanon Valley St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., John A. Rigg; Vice-Pres., Henry C. Moore: Sec. and Treas., 
M. C. Aulenbach ; Gen. Man., Frank L. Fuller ; Supt., Charles H. 

Lexington, Ky., Lexington Ry. Co. 

Pres., Louis Des Cognets ; Vice-Pres., George W. Darnall ; Sec, 
T. D. Murray; Treas., R. P. Stoll ; Gen. Man.. R. E. Hunt; Gen. Supt, 
C. K. Morrell; Supt., A. L. Smith; Elec, Herman Fuller. 

Little Rock, Ark., Little Rock Traction and Elec. Co. 

Pres., W. E. Hemingway; Vice-Pres., Oscar Davis; Sec, George B. 
Rose; Treas., Charles F. Penzel ; Gen. Man., J. A. Trawick ; Supt., 
J. N. Conolly. 

American Street Railway Association. 331 

London, Ont., London St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Henry A. Everett ; Vice-Pres., Thomas H. Smallman ; Sec, 
Treas. and Gen. Man., Charles E. A. Carr ; Aud., A. A. Booker ; Supt. 
of Transportation, John Break; Elec. Supt., H. Wellburn. 

Louisville, Ky., Louisville Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., T. J. Minary ; Vice-Pres., St. John Boyle ; 
Sec. and Treas., Samuel G. Boyle ; Gen. Supt., J. T. Funk ; Elec. Supt., 
Francis H. Miller. 

Lynchburg - , Va., Lynchburg Traction and Light Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., R. D. Apperson ; Vice-Pres., C. R. Miller ; 
Sec. and Treas., F. H. Shelton ; Supt., D. C. Frost; Elec. Supt., A. E. 
Anderson ; Chief Eng., A. J. Kohler. 

Maynard, Mass., Concord, Maynard and Hudson St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Walter R. Dame; Vice-Pres., Charles H. Persons; Clerk, 
Harry G. Lowe ; Treas., William S. Reed ; Asst. Treas., Charles W. 
Shippee ; Gen. Man., John W. Ogden ; Asst. Supt., Ernest F. Hathaway ; 
Elec, Clifton G. Foskett. 

Memphis, Tenn., Memphis St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., C. K. G. Billings ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Frank G. Jones ; 
Sec, W. S. McCrea; Treas., Robert L. Benson; Elec. Supt., R. 

Menominee, Mich., Menominee Elec. Light, Ry. and Power 
. Co. 

Pres., Aug. Spies ; Vice-Pres., S. M. Stephenson ; Sec, Treas. and 
Man., Edward Daniell ; Elec, W. J. McCarthy. 

Meriden, Conn., Meriden Elec. R. R. Co. 

Pres., N. H. Heft; Clerk and Treas., William L. Squire; Supt., 
W. P. Bristol. 

City of Mexico, Mexico, Mexico Elec. Tramways, Ltd. 

Pres., Charles Euan-Smith; Sec, S. W. Jameson; Treas., Francisco 
P. de Castillo; Gen. Man., Charles Clegg; Elec. Supt., A. J. McDonald; 
Elec, J. L. McCreary. 

332 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Milwaukee, Wis., Milwaukee Elec. Ry. and Light Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., John I. Beggs ; Vice-Pres., William Nelson 
Cromwell ; Sec, Silas W. Burt ; Treas., George B. Sheldon ; Aud., H. C. 
Mackay; Gen. Supt. of Rolling Stock, E. W. Olds; Elec, O. M. Rau; 
Supt. of Construction, F. G. Simmons ; Supt. of Transportation, M. M. 
Austin; Chief Eng., C. J. Davidson. 

Minneapolis, Minn., Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 

Pres., Thomas Lowry ; Vice-Pres., Sec. and Treas., Calvin G. Good- 
rich; Aud., E. S. Pattee; Gen. Man., Willard J. Hield ; Supt., Gus 
B rigger. 

Mobile, Ala., Mobile Light and R. R. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., J. H. Wilson; Vice-Pres., S. H. Wilson; 
Sec. and Aud., C. W. Chase; Elec. Supt. and Mast. Mech., S. M. 

Montreal, Canada, Montreal St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., H. L. Forget ; Vice-Pres. and Man. Dir., James Ross ; Sec. 
and Treas., William G. Ross ; Asst. Sec, Patrick Dubee ; Man. and 
Chief Eng., Frederick L. Wanklyn ; Supt., N. J. Kennedy ; Supt. Power 
Station, H. R. Lockhart. 

Nashville, Tenn., Nashville Ry. 

Receivers, Percy Warner and E. C. Lewis ; Pres., Percy Warner ; 
Sec. and Treas., Nathan P. Yeatman ; Purch. Agt, Augustus E. Beaz- 
ley ; Supt. of Transportation, George D. Mills ; Elec. Eng., John P. W. 
Brown; Mast. Mech., George W. Swint; Roadmaster, H. C. Benagh. 

New Bedford, Mass., Union St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Henry H. Crapo ; Vice-Pres., Thomas B. Tripp ; Clerk, 
Clarence A. Cook; Treas., Elton S. Wilde; Gen. Supt., Edward E. 

New Brunswick, N. J., Middlesex and Somerset Traction Co. 

Pres., Gottfried Krueger ; Vice-Pres., Andrew Radel ; Sec. and 
Treas., Edward H. Radel ; Gen. Man., Thomas F. Walsh ; Gen. Supt., 
James Butler; Elec Supt., David G. McGregor. 

Newburyport, Mass., Haverhill and Amesbury St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., E. P. Shaw ; Vice-Pres., Charles Goss ; Sec. and Treas., G. 
A. Butman ; Gen. Man., E. P. Shaw, Jr. ; Gen. Supt., L. E. Lynde ; 
Asst. Supt., O. R. Files ; Elec, James Kennedy. 

American Street Railway Association. 333 

New Haven, Conn., Fair Haven and Westville R. R. Co. 

Pres, ; Vice-Pres., Samuel Hemingway; Sec. and 

Treas, Leverett Candee ; Supt., Theron R. Hull ; Elec, John K. Pun- 

New Orleans, La., New Orleans Ry. Co. 

Pres., H. H. Pearson, Jr.; First Vice-Pres., C. H. Leidley; Second 
Vice-Pres., Joseph H. De Grange ; Aud., H. A. Fernandon ; Gen. Man., 
John G. Wood. 

New York (Borough of Brooklyn), N. Y., Brooklyn Heights 
R. R. Co. 

Pres., Jacob L. Greatsinger; Asst. to Pres., John F. Calderwood; 
First Vice-Pres., Timothy S. Williams ; Second Vice-Pres., Horace C. 
DuVal; Sec. and Treas., Charles D. Meneely; Comptroller, Walter B. 
Longyear ; Aud. of Receipts, Charles F. Wells ; Aud. of Disburse- 
ments, Walter M. Barnaby ; Purch. Agent, Lincoln Van Cott ; Gen. 
Supt., Dow S. Smith ; Eng. of Power and Transmission, Charles E. 

New York (Borough of Brooklyn), N. Y., Coney Island and 
Brooklyn R. R. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., John L. Heins ; Vice-Pres., Louis Fitzgerald ; 
Sec. and Treas., Duncan B. Cannon; Supt., Dennis W. Sullivan; Elec. 
and Mech. Eng., Howard A. Mock. 

New York (Borough of Manhattan), N. Y., Interurban St. 

Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., Herbert H. Vreeland ; Asst. to Pres., Richard 
W. Meade ; Solicitor, Henry A. Robinson ; Asst. Gen. Man., Oren Root, 
Jr. ; Purch. Agent, Abraham C. Tully ; Chief. Eng., Milton G. Starrett ; 
Mast. Mech., Thomas Millen; Eng. Main, of Way, W. Boardman 

New York (Borough of Queens), N. Y., New York and 
Queens County Ry. Co. 

Pres., W. H. Shelmerdine; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., J. R. Beetem; 
Sec, Treas. and Aud., I. M. Tritt; Supt. of Motive Power, F. P. Maize; 
Elec, D. W. Murphy. 

New York, N! Y., New York and Port Chester R. R. Co. 

Pres., W. C. Gotshall; Vice-Pres, M. Kendall; Sec, R. H. Bell; 
Treas., M. W. Baldwin; Elec, C. O. Mailloux. 

334 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Norfolk, Va., Norfolk, Portsmouth and Newport News Co. 

Pres., R. Lancaster Williams ; Vice-Pres., W. J. Payne ; Sec. and 
Treas., Wellington Hardy ; Aud., W. J. Kehl ; Gen. Man., Edwin C. 

Norristown, Pa., Schuylkill Valley Traction Co. 

Pres., John A. Rigg; Vice-Pres., Henry C. Moore; Sec. and Treas., 
Michael C. Aulenbach ; Aud., William S. Bell ; Gen. Man. and Asst. to 
Pres., Frank L. Fuller ; Supt, George Hoeger ; Elec, Edward Still. 

North Adams, Mass., Hoosac Valley St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Frank S. Richardson; Vice-Pres., Arthur H. Rice; Sec, 
S. P. Thayer ; Treas., E. D. Whitaker ; Gen. Mans., Dolan Brothers ; 
Supt., W. T. Nary; Elec, Joseph Rifenburg. 

Norwich, Conn., Norwich St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Billings P. Learned ; Sec. and Supt., Walter L. Adams ; 
Treas., William A. Tucker ; Elec, Harry Myers. 

Oakland, Cal., Oakland Transit Consolidated. 

Pres., E. A. Heron ; First Vice-Pres., W. H. Martin ; Second Vice- 
Pres. and Gen. Man., W. F. Kelly ; Sec, Samuel J. Taylor ; Treas., 
F. C. Havens ; Asst. Sec, F. W. Frost ; Asst. Gen. Man., John Q. 
Brown ; Gen. Supt., James P. Potter ; Eng., E. M. Boggs. 

Oil City, Pa., Citizens' Traction Co. 

Pres., D. J. Geary ; Vice-Pres., William Hasson ; Sec, Treas. and 
Aud., W. B. Filson ; Gen. Supt., James H. Forbush ; Elec, W. M. 

Omaha, Neb., Omaha St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Frank Murphy ; Vice-Pres., Guy C. Barton ; Sec, W. V. 
Morse ; Treas. and Gen. Man., W. A. Smith ; Gen. Supt., F. A. Tucker ; 
Elec, H. B. Noyes. 

Oneida, N. Y., Oneida Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., C. Loomis Allen; Vice-Pres., Harry C. Stone; 
Sec, Robert E. Drake; Treas., Walter N. Kernan; Aud., Arthur L. 
Linn, Jr. ; Gen. Supt., Harry J. Clark. 

American Street Railway Association. 335 

Ottawa, 111., Ottawa Ry., Light and Power Co. 

Pres., F. S. Donnell ; Sec, Treas. and Gen. Man., Louis W. Hess ; 
Supt. R. R. Dept., N. Yentzer. 

Ottawa, Ontario, Ottawa Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., T. Ahearn ; Vice-Pres., Peter Whalen ; Sec. and Treas., 
James D. Fraser ; Aud., Redmond Quain ; Supt., J. E. Hutcheson ; 
Elec, John Murphy. 

Oshkosh, Wis., Winnebago Traction Co. 

Pres., Emerson McMillan ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., E. E. Downs ; 
Asst. Sec. and Treas., S. M. Rothermel ; Supt., F. H. Farquhar ; Elec, 
James Gaffney ; Mech. Eng., John Davey. 

Pasadena, Cal., Pacific Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres.. H. E. Huntington; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Epes Ran- 
dolph; Treas.. I. W. Hellman ; Aud., S. C. Baxter; Man., W. H. Smith; 
Elec. S. H. Anderson. 

Peoria, 111., Peoria and Pekin Terminal Ry. Co. 

Pres., Theodore J. Miller; Vice-Pres., W. H. Trumbull; Sec. and 
Gen. Man., L. E. Myers ; Treas.. P. L. Saltonstall ; Aud., R. H. Hardin ; 
Gen. Supt., N. C. Draper ; Traffic Man., Guy W. Talbot ; Elec. Supt., 
John W. Hall; Trainmaster, I. N. Gile. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., John B. Parsons ; Vice-Pres., George D. 
Weidner; Sec and Treas., Charles O. Kruger; Aud., Joseph D. Hies- 
tand ; Gen. Supt.. Walter Ellis; Supt. of Transportation, James Bricker; 
Chief Eng., William S. Twining; Elec, Charles Hewitt. 

Pittsburg, Pa., Pittsburg, McKeesport and Connellsville Ry. 


Pres., William H. Graham ; Vice-Pres., Charles A. Painter ; Sec, 
M. K. Salsbury; Treas., George I. Whitney; Aud., C. W. Scheck; Gen. 
Man., W. R. McAdoo ; Asst. Gen. Man. and Supt. of M. P., Thomas 

Pittsburg, Pa., Pittsburg Railways Co. 

Pres., James D. Callery; First Vice-Pres., James H. Reed; Second 
Vice-Pres., S. L. Tone ; Sec, W. B. Carson ; Treas., C. J. Braun, Jr. ; 
Gen. Supt., John Murphy ; Supt., P. J. Callaghan ; Chief Eng., F. 
Uhlenhaut; Chief Elec, B. Rutherford; M. M., H. P. Clarke. 

336 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Plymouth, Mass., Brockton and Plymouth St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., J. D. Thurber ; Vice-Pres., Charles S. Litchfield ; Clerk, Eliot 
Wadsworth ; Treas., Henry B. Sawyer ; Gen. Mans., Stone & Webster ; 
Man., Gardner F. Wells. 

Pomeroy, O., Ohio River Elec. Ry. and Power Co. 

Pres., Percy M. Chandler ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., John Blair 
MacAfee; Treas., Joseph T. Walmsby; Gen. Supt., Charles L. Furbay; 
Supt., I. L. Oppenheimer ; Asst. Supt., J. W. Wolfe ; Elec, C. E. Price. 

Port Chester, N. Y., New York and Stamford Ry. Co. 

Pres., Charles A. Singer; Vice-Pres., G Stanley Heft; Sec. and 
Treas., N. H. Heft; Asst. Sec. and Treas., John Neilson ; Supt., Oscar 
M. Moulton. 

Portland, Me., Portland R. R. Co. 

Pres., William R. Wood ; Clerk, Treas. and Gen. Man., Edward A. 

Portland, Ore., City and Suburban Ry. Co. 

Pres., Tyler Woodward ; Vice-Pres., H. W. Corbett ; Sec. and 
Gen. Man., C. F. Swigert ; Treas., May E. Swigert ; Asst. Supts., George 
P. Lumsden and E. G. McGraw. 

Pottsville, Pa., Pottsville Union Traction Co. 

Pres., Clarence P. King ; Vice-Pres., T. B. Prosser ; Sec, W. C. 
Pollock, Jr. ; Treas., J. B. Hoellman ; Supt., D. J. Duncan. 

Providence, R. I., Providence and Danielson Ry. Co. 

Pres., Franklin P. Owen ; Sec, Franklin A. Smith, Jr. ; Treas., 
George W. Prentice; Aud. and Gen. Man., D. F. Sherman; Gen. Supt., 
J. E. Thielsen. 


Providence, R. I., Rhode Island Co. 

Pres., Marsden J. Perry; First Vice-Pres., Samuel P. Colt; Second 
Vice-Pres., Randal Morgan ; Third Vice-Pres., Walton Clark ; Sec. and 
Treas., Lewis Lillie; Asst. Sec. and Treas., Cyril A. Babcock; Aud., 
W. R. Elliott ; Gen. Man., Albert T. Potter ; Gen. Supt., A. E. Potter ; 
Elec. Supt., William D. Wright; Chief Eng, Fred. N. Bushnell. 

American Street Railway Association. 337 

Quincy, 111., Quincy Horse Ry. and Carrying Co. 

Pres., George F. Duncan ; Vice-Pres., E. Woodman ; Sec, W. B. 
McKinley ; Treas. and Aud., H. P. Cox ; Gen. Man., H. E. Chubbuck ; 
Supt.. W. A. Martin. 

Reading, Pa., United Traction Co. 

Pres., John A. Rigg; Vice-Pres., Henry C. Moore; Sec, Treas. and 
Aud.. M. C. Aulenbach; Gen. Man. and Asst. to Pres., Frank L. Fuller- 
Gen. Supt., Samuel E. Rigg; Supt., Alvin Dunlap ; Elec. Supt., C. C. 
Long: Elec, Charles S. Banghart. 

Richmond, Ya., Virginia Passenger and Power Co. 

Pres., F. Sitterding; Vice-Pres., August Wright; Sec and Treas., 
L E. Spencer : Aud., R. H. Keim ; Gen. Man., S. W. Huff; Supts., 
H. T. Hoppe. B. Flannagan; C. B. Buchanan; Chief Eng., Calvin White- 
ley. Jr. ; Eng. of Construction, S. P. Cowardin ; Supt. of Shops, George 
H. Whitfield. 

Rochester, X. Y., Rochester Ry. Co. 

Pres., Frederick Cook ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Tom J. Nicholl ; 
Sec. George G. Morehouse ; Treas., G. L. Estabrook ; Asst. Gen. Man., 
R. E. Danforth ; Gen. Supt., Joseph W. Hicks ; Elec. Eng., Alfred 

Rockford, III, Rockford and Interurban Ry. Co. 

Pres., R. N. Baylies; Vice-Pres., H. W. Price; Sec. and Treas., 
W. F. Woodruff ; Aud., F. W. McAssey ; Gen. Man., T. M. Ellis ; Supt. 
of Transportation, C. C. Lines ; Supt. of Tracks, F. N. Baylies ; Elec, 
Samuel L. De Camp. 

Rockland, Me., Rockland, Thomaston and Camden St. Ry. 

Pres., George E. Macomber ; Vice-Pres., Sidney M. Bird; Sec, Her- 
bert M. Heath; Treas., Augustus D. Bird; Gen. Man., Thomas Hawken; 
Asst. Supt., Valentine Chisholm ; Elec. Supt., Robert H. House; Elec, 
Simon D. Crosby. 

Saginaw, Mich., Saginaw Valley Traction Co. 

Pres.. Homer Loring ; Sec, Charles S. Smith; Treas., Frank D. 
Ewen ; Gen. Man., P. P. Crafts ; Elec. Supt., A. E. Richardson. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, Consolidated Ry. and Power Co. 

Pres., Charles L. Rood ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Walter P. Read ; 
Sec. and Treas., Joseph S. Wells; Mast. Mech., W. S. Patterson. 

338 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

San Antonio, Tex., San Antonio Traction Co. 

Pres., Reagan Houston ; Treas. and Aud., Clarence Jones Thomas ; 
Gen. Man., E. W. Batchelder; Supt. of Maintenance, J. J. King; Supt. 
of Transportation, T. C. Brown. 

San Francisco, Cal., United Railroads of San Francisco. 

Pres., Arthur Holland; Vice-Pres., Charles Holbrook; Sec, George 

B. Willcutt; Treas., George E. Starr; Gen. Man., George F. Chapman; 
Elec, S. L. Foster. 

San Juan, Porto Rico, San Juan Light and Transit Co. 

Pres., George H. Walbridge ; Sec, H. S. Collette ; Treas., R. B. 
Marchant ; Gen. Man., A. H. Hayward. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., International Transit Co. 
Pres., F. H. Clergue ; Chief Eng., G. W. Chance. 

Savannah, Ga., Savannah Elec. Co. 

Pres., George J. Baldwin; Vice-Pres., A. Stuart Pratt; Sec, Abra- 
ham Minis ; Treas., Henry B. Sawyer ; Asst. Treas., Leon A. Bowers ; 
Gen. Mans., Stone & Webster ; Man., George O. Nagle ; Supt. of Trans- 
portation, Frank J. Duffy; Elec. Supt., T. P. Keck; Mast. Mech., W. 

C. De Vane. 

Schenectady, N. Y., Schenectady Ry. Co. 

Pres., Hinsdill Parsons; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., R. H. Fraser; 
Sec. and Treas., James O. Carr; Aud., J. J. Magilton; Supt., Frederick 
Smith ; Elec. Supt., V. B. Turnbull ; Elec, John Welch. 

Scranton, Pa., Scranton Ry. Co. 

Pres., C. M. Clark ; Vice-Pres., E. W. Clark, Jr. ; Sec. and Treas., 
C. Ford Stevens ; Aud., C. A. Pearson, Jr. ; Gen. Man., Frank Silliman, 
Jr. ; Supt. of Transportation, H. H. Patterson ; Chief Eng. of Power 
Station, E. A. Wildt ; Mast. Mech., F. J. Mullen. 

Seattle, Wash., Seattle Elec. Co. 

Pres., Jacob Furth ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., George W. Dick- 
inson ; Sec, George Donworth ; Treas., Henry B. Sawyer ; Asst. Treas. 
and Aud., Frank Dabney; Asst. to Gen. Man., D. P. Robinson; Supt, 
A. L. Kempster; Elec, R. A. Phillip. 

American Street Railway Association. 339 

Sioux City, la., Sioux City Traction Co. 

Pres., Joseph S. Lawrence; Vice-Pres. and Treas., Abel Anderson; 
Sec, J. Henry Ricker; Aud., John F. Millette ; Gen. Man., Edwin L. 
Kirk; Supt., E. O. Holmes; Mast. Mech., Charles M. Feist. 

South Bend, Ind., Indiana Ry. Co. 

Pres., Arthur Kennedy; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., J. McM. Smith; 
Sec. and Treas., James B. McCance ; Supt. of Operation, Patrick Brady ; 
Supt. of Repairs, H. M. Ashenfelter. 

Spokane, Wash., Washington Water Power Co. 

Pres.. Henry M. Richards ; Vice-Pres., J. D. Sherwood ; Sec. and 
Gen. Man., D. L. Huntington ; Treas.,' 1 H. E. Perks ; Supt., Leslie R. 

Springfield, 111., Springfield Consolidated Ry. Co. 

Pres., William Jarvis ; Vice-Pres., Bluford Wilson ; Sec, Treas. 
and Gen. Man., Charles K. Minary; Supt., F. P. McNeil. 

Springfield, Mass., Springfield St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., John Olmsted ; Treas., Frederick Harris ; Gen. Supt., George 
W. Cook. 

Springfield, O., Springfield Ry. Co. 

Pres., Oscar T. Martin; Vice-Pres., Henry J. Crowley; Sec. and 
Treas., Charles L. S. Tingley; Aud., Frank J. Pryor ; Gen. Man., John 
H. Miller ; Gen. Supt., Opha Jackson ; Elec, E. E. Shirley. 

St. Joseph, Mich., Benton Harbor and St. Joseph Elec. Ry. 
and Light Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., W. Worth Bean; Sec. and Treas., W. H. 
Hull; Asst. Treas., J. K. Bean; Supt., H. C. Mason. 

St. Joseph, Mo., St. Joseph Ry., Light, Heat and Power Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., W. T. Van Brunt ; Sec. and Treas., Charles 
C. Tegethoff ; Aud., J. B. Shirley; Supt. Ry, J. H. Van Brunt; Elec. 
Supt., F. P. St. Clair. 

St. Louis, Mo., St. Louis and Suburban Ry. Co. 

Pres., Samuel M. Kennard ; Vice-Pres., Julius Walsh ; Sec. and 
Treas., T. C. Kimber; Gen. Man., Thomas M. Jenkins; Supt. of Power 
Stations and Shops, J. A. Kreis, Jr. 

34° Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

St. Louis, Mo., St. Louis Transit Co. 

Pres., Murray Carleton; First Vice-Pres., C. H. Spencer; Second 
Vice-Pres., A. B. du Pont; Sec. and Treas., James Adkins ; Aud., Frank 
R. Henry; Gen. Man., John Grant; Supt. of Motive Power, W. T. 

Syracuse, N. Y., Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co. 

Pres., William P. Gannon ; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man., Edward G. 
Connette ; Sec. and Treas., T. H. Conderman ; Aud., John L. Lucken- 
bach ; Supt., John E. Duffy ; Mast. Mech., Fred. Dubois ; Elec, Burt 

Tacony, Pa., Holmesburg, Tacony and Frankford Elec. Ry. 

Pres., John A. Rigg ; Vice-Pres., Henry C. Moore ; Sec. and Treas., 
M. C. Aulenbach; Gen. Man., Frank L. Fuller; Supt., Henry Glazier; 
Elec. Supt., James C. Davies. 

Tampa, Fla., Tampa Elec. Co. 

Pres., George J. Baldwin ; Vice-Pres. and Sec, Peter O. Knight ; 
Treas., H. B. Sawyer; Asst. Treas., F. R. Loring; Gen. Mans., Stone & 
Webster ; Local Man., H. H. Hunt ; Supt. Ry. Dept., G. A. Webb. 

Terre Haute, Ind., Terre Haute Elec. Co. 

Pres., W. R. McKeen; Vice-Pres., J. G. McNutt; Sec, J. T. Beas- 
ley ; Treas., Guy E. Tripp ; Aud., Stone & Webster ; Gen. Man., J. P. 
Clark; Supt., B. F. O'Mara; Elec. Supt, C. T. Mordock. 

Toledo, O., Toledo Rys. and Light Co. 

Pres, Albion E. Lang; Vice-Pres. and Gen. Man, L. E. Beilstein; 
Sec. and Treas, Edwin O. Reed ; Supt. of Rys, John F. Collins. 

Topeka, Kas., Topeka Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Treas, Clifford C. Baker; Vice-Pres, M. A. Low; Sec, 
J. G. Slonecker ; Gen. Man. and Elec, Joseph M. Patten ; Purch. Agent, 
Albert M. Patten. 

Toronto, Ont., Toronto Ry. Co. 

Pres., William MacKenzie ; Vice-Pres, James Ross ; Sec. and 
Treas, James C. Grace; Gen. Man, Edward H. Keating; Supt, James 

American Street Railway Association. 341 

Trenton, N. J., Trenton St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Henry C. Moore; Vice-Pres., John A. Rigg; Sec. and Treas.,' 
John L. Kuser; Gen. Man., Frank L. Fuller; Supt., Peter E. Hurley. 

Utica, N. Y., Utica and Mohawk Valley Ry. Cp. 

Pres., Horace E. Andrews ; First Vice-Pres., John J. Stanley ; Sec- 
ond Vice-Pres., Alden M. Young; Sec, Walter N. Kernan; Treas., 
Charles B. Rogers ; Asst. Sec. and Treas. and Aud., Arthur L. Linn, 
Jr. ; Gen. Man., C. Loomis Allen ; Gen. Supt., James A. Stewart ; Supt. 
of Construction, R. G. Young; Elec. Supt., William J. Harvie; Chief 
Eng., Charles H. Clark; Mast. Mech., James J. Lawler. 

Venice, 111., Granite City and St. Louis Ry. Co. 

Pres. and Gen. Man., Fred E. Allen ; Vice-Pres. and Sec, E. J. 
Spencer; Treas., D. R. Francis. 

Vicksburg, Miss., Vicksburg R. R., Power and Mfg. Co. 

Pres., J. C. Shaffer; Vice-Pres., S. R. Hughes; Sec M. J. Mulvi- 
hill ; Treas., B. W. Griffith ; Gen. Man., Frank H. Brooks. 

Washington, D. C, Capital Traction Co. 

Pres., George T. Dunlop ; Vice-Pres., Charles C. Glover ; Sec and 
Treas., Charles M. Koones ; Supt. and Chief Eng., David S. Carll ; Asst. 
to Chief Eng., J. H. Hanna ; Roadmaster, F. Morrill. 

Washington, D. C, Washington Ry. and Elec. Co. 

Pres., Allan L. McDermott; Vice-Pres., George H. Harries; Sec, 
James B. Lackey ; Treas. and Comptroller, William F. Ham ; Gen. 
Man., H. W. Fuller; Gen. Supt., R. E. Lee; Elec. Supt., L. E. Sinclair; 
Mast. Mech., Gordon Campbell. 

Waterford, N. Y., Hudson Valley Ry. Co. 

Pres., Addison B. Colvin; First Vice-Pres., Joseph A. Powers; 
Second Vice-Pres., George E. Green; Sec, Thomas O'Connor; Treas., 
Frank L. Cowles ; Gen. Man., B. S. Josselyn; Gen. Supt. F. A. Bou- 

Webb City, Mo., Southwest Missouri Elec. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Treas. and Gen. Man., A. H. Rogers ; Vice-Pres., E. Z. 
Wallower; Sec, A. G. Kinsley; Supt. of M. P., E. J. Pratt; Supt. of 
Transportation, S. W. Gunsalus. 

34 2 Twenty-First Annual Meeting 

Westwood, Mass., Norfolk-Western St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., John F. Merrill; Sec, James A. Fitton; Treas., Fred S. 
Gore; Supt., Ezra E. Savage. 

Wheeling, W. Va., Wheeling and Elm Grove R. R. Co. 

Pres., Paul O. Reymann ; Sec. and Treas., William Carle; Gen. 
Man., William S. Wright. 

Wheeling, W. Va., Wheeling Traction Co. 

Pres., T. H. Conderman ; First Vice-Pres., B. W. Peterson; Second 
Vice-Pres., J. J. Holloway; Sec. and Treas., W. A. Shirley; Gen. Man., 
C. E. Flynn ; Supt., H. V. Sanger. 

Wichita, Kas., Wichita Ry. and Light Co. 

Pres., George F. Duncan ; Vice-Pres., John E. Burnham ; Sec. and 
Treas., Edward Woodman; Gen. Man., S. L. Nelson; Gen. Supt., W. R. 
Morrison ; Elec, R. G. Williams. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Wilkes-Barre and Wyoming Valley Trac- 
tion Co. 

Pres., John A. Rigg; Vice-Pres., Henry C. Moore; Sec. and Treas., 
William S. Bell; Gen. Man., Frank L. Fuller; Gen. Supt., Thomas A. 
Wright ; Supt., John C. Clifford. 

Williamsport, Pa., Williamsport Pass. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Henry W. White; Sec, Treas. and Gen. Man., Ernest H. 
Davis ; Elec, George E. Wendle. 

Wilmington, Del., Wilmington City Ry. Co. 

Pres., John A. Rigg; Vice-Pres., Henry C. Moore; Sec. and Treas., 
William S. Bell; Gen. Man., Frank L. Fuller; Supt., C. Reginald Van 

Worcester, Mass., Worcester Consolidated St. Ry. Co. 

Pres., Francis H. Dewey; Vice-Pres., A. George Bullock; Clerk 
and Treas., Justin W. Lester ; Gen. Man., Richard T. Laffin ; Supt. of 
M. P. and Mach., William Pestell. 

American Street Railway Association. 343 

York, Pa., York County Traction Co. 

Pres., W. H. Lanius ; Vice-Pres., G. S. Billmeyer ; Sec, George S. 
Schmidt; Treas., Ellis S. Lewis; Gen. Man., J. F. Dusman; Supt., J. H. 

Youngstown, O., Mahoning Valley Ry. Co. 

Pres., Murry A. Verner; Vice-Pres., James Parmelee; Sec, John 
E. McVey ; Treas.. B. F. Miles ; Gen. Man., A. A. Anderson ; Supt., 
W. C. Smith; Chief Eng., John Wolff.